Excavation

IN clearing and levelling the site for buildings very large quantities of earth may have to be removed from one spot to another, for which special arrangements would be necessary. Such arrangements, however, are rather beyond the province of these Notes, in which it is proposed to consider only the excavations required for the foundations of buildings to be placed upon a site which requires no special preparation in the way of levelling.

In all excavations for foundations the solid ground at the bottom of the trenches should be left to the required levels - not made up with loose earth - and temporary drains should be cut to carry off the rain that may fall during the progress of the work.

In excavating trenches for brick or stone footings an extra width of about 6 inches on each side is generally allowed at the bottom of the trench to give the men room to build; but, when concrete is to be used the excavations should be of the exact width required for the bed of concrete itself.