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Notes On Building Construction Vol1 | by Henry Fidler



First Stage, or Elementary Course. With 552 Illustrations

TitleNotes On Building Construction Vol1
AuthorHenry Fidler
PublisherLongmans, Green, and Co.
Year1893
Copyright1893, Henry Fidler
AmazonNotes on building construction

In Four Parts

Part I. - First Stage, or Elementary Course. With 552 Illustrations, 10s. 6d.

Part II. - Second. Stage, or Advanced Course. With 479 Illustrations. 10s. 6d.

Part III. - Materials. Advanced Course, and Course for Honours. With 188 Illustrations. 21s.

Part IV. - Calculations for Building Structures. Course for Honours. With 597 Illustrations, 15s.

-Preface To The Second Edition
THESE Notes have been prepared primarily in order to assist students preparing for the examinations in Building Construction held annually under the direction of the Science and Art Department. It is...
-Syllabus. Subject III. - Building Construction
A larger number of questions will be set in the examination papers for the Elementary and Advanced stages, than the candidate will be allowed to attempt, so that he will, to a certain extent, be able ...
-First Stage, Or Elementary Course
It is assumed that the student has already mastered the use of the following drawing instruments: - rulers, ordinary and parallel; ruling pen, compasses, with pen and pencil bow-sweeps, as well as the...
-Second Stage, Or Advanced Course
In addition to the subjects enumerated for the Elementary Course - in all of which questions of a more complicated nature may be set, combining work done by the different trades - the knowledge of the...
-Examination For Honours
The candidate will have to furnish a design for a building, or part of a building, in accordance with given conditions; which design he will be allowed to draw out at his own home. He will be called ...
-New And Revised Edition, 1891
The following are the principal additions or alterations that have been made in this edition. Chapters on Riveting, Centres, Built-up Beams, and Plate Girders have been revised, and transferred to th...
-Notes On Building Construction. Note To Part I
In considering the subject of Building Construction, the most natural and convenient course would, perhaps, be first to describe the materials in use for building, and then to explain the forms and me...
-Chapter I. Walling And Arches. Walls
General Remarks Walls1 are required as boundaries, to retain earth or water; or, in buildings, to support the roof and floors, and to keep out the weather. They are generally built either of brick o...
-Arches
An arch is an arrangement of blocks supported by their mutual pressure on each other (caused by their own weights), and also by the pressure of the outer blocks on the solid bodies from which the arch...
-Parts Of Walls
Footings2 are projecting courses formed at the bottom of a wall so as to distribute its weight over a larger area. They will be more particularly described in connection with foundations. Quoins are ...
-Apeetures In Walls
The apertures required in walls are chiefly those for doors and windows. Heads Each opening is generally closed at the top, either by an arch, as shown in Figs. 94, 98, 525, 549, etc., or by a lint...
-Wood Built Into Walls
Timber should be kept out of walls as much as possible. The evils produced by building in large pieces of timber will be pointed out in Part II. It is, however, frequently necessary to introduce piece...
-Chapter II. Brickwork. Geneeal Remarks On Brickwork
IN order to obtain good brickwork the following points should be attended to. The bricks must be sound and well shaped. (See Part III.) The mortar should be of good quality (see Part III.), carefull...
-Different Bonds
Heading Bond consists entirely of headers. As bricks vary in length more than in any other dimension, their ends project unequally on the face, and it is difficult, therefore, to make neat work with t...
-English Bond With Broken Transverse Joints
It has been said above (see p. 17) that the joints across the thickness of walls should be unbroken. This has, however, been objected to on the ground that in bad work - the vertical joints of which a...
-Double Flemish Bond With False Headers
Figs. 63 to 66 show plans of two courses, and sections taken at two points of a 14-inch wall; and Figs. 67 to 70 give the same information for an 18-inch wall built in double Flemish bond with false h...
-Comparison Of English And Flemish Bond
English bond is, upon the whole, to be preferred to Flemish bond for strength, as it contains a larger proportion of headers. The only advantage claimed for Flemish bond is its appearance, which is pr...
-Junction Of Walls At Right Angles
Salient Angles Several examples of these are shown in Figs. 25 to 39, 71 to 80, and others. Re-Entering Angles. - Junction Of Two Brick Walls Figs. 90, 91 are the plans of two courses of the juncti...
