When the edge of the panel, close to the framing, is ornamented by a moulding either "planted" or "stuck" on to the inner edge of the frame, it is designated as "moulded," or "moulded and flat." 2 Panel F, Fig. 510, is moulded on both sides, and panel E moulded in front only.

Flush Panels have their surface "flush," or in the same plane with the surface of the frame. A panel may be flush on one or both sides.

In nearly all forms of flush panelling the edges of either the frame or panel are ornamented by a bead, chamfer, groove, or moulding, to cast a shadow and conceal the shrinkage.

If required to be flush on both sides, the back is generally filled in with a separate solid piece, or with diagonal battens crossing their grain with that of the front panel.

D, Fig. 509, is a panel flush on both sides, while C is flush in front only.

Solid Panels are those in which the panel is in one piece, of the same thickness as the frame, and flush on both sides with its surface, like panel D, Fig. 509.

Bead-flush panels have a bead all round close to the inner edge of the framing, as shown in the panels IK, Fig. 507.

1 Mouldings form part of the advanced course, and are more fully described in Part II.

2 The words "and flat" (originally used to prevent the panel from being roughly bevelled off toward the edges to fit the groove) are now generally omitted, and a panel is described as " framed square " or "moulded," it being understood that the surface is flat and the panel of equal thickness throughout.

The bead in this case is sometimes "stuck" on the styles and rails, as shown in Figs. 523, 524.

If the framing is thin and the quirk of the bead deep, it cuts nearly through to the groove and is a source of weakness, so much so, that the swelling of the panel sometimes presses the bead off; moreover, when the framing shrinks, the mitred angle of the bead (at the corners of the panel) opens, and sticking the bead on the framing itself entails extra trouble in putting it together.

In modern practice, however, the vertical beads are generally "stuck" (with the grain) on the panels, and as the horizontal beads cannot easily be formed across the grain, sunk rebates are cut for them on the panels close to the edges of the rails, and beads on separate strips bradded into the groove thus formed. Sometimes these strips become curved when the panel shrinks, and are apt to fall out; and as they shrink less in length (along the grain) than the panel does in width (across the grain) they cause it to split; however, as this plan is more economical than the other, it is commonly adopted.

The detached bead just described is illustrated in Fig. 512, which is an enlarged vertical section of the lower part of the lock rail and upper part of the bottom panels of Fig. 507. The horizontal section of a bead-flush panel formed in this way is similar to that of bead-butt shown in Fig. 509.

Bead-butt panel is a modification of the last, used chiefly in inferior work.

In this case the beads are formed only along the sides of the panel, with the grain of the wood, and always " stuck " on the panel itself, as shown in elevation in Fig. 504, and in plan in Fig. 509, the panels being marked C D in both figures.

Reed-flush panel is one covered with parallel semi-cylindrical beads, close together, either "stuck" in the substance of the panel, if they run with the grain, or "planted" on if they run across the grain.