books



previous page: Notes On Building Construction Vol1 | by Henry Fidler
  
page up: Architecture and Construction Books
  
next page: Notes On Building Construction Vol3 | by Henry Fidler

Notes On Building Construction Vol2 | by Henry Fidler



Second. Stage, or Advanced Course. With 479 Illustrations

TitleNotes On Building Construction Vol2
AuthorHenry Fidler
PublisherLongmans, Green, and Co.
Year1893
Copyright1893, Henry Fidler
AmazonNotes on building construction

In Four Parts

Part I. - First Stage, or Elementary Course. With 552 Illustrations, 10s. 6d.

Part II. - Second. Stage, or Advanced Course. With 479 Illustrations. 10s. 6d.

Part III. - Materials. Advanced Course, and Course for Honours. With 188 Illustrations. 21s.

Part IV. - Calculations for Building Structures. Course for Honours. With 597 Illustrations, 15s.

-Part II. Second Stage Or Advanced Course. Preface
THESE Notes have been prepared primarily in order to assist students preparing for the examinations in Building Construction held annually under the direction of the Science and Art Department. It is...
-Notes On Building Construction. Note To Part II
Several works on different subjects have been consulted in the preparation of these Notes, among which may be mentioned the following: - Adams' Designing Cast and Wrought Iron Structures. Dobson and...
-Chapter I. Brickwork And Masonry
(Continued from Part I.) THIS chapter will contain brief notes on a few points connected with Brickwork and Masonry, which by the Syllabus are excluded from the Elementary Course, and were therefore ...
-Compound Walls
It has already been said that uniformity of construction in walling of any description is of the first importance. All walls must be expected to consolidate and settle down when weight comes upon the...
-Prevention Of Damp In Walls
The importance of keeping moisture out of walls as far as possible need hardly be dilated upon. In addition to the great importance of a dry building for sanitary reasons, it is also most necessary f...
-Hollow Walls With The Thin Portion Inside
In some cases, such for instance as when the wall has a stone face, the 4½inch portion is necessarily on the inside, but this arrangement has many disadvantages. In the first place, the bulk of the w...
-Hollow Walls With Iron Ties And Cramps
Ties of cast iron, Figs. 8,9, or of wrought iron, Figs. 10, 11, and x and y Fig. 7, dipped when hot in tar, are frequently used instead of bonding bricks, and have the advantage of not being liable to...
-Hollow Walls Built With Common Bricks Only
In the absence of iron cramps or bonding bricks, hollow walls'may be built with ordinary bricks placed on edge, after being dipped in boiling tar to make them as non-absorbent as possible. Every cours...
-Mortar Joints
Mortar is used to cement the parts of a wall together, and also to prevent the fracture of the bricks or stones by insuring an even distribution of pressure, notwithstanding any irregularities in thei...
-Various Bonds Not Mentioned In Part I
The principal bonds used in brickwork were described in Part I., but there are one or two varieties not so commonly used which remain to be noticed. Raking Bond is of two kinds, Diagonal and Herring-...
-Arch Rings
It has been stated in Part I. that small rough arches of brickwork are generally turned in half-brick rings, and that this is especially necessary when the arch is of a quick curve, in order to avoid ...
-Bonding Rings In Pairs
Another arrangement consists in introducing headers so as to unite two half-brick rings wherever the joints of two such rings happen to coincide. The rings are sometimes thus united in consecutive pai...
-Brick Drains And Sewers
Brickwork is evidently not adapted for drains of very small diameter, as there are, necessarily, very wide joints on the extrados of rings turned to a quick curve. Fig. 49. 1 Breeze-bricks (see P...
-Chimneys
The fireplaces in a house frequently stand one immediately over the other, and each chimney flue1 from the lower rooms has in consequence to be carried to one side or the other to avoid the fireplaces...
-Fireplaces
Jambs of fireplaces are built in the same manner as brick walls. The chimney breasts should be carefully founded, resting upon footings, or supported by corbels where necessary. In order to form the ...
-Whole-Brick External Walls, English Bond
Figs. 67, 68, give horizontal sections of two courses of the chimney in Fig. 54, just before it emerges from the roof. It has an exterior wall 9 inches thick built in English bond. Fig. 67. Fi...
-Stone Chimneys