-Gauged Work
Bricks cut and rubbed to the exact shapes required, in order to get very fine joints, are frequently used in the dressings of brickwork, such as arches, quoins, etc.; this is termed gauged work. ...
-Brick Arches
Plain, Common, or Rough Brick Arches are those in which the bricks are not cut, or rubbed, so as to form voussoirs accurately radiating to a centre. The joints are therefore wider at the extrados th...
-Arches Over Openings In External Walls
In brickwork such openings are generally covered by a gauged (or sometimes axed) arch, which shows on the face of the wall for ornament, having a relieving arch on the inside to support the weight of ...
-Arches Over Openings In Internal Walls
Arches over doors and other internal openings may be flat rough cut, or axed arches, containing wooden plugs, ppp, as in Fig. 101; or a wood lintel may be placed over the opening, with a rough segment...
-Jambs Of Window And Door Openings
The method of forming these openings, with or without reveals of different kinds, has been referred to at page 10. The depth of the reveal varies from 1/2 a brick or 4 1/2- inches, to 9 inches or the...
-Parts Of Brick Walls
Footings.1 - The general question of footings for walls will be considered in the chapter on Foundations, Part II. It will be sufficient now to place before the student the figures 108 to 112 giving s...
-Chapter III. Masonry. Walling
Classification Masonry may be classed either as ashlar or rubble. Ashlar is built from large blocks of stone, carefully worked, while rubble is composed of small stones, often irregular in shape...
-Precautions In Building
Great attention should be paid to the bond in all kinds of masonry. On the face the vertical joints should break upon every stone, no straight joints being allowed. The bond across the thickness of t...
-Bond
The general directions with regard to bond, given at pp. 2, 39, are easily followed in ashlar masonry. The lap or bond given to the stone varies, according to the nature of the work, from once to onc...
-Rubble - General Remarks
There are several kinds of rubble work, each known by a technical name, depending upon peculiarities in the arrangement of the stones, or in the work upon them. Some points common to all rubble walls...
-Stone Arches
The names of different forms of arches and their parts are given at pages 4 and 5. Cut Stone Or Ashlar Arches In block stone arches (see Fig. 3, p. 4) the voussoirs are always cut to a wedge shape. ...
-Joints And Connections
Sometimes greater security is required for joints than that afforded by the adhesion of the mortar and the weight of the stone. 1 The centre is a framework of wood having a curved upper surface, and ...
-Dressings
Quoins are the corner stones of buildings. They play an important part in binding the walls well together at the angles, and are often made conspicuous by better or more pretentious workmanship. In h...
-Window And Door Jambs
In the commoner buildings these may be of rubble; but they are more frequently of cut stone even in rubble walling They are generally formed with reveals, as explained at page 10, the thickness of sto...
-Lintels - "Window And Door Heads
Stone lintels may be used to cover any narrow opening in a wall. When intended to form a head to a door or window opening, the lintel rests on the jambs, and the under side in some cases is checked...
-Copings
Copings l (see p. 7) should be in as long stones as possible, to avoid joints which admit the wet. The upper surface should be weathered, and horizontal copings should be throated. The stones of an ...
-Cornice
In the first case a raglet2 may be required to receive the flashing or apron of a lead gutter at the back of the cornice, as shown in Fig. 147, or the gutter may be formed in the stone itself, as in F...
-Chapter IV. Carpentry. Joints And Fastenings
General Remarks In designing joints and fastenings the carpenter should bear in mind not only the present position and form of the parts he places in contact, but also the changes that will certainly...
-Beam Joints
Beams are joined in the direction of their length by lapping, fishing, and scarfing. Lapping This consists in simply laying one beam over the other for a certain length, and binding them toge...
-Scarring. - General Remarks
Figs. 153 to 161 show sections of several forms of scarfs 3 - taken chiefly from Tredgold's work on Carpentry. It will be seen that they present a neater appearance than fished joints, inasmuch as t...
-Different Forms Of Scarfs
From the above remarks, it will be manifest that the form of the scarf should be varied to suit the nature of the strain it is to bear. Scarf To Resist Compression Fig. 153 shows in elevation a very...
-Tredgold's Rules
Tredgold gave the following practical rules for proportioning the different parts of a scarf, according to the strength possessed by the kind of timber in which it is formed, to resist tensional, comp...
