The different fastenings in use for sashes, shutters, etc., are so numerous that it will be impossible to do more than notice one or two that are absolutely necessary.

Sliding sashes require a spring clip or sash-fastener to keep the meeting rails in their proper position when the window is closed; in some cases this is done by driving a thumbscrew through the meeting rails.

The lower sash, if heavy, should be provided with small brass handles or lifts screwed to the lower rail.

Casement windows require fastenings to secure the sashes when shut, and also to hold them back when open. The latter are fixed in the face of the wall when the sashes fold back upon it, but if they only open at right angles the fastenings are on the sill.

A common form in this latter case is a flat iron bar pivoted to the sash, with holes throughout its length which fit upon a pin fixed on the sill. The position of the hole selected regulates the degree to which the sash is opened.

When hung folding, a vertical flush bolt is required at the top and another at the foot of the style of the sash first closed.

Sometimes there are top and bottom bolts connected by a rod, so arranged that the turn of a handle in the centre shuts both bolts, and also secures the sashes to one another. This is known as the "Espagnolette bolt"

1 Sc. Cross-tailed hinges.

2 Sc. Edge hinges.

Sashes hung on centres, when out of reach, have a cord attached to the top and bottom rails, and secured to a belaying pin below; or, if they can be easily got at, they may be secured either when open or shut by the quadrant fastening above described.

Window Fastenings 100434