Chimney breasts in stone buildings are very often built with bricks, which are better adapted than stone for forming the thin withes and walls required, and generally less expensive than sound masonry...
-Chapter II. Timber Roofs
(Continued from Part I.) THE king-post roof and simpler forms described in Part I., are adapted for spans up to 30 feet. This Advanced Course includes the trusses ordinarily used for spans of from 40...
-Parts Of A Queen-Post Roof
The parts common to all ordinary roofs, such as tie beams, rafters, wall plates, purlins, ridges, gutters, etc., have already been considered in Part I., and it remains only to give a description of t...
-Roofs Of Various Shapes, And Their Parts
Different names are given to roofs according to their form. A Lean-to1 roof has only one side or slope, which lies between two walls or other supports one higher than the other. See Fig. 86. Fi...
-Queen-Post Roofs, Such As In Fig. 77. - Tables Of Scantlings Of Timber For Different Spans, From 30 To 46 Feet
Span. Tie beam, T. Queen Post, QP. Principal Rafters, PR. Straining Beam, SB. Struts, S. Purlins, P. Common Rafters, CR. 32 ft. 10 by 4½ ...
-Queen And Princesses Roofs, Such As In Fig. 80. - Table Of Scantlings Of Timber For Different Spans, From 46 To 60 Feet
Span. Tie beam, T. Queen Post, QP. Princesses PP. Principal Rafters, PR. Straining Beam, SB. Struts, S. Purlins, P. Common Rafters, CR. 48 ...
-Queen And Princesses Roofs, With Trussed Apex, Such As In Fig. 81. - Table Of Scantlings Of Timber For Different Spans, From 60 To 90 Feet
Span. Tie beam, T. Queen Post, QP. Princesses, PP. Principal Rafters, PR. Straining Beam, SB. King Post, KP. Struts, S. Purlins, P. Common Rafte...
-Scantlings For Queen-Post Roofs
The roofs are supposed to be of Baltic fir covered with Countess slates laid on inch boards ; the maximum horizontal wind force is taken at 451bs. per foot super acting only on one side of the roof at...
-Roofs Without Ceilings. -Pitch Up To 30
Nature of Roof. Span in feet. ¦ie beam. Depth includes 3 for joints. Principal Rafters. Queen Posts. Struts. Straining beam. Purlins. 10ft. bearing. ...
-Roofs With Ceilings. - Pitch Up To 30
Nature of Roof. Span in feet. Tie beam. Principal Rafters. Queen Posts. Struts. Straining beam. Purlins. 10 ft. bearing. Common Rafters. ...
-Tredgold's Rules For Scantling Of Roof Timbers
The following rules laid down by Tredgold will be useful to those who are unable to find the direction and amount of the stresses on various parts of a roof; and thus by a more accurate method to arri...
-Best Forms Of Roof For Different Spans
The best form of roof truss or principal to be used for a given span is determined by the following considerations: - 1. The parts of the truss between the points of support should not be so long as ...
-Chapter III. Roof Coverings
General Remarks Boofs are covered with different materials, according to the locality, the climate, and the nature and importance of the building. As a rule, the smaller the pieces in which the cove...
-Torching And Pointing
The tiles after being laid should be torched or tiered, that is pointed from the inside with hair mortar. The Verges (see Fig. 100) should be pointed in cement, and the ridges, finials, etc., set in c...
-Zinc Laid With Plain Roll Caps On Boarding
Flat sheets of zinc from 7 to 10 feet long and 3 feet wide, are laid with wooden rolls on boarding very much in the same manner as lead. Fig. 117 shows a portion of a roof covered in this manner. The...
-Welted Joints
The sheets having been fastened at the sides by means of the rolls as above described, it next becomes necessary to make a connection between the lower edge of each sheet and the upper edge of the she...
-Corrugated Zinc Roof
When the zinc is required to be laid without boarding - which is, of course, a great saving - it must be strengthened by corrugations, i.e. by curved indentations or flutes formed along the sheet. Th...
-Zrac Gutters
Valley Gutters are formed in somewhat the same manner as those of lead. For roofs laid with wood rolls the wooden trough is lined with sheet zinc, - the sides of which are turned up, and the upper ed...
-Chapter IV. Joinery. Mouldings
MOULDINGS are required merely for ornament. The most ordinary forms are generally parts of a circle in section; and it is recommended that they should not have much projection, the lines of shade bein...
-Common Forms of Joints
In this section it is proposed to describe some common forms of joints, which do not form a part of the Elementary Course, and therefore were not referred to in Part I. The arrises or corners of al...