-Bevelled Halving
In this joint the surfaces of the checks are splayed up and down, as shown. If the lower beam is firmly bedded, and the upper beam has a weight upon it, so that the surfaces are kept close together, t...
-Notching
A beam resting upon another may be notched as shown in Fig. 166. Fig. 166. Joists notched on to Wall Plate. Joists are sometimes thus fitted to wall plates, and when the joists differ in depth th...
-Cogging, Corking, or Caulking
Cogging, Corking, or Caulking. - In this joint (see (Fig. 171), the notch on the lower beam is only partly cut out, leaving a piece or cog (like that of a cogged wheel) uncut. The upper beam c...
-Tusk Tenon
This form was devised in order to give the tenon as deep a bearing as possible at the root, without greatly increasing the size of the mortise, and thus weakening the girder. This object is effected ...
-Oblique Tenons
When timbers are joined at an angle other than a right angle the tenon has to be modified in form. If constructed as in Fig. 177, it would be very difficult to work the mortise to receive it; moreove...
-Chase-Mortises, Sometimes Called Pulley-Mortises
If a piece of timber has to be framed in between two beams already fixed, it is evident that the tenons could not be got into ordinary mortise holes. To enable the cross-piece to be fixed a chase is ...
-Circular Joints
Circular joints, especially for very heavy framework, have been recommended by Tred-gold, Robison, and other writers, but theoretically they are not to be defended, and practically they are seldom, if...
-Post And Beam Joints
A post, either upon or under a beam, may be kept in its place by a joggle, or stub tenon (as described at p. 70); but, as there is some danger of the shoulders of the tenon bearing unequally and thus ...
-Strut And Beam Joints
In these it is only necessary that the pieces abut firmly, as long as there is no force tending to make them slide off laterally. Fig. 189. Bridle Joint with Strap at foot of Principal Rafter. ...
-Wedging
In order to keep a tenon tightly fixed, wedges are driven in, as shown in Fig. 196, between the tenon and the sides of the mortise. The mortise should be slightly dovetail-shaped in plan, being wider...
-Fastenings
Pinning is the insertion of a pin of hard wood or iron through the timbers forming a joint, to prevent them from separating, or through a tenon, to keep it from drawing out of the mortise. In the latt...
-Screws
The appearance of these is familiar to all, and need not be illustrated.1 They are used in positions where the work is likely to be taken to pieces - for example, in fixing the beads of sash frames, ...
-Chapter V. Riveting
RIVETS are small fastenings made of the best wrought iron or mild steel either by hand or by machinery, and before they are fixed consist each (see Fig. 206) of a small spindle or shank surmounted by ...
-Riveting. Continued
Cold Riveting Very small rivets for boiler work or in positions where it would be impossible to heat them may be clenched cold. The process is a quick one, but the iron used must be of very superior ...
-Riveted Joints
Lap Joints are formed by riveting together plates that overlap one another, as in Figs. 212-215. The overlap should not be less than 3 1/4 to 3 1/2 times the diameter of the rivets in single riveting...
-Joints In Tension. - Lap Joints
Fig. 222 shows the arrangement of rivets generally adopted for lap joints which are to undergo a tensile stress. The object of so placing the rivets is to keep the strength of the joint as nearly equ...
-Chapter VI. Timber Beams, Curved Ribs, And Trussed Timber Girders
Built-up Beams.1 - Timber girders are substantial beams supported or fixed at the ends, and generally destined to carry a load throughout the whole or part of their length. In Part IV. will be shown ...
-Strengthening Timber Beams
The strength of timber beams or girders varies directly in proportion to their breadth and to the square of their depth, and, inversely as their length (see Part IV.) It is, however, often necessary ...
-Chapter VII. Iron Girders. Cast-Iron Girders, Bressummers, And Cantilevers
GIRDERS of considerable length and those required to support a heavy load are generally of iron. A very slight description of one or two common forms of iron girder will be given here, the considerat...
-Method Of Drawing The Cross Section Of Cast-Iron Girder
With regard to the method of drawing a section in its right proportions, nothing can be more simple. The depth in case of a girder (generally about 1/12 to 1/10 the span) being known, and the size of ...
-Girder With Feathers
Sometimes ribs or feathers are cast upon the web of the girder, as at // in Fig. 247, as stiffeners to strengthen it. They are, however, troublesome to cast, and tend to cause an objectionable stres...
