Fig. 513 shows the method of putting together a "six-panelled square-framed door" A comparison of this figure with the horizontal section of a scruare-framed panelled door given in Fig. 508, and with Plate that opposite panels on the same side of a door are never made to differ from one another as G H do. They are shown so here and in Plate XI. in order to include several different kinds of panels in one illustration.

XL, will clearly show its construction. The mouldings are omitted in Fig. 513.

The figure shows one style of the door detached, the other is in position, and supposed to be transparent, in order to show the construction of the tenons which fit into it.

The rails and styles are continuous throughout their length; but the munting is divided into three parts tenoned in between the rails. A portion of the door is broken away to show the construction of the munting between the bottom panels.

It will be noticed that the styles are longer than the height of the door, have projecting "horns" (HH) which extend above and below the bottom rails. These horns are left until the door is wedged up, in order that there may be sufficient substance to resist the pressure of the wedges, which would otherwise, pressing in the direction of the grain, force out the wood beyond the mortise in the style, and destroy the joint.

These horns are, of course, removed when the door is finished and cleaned off ready for hanging.

The ends of the rails are formed with tenons of different kinds, as shown in Fig. 513. These fit into mortises in the styles, and are there secured by wedges.

The top rail has a single haunched tenon at each end, the frieze rail a common tenon at each end, and the bottom rail a double tenon at each end.

The lock rail is provided at dt with a double tenon, strengthened by a haunch (h) between them; thus the necessity of a very large mortise (which would cut the style nearly in two) is avoided. When an ordinary mortise lock is used for a thick door, that end of the rail in which the lock is to be fixed should be provided with four tenons, as shown at M; between these there is room for the lock, which can be inserted without interfering with the tenons. The construction of this joint is shown in the figure, a portion of the style having been broken away in order to show the tenons more clearly.

The common practice, however, is to make an ordinary double tenon in the centre of the framing, like that at dt, the result being that the formation of the mortise for the lock cuts away portions of the tenons, and weakens the joint. Small mortise locks are made to obviate this difficulty.

The inside edges of the styles, munting, and rails are grooved down the centre about 1/2 inch deep and for 1/3 of their width to receive the panels. The edge of the panel (X, Fig. 513) is shown in dotted lines.

Method Of Putting A Door Together 100408

The door having been made, the tenons carefully fitted to the mortises, etc., it is put together without any fastening, and left until immediately before it is required to be fixed, in order that it may have as long a time as possible to season.

Before being fixed the door is taken to pieces, the mortises cleared out, the tenons covered with glue, the styles, munting, and rails tenoned into each other, and the panels inserted. The deal wedges (w w) are then dipped in glue and driven in as shown, on each side of the tenons, the fiat part of the wedge being next to the tenon.

In Fig. 513 the wedges securing the frieze rail are shown as originally fixed. Those for the top and bottom rails have been cut off flush with the style; this is shown so for the sake of illustration, but in practice it is not done until all the parts of the door are put together and "wedged up."

The door should then be laid upon a flat firm surface till the glue is dry.

In high-class work with hard woods to he left unpainted the tenons of the rails and the mortises to receive them are stopped short of the edge of the styles so that they may not show. The tenons may he secured by fox-wedging, but when they are well fitted this is not necessary, thin glue being sufficient to hold the work.1

Plate XL1 gives elevations and sections of another six-panelled door, with different kinds of panels and one style removed. It requires no further description after that already given of Fig. 513.

The different descriptions of Panelled Doors are distinguished by technical names expressing their thickness, the number of panels they contain, and the kind of panelling.

The doors in Figs. 504 to 512, and that in Plate XL, are each shown with two or three different kinds of panels, but it will be understood that this is only to save repeated illustrations. As a rule,2 all the panels on the same side of a door are of the same construction, though frequently those on the front are more ornamented than those on the back of the door.

By combining the information contained in the figures, the student will be able to draw several varieties of doors. The names of some of these, and a reference to the figures from which they may be constructed, is now given, and is arranged for convenience in a tabular form.

1 S.M.E. Course.

2 There are, however, exceptions to this rule, as, for example, in Fig. 524, where the upper panels are moulded both sides, but the lower panels have a bead-flush front for strength.

1

Description of Door.

2

Arrangement and

Size of Panels.

3 Section of Panels.

4

Appearance of Panels in Elevation of Front,

Size and Arrangement being as described in Col. 2.

1 1/2-inch Four-panelled -

Square framed

As in Fig. 504

Like AB, Fig. 508

Like AB, Fig. 504

Bead butt and square

,,

,,

504

,,

C,

,,

509

,,

CD,

,,

504

Filled in solid, Lead butt, and back chamfered flush ..

,,

,,

504

,,

D,

,,

509

,,

CD,

,,

504

2-inch Six-panelled -

Moulded and square

,,

,,

507

,,

E,

,,

510

,,

EF,

,,

507

Moulded on both sides

,,

,,

507

,,

F,

,,

510

,,

EF,

,,

507

Bead flush and square

,,

,,

507

,,

C,

,,

509

,,

IK,

,,

507

Raised and moulded panel with moulded rising both sides .

and

,,

512

,,

,,

507

,,

G,

,,

511

,,

G,

,,

507

Raised panel and square rising, back square

,,

,,

507

,,

H,

,,

511

,,

H,

,,

507

2-inch Six-panelled door hung folding, four upper panels moulded both sides, bottom panels bead flush and moulded back

,,

,,

525

Figs. 523, 524

Two lowest panels like IK, Fig. 507; the other panels like those in Fig.

525.

A Two-leaved or Folding Door is hung in two flaps, one on each side of the opening.

Figs. 523, 524, 525 show respectively the plan, a vertical section through the panels, and the interior elevation, of a six-panelled outer door - hung folding - with a fanlight over it.

The piece framed in between the door-posts, separating the fan-light from the door, is called a Transom. Its upper surface is weathered outwards, and the joint between it and the fan-light is sometimes secured by a water bar or stepped so as to prevent the entrance of wet.