-Angle Joints. - Mitre Joints
When the length of the joint is not great the pieces are cut to a bevel, so that the plane of the joint bisects the angle; this is called the mitre. This joint depends entirely upon the glue unless...
-Butt Joints
In mitre joints the shrinkage of the boards in width, as dotted, does not open the external angle of the joint, though the inner angle does open slightly, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 145. ...
-Dovetail Joints
The common Dovetail has already been described in Part I. The Mitred or Secret Dovetail is chiefly used by cabinetmakers for highly-finished drawers and boxes, when for the sake of appearance it is d...
-Clamping
Boards are sometimes kept tight together at the ends by a clamp (C C, Fig. 157) running across them, grooved on the edge to receive a tongue left on the boards, which are thus free to shrink in widt...
-Glued Joints
When it is required to glue large pieces together, the wood should be thoroughly dry, the edges well warmed at a fire, and clean, - the glue as hot as possible. While the edges are warm they are cove...
-Fixing Joiners' Work
All joiners' work that is not framed should be fixed so as to be free to expand or contract. In boarding generally, this may be effected by fixing one edge, and forming the other with a groove and to...
-Finished Or Wrought Grounds
In most cases the ground is rough, its surface being flush with that of the plaster on the walls, and concealed by the architrave fixed to it: sometimes, however, either the whole or part of the surfa...
-Common Grounds
In very common work the grounds consist only of the upright posts or styles, and are not framed into a head at all; in other cases a head is provided, but the styles, instead of being framed, are mere...
-Skirtings
The Skirting1 is a board from 6 inches to 18 inches wide running round the base of the wall of a room. It is intended to cover the junction of the floor with the walls, and also for ornament. The ski...
-Dado And Surbase
For the sake of ornament, and to prevent the wall from being injured by chairs knocked up against it, a moulded bar, called a chair rail, is sometimes fixed at a height of about 3 feet from the floo...
-Linings
Linings are coverings of wood so placed as to conceal or ornament portions of the interior of buildings. There are several varieties of linings, distinguished by technical names denoting the position ...
-Shutters
Windows, especially those of ground-floors, are frequently fitted with shutters for security and warmth at night. Inside Shutters are fixed on the inner side of the wall of a building. Outside Shutt...
-Shutters With Cover Flap
The different forms of folding shutters hitherto illustrated have one disadvantage in point of appearance, viz., that when the shutters are closed the recess formed to receive them is visible, and for...
-Skylights And Lanterns
Skylights are windows, either fixed in roofs, or themselves forming the roof of a staircase or other building lighted from above. They are very varied in form, according to the position in which they...
-Chapter V. Stairs
Stairs are arrangements of steps for conveniently ascending and descending from one level to another. They are generally constructed either in stone, wood, concrete, or iron. The consideration of ir...
-Different Forms Of Stairs
N.B. - In the Figures connected with stairs the handrail is drawn in the elevations and sections in order more clearly to show the direction of the steps, but omitted from the plans so as not to obscu...
-Stone Stairs
Stone Stairs have an advantage over those of wood, inasmuch as they are much simpler in construction,2 but the steps are heavy and require substantial walls for their support; moreover they become smo...
-Different Arrangements Of Stone Stairs. - Straight Stairs
Figs. 198, 199 show a straight stair composed of square steps supported at each end by being built into the side walls. Fig. 199 is a horizontal sectional plan (looking downwards) through step No. 12...
-Wooden Stairs
Wooden Steps are lighter than those of stone, and do not require such strong supports. They are also more elastic, and do not become so smooth under wear as to be dangerous. On the other hand, they a...
-Parts Of Wooden Stairs
Strings1 are thick boards or pieces of timber placed at an inclination to support the steps of a wooden stair. Cut Strings Wooden stairs of the commonest description are thus constructed.2 Two str...
-Bough Strings