-Practical Form For Cast-Iron Girders
It is sometimes inconvenient or impossible to use a cast-iron girder of uniform strength. For instance, when it has to carry weight on both flanges both are required to be horizontal and both to be of...
-Wrought-Iron Girders
Rolled Wrought-Iron Beams The manufacture of wrought-iron beams or joists has been so much improved of late years that they can now be rolled to any size that is likely to be required in ordinary bu...
-Plate Girders
If for any particular position rolled beams cannot be obtained of the necessary form or dimensions, girders may be built up by riveting plates and angle irons together in different ways. Riveted, or,...
-Securing the Ends of Girders
It has already been mentioned that the ends of iron girders, especially those of cast iron, must not be rigidly fixed unless they have been designed as girders to be fixed at the ends, for otherwise s...
-Chapter VIII. Centres
CENTRES are temporary structures of wood, with curved upper surfaces upon which arches are built, and left until they are consolidated and have taken their bearing, after which the centres are removed...
-Chapter IX. Carpentry. Floors
WOODEN floors consist of boards supported by timbers. The timbers of floors of upper rooms frequently have to carry a ceiling for the room below, which has therefore to be considered in the constructi...
-Single Floors
In single floors the common or bridging joists span the whole distance from wall to wall, and rest upon the wall plates or templates only. Advantages With a given quantity of timber single floo...
-Double Floors
Double Floors----In these the bridging joists, instead of spanning the whole distance from wall to wall, are supported by intermediate balks called Binders (or Binding Joists), B B, Fig. 276. Fig. ...
-Framed Floors
The bridging joists in these floors also rest immediately on Binders, but the latter, in their turn, are supported by larger balks or Girders. Framed floors possess, in a still greater degree, the ...
-Girders
When the span of the floor is so great that timber girders of the required scantlings cannot be economically obtained or are objectionable on account of their bulk or for other reasons, girders of oth...
-Rough Rule For Depth Of Joists
The rule of thumb for the depth of common joists is to take half span in feet; to this number add 2 for the depth of the joist in inches. E.g., For A Span Of 18 Feet Half this is 9, add 2, which giv...
-Strutting
Joists more than 10 feet long should be strutted at intervals of about 6 to 8 feet, to make them stiff and to prevent them from turning over sideways. The struts also add greatly to the strength of th...
-Rebated Floor
Rebated? Of Which The Section, Fig. 293, Explains Itself Here a considerable shrinkage may take place, as at A, without causing an opening between the boards throughout their depth, but the joint is ...
-Headings
The boards in floors are seldom long enough to go right across the room. In such a case the joint between the end of one board and the next is called the heading joint. Headings should always fall u...
-Headings. Continued
General Remarks On Floors The timbers that carry the weight should, as a rule, be laid the narrowest way of the room. The bearing timbers may be so arranged as to tie in the principal walls, and if ...
-Sizes For Floor Timbers
Tables OF SCANTLING. Table of the Scantlings recommended by Tredgold for Single or Bridging Joists of Baltic pine for different bearings from 5 to 25 feet - the distance from centre to centre of the ...
-Chapter X. Carpentry. Partitions
PARTITIONS are used to divide rooms from one another, instead of walls, to save space and expense, and they are desirable in upper stories where there are no brick or masonry walls below the divisions...
-Common Partitions
Tredgold states that when a partition rests on a floor or is otherwise supported throughout its length it is better without braces, the quarterings being simply steadied by horizontal pieces nailed be...
-Framed Partitions
Framed Partition without Doorways - This may be formed like an ordinary king-post truss, filled in as described below. Framed Partition With Ordinary Doorway In The Centre A truss of queen-post form...
-Partition Extending Through More Than One Story
In some cases partitions are carried up one above the other through two or three stories. Such partitions may be so arranged as to assist one another. Fig. 315 gives an outline of a partition extendin...
-Chapter XI. Carpentry. Timber Roofs
THE roof of a building is intended to cover it, and to keep out the weather. There are many different ways of arranging the timbers of a roof, which vary according to the span, the requirements of th...
-Flat Roof
The simplest covering for a house would at first seem to be beams laid from wall to wall, forming a flat roof. This is in use in some countries, but it has many practical disadvantages. The rain and ...
-Couple-Close Roof
To remedy the defect above mentioned, a tie (TT, Fig. 318) is added, which, by holding in the feet of the rafters, prevents them from spreading and thrusting out the walls. The strain on the tie, caus...
