In Fig. 482 the circular portion is the section of the bead, and the indentation at the side is called a "quirk."

A Double-quirked Bead is one with a quirk on each side, as in Fig. 483. It is also known as a Flush Bead, because it is flush with the surface of the wood.

Quirked Bead 100384

Fig. 482.

Quirked Bead 100385

Fig. 483.

Quirked Bead 100386

Fig. 484.

Quirked Bead 100387

Fig. 485.

A Staff or Angle Bead is a double-quirked bead, formed upon an angle, as shown in Fig. 484. It is sometimes called a Return Bead.

A Cocked Bead is one which projects above the surface of the board. In order to avoid reducing the whole surface of the board, the bead may be made in a separate strip, and planted upon it, or laid in a shallow groove, as in Fig. 485.

A Cocked Bead and Fillet consists of a bead resting upon a flat strip or fillet slightly wider than itself, and planted on to the surface of the board, as in Fig. 526.

Reeding consists of parallel beads placed close together (see p. 245). '

The Torus is a very large bead, surmounted by a flat strip or "fillet," as shown in Fig. 486, also on a small scale on the upper edge of the skirting (Sk) in Fig. 545.

1 Mouldings, technically so called, do not fall within the limits of the Elementary Course, but are described in Part II.

2 A brad is a particular form of nail, and is described in Part III. (see also p. 139).

The torus is generally considered as a moulding, and is placed under that head in Part II.

The distinction between a torus and a bead is that the former is always surmounted by a fillet.

The above-mentioned are the most simple beads in common use. There are several combinations of these, which cannot be further considered in this course.

The different positions in which beads are used are referred to farther on.

Shooting is simply making the edge of a board straight and smooth by planing off a shaving. A board is said to have its " edges shot" when both edges have been made smooth and true with a plane.

Rebating has already been described at p. 135.

Chamfering is taking off the " arris " or sharp edge, so as to form a flat narrow surface down an angle, as shown on the style of the door, Fig. 487. This is frequently done for ornament, and also to render the angle less liable to injury.

Quirked Bead 100388

Fig. 486.

Quirked Bead 100389

Fig. 487.

Chamfers are also often used for the same purpose as beads, especially on the edges of boards forming a close joint, so as not only to form an ornament, but also to hide the opening caused by shrinkage. An example of a chamfer thus applied is shown in the plan of the door, Fig. 487, between the style and the battens.

V-Joint is the angle formed by the meeting of chamfers on two adjacent edges, as in the boarding of the door above referred to, Fig. 487.

Stop Chamfer is one in which the chamfer is not carried to the extremity of the arris, but stopped and sloped, or curved up at the end till it dies away again into the square angle. Examples of this are seen in the framing of the door, Fig. 502, where the chamfers are stopped about an inch short of the extremities of the rails and braces.