With stout treads and risers the two strings above mentioned are sufficient for stairs of 3 or 4 feet in width. For wider stairs, however, the steps require additional support, and this is afforded b...
-Different Forms Of Wooden Stairs. - Straight Stairs
In very narrow stairs of ordinary construction, with a wall on one side only, the following is the arrangement usually adopted. Two grooved strings, OS and WS, Fig. 222, are placed at the required sl...
-Dog-Legged Stairs
Fig. 224 is the plan of a dog-legged stair with a half-space landing. The treads of the steps in the lower flight are omitted, so as to show the strings and risers. A portion of the steps of the upper...
-Handrailing
The height of the handrail should not be uniform throughout, but varied slightly within the limits of a few inches, so as to secure a graceful line at the changes of inclination. The handrail should ...
-General Remarks On Planning Stairs
Before planning or laying out a stair, the following particulars are required to be known, and are generally determined by circumstances. 1. The height of the stairs, that is the vertical distance be...
-Laying Out The Plan Of Stairs. - Straight Stairs
The planning of a straight stair is a very simple matter. The height of the storey being known, a convenient height for the risers, appropriate to the class of staircase (see page 104), is assumed pr...
-Laying Out Dog-Legged Stair
The number of steps to be introduced is ascertained in the same way as for a straight stair. Thus, in the Fig. 201, a height of 10 feet 10 inches has to be gained, there are 20 risers each 6½ inches h...
-Winders
In laying out winders it should be remembered that when a person on the stairs is using the handrail he places his foot on the steps about 18 inches in from the balusters; each winder should, therefor...
-Geometrical Stairs
In laying out geometrical stairs the steps are arranged on the same principles as those above described. The well hole in the centre is first laid down and the steps arranged round it. In circular s...
-Chapter VI. Fireproof Floors
General Remarks Fireproof floors are of great service in preventing flames from spreading throughout a building. A great many different systems of fireproof construction have been proposed during th...
-Arched Systems
Girders And Brick Arches Among the earliest forms of fireproof floors were those consisting of brick arches of small or moderate span, supported by cast- or wrought-iron girders. Such constructions ...
-Systems With Hollow Bricks Or Tubes
In order to avoid the lateral thrust of arches upon the walls, various systems have been proposed in which hollow bricks or tubes are suspended by means of T or L irons between I joists, and the space...
-Solid Timber Floors
Evans' and Swain's System (Fig. 253) consists of timber joists spiked close together without any spaces between. The depth of the joists varies from 4½ inches for 8 feet spans to 11 inches for 30 feet...
-Girders With Plates
Girders With Cast-Iron Plates Fig. 254 is the sectional elevation of a floor formed as follows : - Wrought-iron rolled or built-up girders, G, span the room at from 10 to 15 feet central intervals. ...
-Weight And Cost Of Different Systems Of Fireproof Flooring
The following Table is slightly modified from one given by Mr. Lawford in a paper read before the Society of Engineers.1 Approximate cost, weight, and safe load of each floor undermentioned - for 12 ...
-American Systems
Arched Floors are much used in America - either brick arches supported by iron girders with porous terra cotta,3 protecting blocks forming skewbacks, or arches of hollow blocks like those in the Dou...
-Fireproofing Existing Wooden Floors
Fig. 260. Fibrous Plaster slabs. Messrs. Wilkinson have a system shown in section Fig. 260 by which existing wooden floors can be converted into slow-burning constructions. The ceiling and the...
-Chapter VII. Iron Roofs
THIS Course includes roofs of from 40 to 60 feet span. Such roofs come under the first head of the classification given in Part I., as they can easily be formed with straight rafters, and it will ther...
-Parts Of Iron Roof Trusses
The methods of constructing the different parts for iron roofs of small span have already been described in Part I. This section will be confined to the consideration of the forms to be given to membe...
-Struts
The forms of wrought - iron struts described in Part I., viz. those made of angle or T iron, are frequently used for roofs of spans up to 40 or 60 feet. A better form, however, is the strut of crucif...
-Coupling Boxes