-King-Rod Roof Without Struts
To prevent the tie beam of a couple-close roof, when supporting a ceiling, from sagging or bending with the weight of the ceiling,1 it may be supported in the centre by an iron king rod (KR), suspende...
-King-Post Roof
When it is attempted, however, to apply the last-mentioned construction to large spans, it is found that the weight of the roof covering, of snow, and the pressure of the wind upon the rafters, are to...
-Parts Of A King-Post Roof
We will now proceed to consider the different parts of a kingpost roof in detail. The Wall Plates are pieces of timber imbedded in mortar on the tops of the walls to carry the ends of the tie beam an...
-Parts Of A King-Post Roof. Continued
The head of the king post sometimes becomes so compressed by the rafters that the fibres are crushed, and the post sinks, allowing the tie beam to sag. On this account oak king posts have been used, a...
-Ceiling Joists
When a ceiling is required, the joists to support it are generally notched and nailed to the under side of the tie beam, as shown in Figs. 323 to 329. Ceiling joists attached to roofs are similar to...
-Gutters
It is necessary to provide for carrying off the rainwater and snow from the roofs, to prevent them from running over the face of the building, and in many cases to collect them for storage and use. T...
-Sizes Of Roof Timbers. - Tredgold's Scantling
The following table, from Tredgold's Carpentry, gives the scantlings (or sizes) of timbers for King-post roofs with ceilings. The trusses are supposed to be not more than 10 feet apart, the pitch of t...
-Scantlings For Wooden Roofs
The roofs are supposed to be of Baltic fir covered with Countess slates laid on inch boards; the maximum horizontal wind force is taken at 45 lbs. per foot super, acting only on one side of the roof a...
-Roofs Of Wood And Iron Combined
As the tensile strength of iron is much greater than that of timber, it is generally preferable to use the former for any member exposed to tensile stresses only. Iron king rods would, as before ment...
-Chapter XII. Iron Roofs
AS the machinery for rolling iron bars has improved, and the facilities for obtaining these of any required section have become greater, so iron has gradually, to a great extent, taken the place of wo...
-Roofs With Straight Raftees
King-Rod Roof, Without Struts The simplest form of iron roof with straight rafters is shown in Fig. 360. Fig. 360. The rafters are of T iron, united at the apex by a pair of overlapping platesl ...
-Common Trussed - Rafter Roof.1 - Truss With One Strut
Fig. 363 is an example of one of the earliest, and still one of the best and simplest forms of iron roof for small spans. In it each rafter is trussed by means of a strut supporting it in the centre, ...
-Trussed Rafters With Two Inclixed Struts
Fig. 364 gives an example adapted for spans of from 30 to 40 feet, in which the rafter is supported at two intermediate points. An example of a roof of this form with details is given in Plate VII. An...
-Parts Of Iron Trusses
Principal Rafters As these are in compression they were originally formed of cast iron, with the usual double-flanged section, frequently tapering in form, the lower flange being made wider in the ce...
-Wrought-Iron Plate Shoes
Cast-iron shoes have to a great extent been superseded by simple joints constructed with flat plates to which the principal rafter is riveted, and the tie, if a rod, bolted, or if flat riveted to them...
-Cottered Joints
These are used in connection with any member of a roof which it may be advisable to have the power of adjusting, so as to tighten up the truss after it has been put together and into position. The co...
-Suspending Rods
These include King bolts or King rods, which hang from the apex of the roof, and all rods parallel to them which suspend the tie rod from the rafters. In iron roofs all suspending rods except the Kin...
-Joints At Head And Foot Of Struts
The head of a T-iron or L-iron strut is usually secured to the rafter by flat strips or ears of iron placed on each side of the web of the strut, and riveted through that of the rafter (see Fig. 383, ...
-Iron Purlins
These small purlins are generally of an L section - secured to the table of the Principal rafter by a cleat or bracket of angle iron (Fig. 386), or they are frequently filled in with wood, as shown in...
-Pitch Of Iron Roofs
The inclination of the slopes of iron roofs should, as in wooden roofs, depend upon the nature of the covering to be used. With slates (the only covering at present under consideration) the pitch may...
-Designing Iron Roofs
In designing an iron roof it should be borne in mind that as many of the braces as possible should be in tension, and the struts should be as short as possible. When there are only a few purlins wide...