The tie rod should be so arranged with coupling boxes (see Part I.) or cottered joints that it can be altered in length in order to set up the roof when required. In large roofs it is an advantage to...
-Shoes And Heads
The lower extremities of principal rafters are sometimes secured in cast-iron shoes with cottered joints, as already explained in Part I. Cast-iron heads are seldom used for large roofs. Illustration...
-Expansion And Contraction Arrangements
Iron expands or contracts about 1/150000 of its length for every degree on the Fahrenheit scale. It is therefore important to make provision in all large roofs for the expansion and contraction cause...
-Attachment To Columns
Iron roofs covering railway stations, sheds, etc., very frequently rest either one or both sides on the heads of iron columns. The attachment of the foot of the rafter to the head of the column is ef...
-Lanterns And Ventilators
The variety of forms of these is very great; one or two different kinds are shown in the accompanying illustrations. In Fig. 283 a large ventilator is formed with vertical T iron side standards, and ...
-Slating
Duchess or other large slates are very often used for iron roofs, and they may be laid either upon boards, or upon angle iron laths, as described in Part I. Tiling of all kinds may also be used, laid...
-Contract Drawings Of Iron Roofs
Plates V. to XII. are reduced copies of part of the contract drawings for some roofs recently constructed. There is no object in describing them in detail, but it should be mentioned that Plates XI. ...
-Chapter VIII. Plasterers' Work
Plastering consists in applying different compositions resembling mortar to walls and ceilings, in thin layers, so as to form smooth surfaces, for the sake of appearance and cleanliness. The plaster ...
-Lathing
Laths to receive plaster may be fixed either in a horizontal position as for ceilings, vertically as a covering for walls and partitions, or in such a manner as to form inclined or curved surfaces. L...
-Plastering
One-Coat Work ; known as Lath and Plaster one Coat; or, Lath and Lay - This consists of a layer of coarse stuff of an uniform thickness, spread over the laths with a smooth and even surface. The...
-Rendering In Cement
The wall to be rendered should itself be dry, but the surface should be well wetted, to prevent it from absorbing at once all the water in the cement; it should also be sufficiently rough to form a go...
-Stucco For Outside Work
Common Stucco, composed of ¾ sand and ¼ hydraulic lime, used to be greatly in vogue for outside work, but has now been almost superseded by the various cements introduced during the last few years. T...
-Surfaces
Whitewash is a mixture of any common white fat lime with water. It is used for common walls and ceilings which have to be whitened frequently, and for sanitary purposes. Wliitening is a mixture of wh...
-Chapter IX. Painting. Paperhanging. Glazing
THE object of painting is to preserve the more perishable parts of a structure from the effects of the weather, heat, gases, etc. Woodwork should only be painted when it is thoroughly seasoned; if it...
-Varnishing
Varnish may be applied either to painted surfaces, or to the original surface of the wood; in the latter case it may either be plain, or stained with tints to darken the grain, or to imitate the colou...
-Graining
Four or five ordinary coats of paint having been applied, the last is composed of equal parts of oil and turpentine, and should approximate in tint to the final colour required, after which thin glazi...
-Painting Plaster
Plaster to be painted should be carefully laid, and its surface free from air bubbles or flaws caused by the blowing of the lime. Special care must be taken that both the plaster and the wall itsel...
-Sanding
Fine sand is sometimes thrown on to the last coat while it is wet, with a view to imitating the rough surface of stone. Fresco is painting on plaster done while it is wet. It requires to be performed...
-Painting Canvas And Paper
Canvas to be painted should be prepared with size - oil causes it to rot. Paper should be covered with a thin coat of oil paint, and then the other coats applied as usual. Sometimes after the first ...
-Painting Ironwork
Cast Iron should be painted directly it leaves the mould, in order to preserve the hard skin which is formed upon the surface of the metal by the fusing of the sand in which it is cast. After this a s...
-Paperhanging
Walls to be papered should be thoroughly dry before the paper is hung. The surfaces of walls to be papered for the first time should be stopped, rubbed smooth with pumice-stone, and then treated with...