-Designing Iron Roofs. Continued
Shoe of cast iron; Tension Rods, flat bars; and Tie Rod, double flat bars. A Ventilator extends along part of the roof, details of which are given in Figs. 429 and 434 to 436. Plate...
-Chapter XIII. Slating
Pitch The general question of the proper pitchor inclination for different roof coverings, will be entered upon in Part II. As this course refers only to slating, it will be sufficient here to sta...
-Lap And Gauge For Slates Nailed Near The Head
The lap and gauge are generally more accurately defined as follows: - The lap is the distance between the tail of any course and the nail hole of the next course but one under it. The gauge ...
-Preparing And Laying Slates
The slates are first carefully squared to size, except the heads, which may be left rough, but not concave, the edges straightened, each punched with two nail holes, and the whole sorted, if necessary...
-Nailing Slates
There are two methods of nailing slates, which differ very considerably, and will each be described separately. Nailing Near The Head In this method the nail holes are pierced at about an inch from ...
-Eaves And Ridge Courses, Etc
If the slates vary greatly in size they should be assorted in lots, and the breadth of the courses decreased gradually from the eaves upwards. The thickest slates should be in the lowest courses. Th...
-Hips And Ridges
HIPS and RIDGES are frequently covered with lead, as described at p. 232. Slate Fillets are sometimes used to cover ridges. They are nailed on to the head of the ridge piece, so as to project and cov...
-Slating For Iron Roofs
In covering iron roofs the slates may be laid on boarding or battens, or upon angle-iron laths filled in with wood and fixed at the proper gauge, in exactly the same way in which they are laid on wood...
-Chapter XIV. Plumbers' Work
THE work of the plumber includes laying sheet lead or zinc1 on roofs and flats, forming gutters and flashings, lining cisterns, fixing pipes and fittings for water supply and other purposes, also pu...
-Plumbers' Work. Continued
Occasionally the roll at the edge of the flat is formed with its base upon the top of the boarding in the same way as the other rolls on the flat. This is considered by some to have a better appearanc...
-Horizontal Flashings
When a joint occurs between a horizontal surface, such as a lead flat, and a wall or chimney, the lead is dressed up against the masonry to a height of from 5 to 7 inches, and the joint covered by an...
-V Gutters
An example of a V gutter formed behind a parapet wall, and also of one behind a chimney, is shown in Fig. 469, which is a section on CD, Fig. 456. The gutter bearers, instead of being framed into the...
-Stone Gutter Lined With Lead
Another form of gutter is that shown in Fig. 454, in which the lead is merely a lining to the gutter hollowed out in the cornice. Such a gutter is very commonly used, especially in the North, but it ...
-Ridges And Hips
The lead used for covering these should weigh about 6 lbs. per superficial foot. It has to a great extent been superseded by the use of slate and tile ridges. Ridges on the apex of the roof are cover...
-Valleys
In the valley formed by the intersection of two roof slopes forming a re-entering angle, such as that shown in Fig. 456, a strip of lead is laid on the boarding along the intersection of the slopes. T...
-Chapter XV. Joinery
General Remarks The joiner's work is distinguished from that .of the carpenter, as being necessary, not for the stability of the building, but for its comfort as a habitation. It includes making and...
-Beadings
These are adopted generally for ornament, or in order that the opening of a joint caused by shrinkage may be hidden in the shadow cast by the projection of the bead. 1 The consideration of linings, s...
-Quirked Bead
In Fig. 482 the circular portion is the section of the bead, and the indentation at the side is called a quirk. A Double-quirked Bead is one with a quirk on each side, as in Fig. 483. It is also kn...
-Joints
When large surfaces have to be covered with boarding, the pieces should be as narrow as possible, in order that the shrinkage in each, and the consequent opening of the joints, may be reduced to a min...
-Rebated Joints
Eebated and Filleted Joints, and Fillis-tered Joints, are all described at pages 135, 136, in connection with floor boards, for which they are most adapted. In all the above (except the dowelled and ...
-Beaded Joints
It has been said above that a certain amount of shrinking in the boards of ordinary work is inevitable. The actual passage of air and dust through the openings thus formed may be prevented by the var...
-Common Dovetail Joint
In this the edge of each board is cut into a series of alternate projections and indentations, known as the pins and sockets, which fit one another and form the joint. In Fig. 490 the pins are for...
-Mitred Joint
When two pieces of wood have to be joined at an angle, the joint if not too long may be mitred as in Fig. 494, that is, the two pieces are cut to a level so that the plane of the joint bisects the ang...
-Framing
Frames in joinery consist of narrow pieces of wood connected by mortise and tenon joints, and grooved on the inside to receive boards, which fill up the openings in the framing.1 In every frame the v...
-Panelling. - General Remarks
The boarding which fills in each opening of any piece of framing is called a panel. Boards, except of American pine, can seldom be obtained of sufficient width to form panels in one piece, on account...
-Moulded And Flat,2 Or Square And Flat And Moulded, Or Moulded And Square
When the edge of the panel, close to the framing, is ornamented by a moulding either planted or stuck on to the inner edge of the frame, it is designated as moulded, or moulded and flat. 2 Pan...
-Grooved Panel
In this a groove is formed around the outside edge of the panel, close to the framing, causing a dark shadow which answers the same purpose as a bead. Chamfered (or V-jointed) Panel is ornamented by ...
-Doors
Internal doors should be at least 2 feet 9 inches wide, and 6 feet 6 inches high. A usual opening is 3 feet, or 3 feet 6 inches. A common rule for proportioning the size of doors is to add 4 feet to ...
-Method Of Putting A Door Together
Fig. 513 shows the method of putting together a six-panelled square-framed door A comparison of this figure with the horizontal section of a scruare-framed panelled door given in Fig. 508, and with ...
-Method Of Putting A Door Together. Continued
The four upper panels of the door are moulded on both sides, while the two lower panels are made bead-flush on the outside, so that they may be thicker and stronger. In the example given the wood lin...
-Door Frames
There are several ways of hanging doors, but this course extends only to the consideration of those hung in solid door frames. Solid Book Frames consist of two posts, whose upper extremities are teno...
-Windows
General Remarks Windows may be merely openings in walls, generally that, or they may be projected from the general surface of the wall as hay windows, oriel windows, etc. We have, however, in this c...
-Sashes
The different ways in which window sashes may be arranged are as follows. Methods of Arranging Sashes. (a) Fixed, so that they cannot be opened, see Figs. 541 to 543. (b) Hinged on either side, so ...
-Window Frames
It lias already been mentioned that window frames are of two kinds, i.e. solid and hollow, the latter being known also as boxed or cased. These will now he described in turn. The Solid Window Frame ...
-"Boxed" Or "Cased" Frames
In these the styles or sideposts of the frames are hollow boxes or cases, so made in order to receive the weights which counterbalance the sashes. 1 Sc. sometimes called Sole. Fig. 543. Fig...
-Cased Frame With Double-Hung Sashes In A Thin Wall
Even in superior buildings windows may necessarily be fixed without linings. This occurs when the wall is thin, affording barely space for the boxed frame, together with a sufficient thickness of bric...
-Fixing Cased Frames In Position
Cased frames are generally secured in position by wedges, or pairs of wedges, driven in at the sides between the back linings of the boxes, or cases, and the masonry; and at the head by wedges between...
-Position Of Furniture. - Doors
The furniture of a door depends upon the situation and nature of the door itself. There are several kinds of locks and fastenings in use, of which a few only can here be mentioned and none describe...
-Window Fastenings
The different fastenings in use for sashes, shutters, etc., are so numerous that it will be impossible to do more than notice one or two that are absolutely necessary. Sliding sashes require a spring...
-Appendix. Examinations In Science, South Kensington. Subject III. - Building Construction
Examiner - Colonel Seddon, R.E. (Ret.) General Instructions. If the rules are not attended to, the paper will be cancelled. You may take the Elementary or the Advanced or the Honours paper, but you ...
-1888. First Stage Or Elementary Examination. Instructions
Read the General Instructions above. You are only permitted to attempt seven questions. *1. Cross section of a stone to be formed into a window sill. Draw, to a scale of 1/4 the finished cross sect...
-1889. First Stage Or Elementary Examination. Instructions
Bead the General Instructions above. You are only permitted to attempt seven questions. *1. Plan of the angle of a brick building built in English bond. Draw, to a scale of 1/2 to a foot, showing ...
-1890. First Stage Or Elementary Examination. Instructions
Read the General Instructions above. You are only permitted to attempt seven questions. *1. Plan A represents one course at the end of a brick wall built in Flemish bond. Draw to a scale of 1 to a...









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