-Glazing
Glass is fitted into window-sashes made of wood or iron, or into lead work, as described at page 206. Glazing In Wooden Sashes The construction of a wooden sash has been described at page 196, Part ...
-Glazing Without Putty
In large roofs, especially those which are subject to vibration, as in the case of railway stations, or those subject to hot fumes such as arise from some workshops, it is desirable to avoid the use o...
-Systems For Glazing Without Putty
The student can test these forms, and many others that he will see advertised from time to time, by the list of characteristics given above, and can thus form an opinion as to which is best suited for...
-Lead Work
The small diamond-shaped panes used in old cottages and in churches are set in lead strips called carries, soldered together to form the panes. The lead is first cast into bars, and then passed throu...
-Chapter X. Excavations, Shoring, Scaffolding
Excavation IN clearing and levelling the site for buildings very large quantities of earth may have to be removed from one spot to another, for which special arrangements would be necessary. Such arr...
-Shoring And Strutting
When trenches have to be dug in loose ground it is necessary to support the sides of the excavation by timbering and shoring. In moderately firm ground, after a depth of 3 or 4 feet has been excavate...
-Shoeing Buildings
It is frequently necessary to afford buildings temporary support in consequence of the instability of the walling, caused either by the removal of adjacent houses, by faults in construction, or by def...
-Scaffolding
Scaffolds are temporary erections of timber supporting platforms close to the work, on which the workmen stand and deposit their materials. Bricklayers' Scaffolds When a wall is built as high from t...
-Chapter XI. Foundations
General Remarks In this course the foundations likely to be required for ordinary buildings will alone be described, foundations under water, cofferdams, caissons, etc., being excluded, as appertaini...
-Incompressible Soils. - Bock
Solid rock under the whole, of the building affords a first-rate foundation if it is perfectly uniform in character, thick enough to bear the weight safely, with an upper bed approximately horizontal ...
-Partly Hard And Partly Soft Ground
A foundation consisting partly of rock and partly of some softer stratum is most dangerous and untrustworthy, as the latter will yield more than the former, causing unequal settlement and fracture of ...
-Soils Requiring Lateral Confinement
Sand forms a capital foundation to build upon as long as it is prevented from escaping laterally by sheet piling (see page 226) or other means. Quicksand And Silt The same remark applies to these, w...
-Concrete Foundations
The composition, characteristics, and method of making and laying concrete are given in Part III. The great use of concrete for foundations is generally to form a solid base or platform, which will c...
-Piles And Pile Foundations
Timber Piles may be made of elm, larch, fir, beech, oak, teak, or greenheart. The straightest-grained timber should be selected, the bark removed, and any rough projections smoothed off; all large kn...
-Tubular Foundations
These are generally composed of cast-iron tubes of large diameter united in lengths by internal flanges and bolts. These cylinders are sunk by excavating the earth from within and under them in vario...
-Well Foundations
With these the building rests upon a number of hollow cylinders, or wells, of brickwork or masonry, which form supports in the same way as hollow piles or tubular foundations. The masonry is first bu...
-Hinging Engines
In these the chain or rope attached to the monkey, after passing over the pulley at the head of the frame, is connected with several short ropes, each of which is hauled on by a man until the monkey h...
-Drawing Piles
This may be necessary when a pile breaks, or for other reasons. It is generally effected by fastening the head of the pile to a long beam and using the latter as a lever, or it may be done by means o...
-Chapter XII. Materials. Bricks
FULL information with regard to the materials used in the construction of buildings is given in Part III. of this work. This chapter will contain only so much as is necessary to meet the requirements ...
-Varieties Of Bricks
Besides the ordinary bricks above described there are innumerable varieties in the market, the most important of which are: - White Bricks, made from peculiar clays, sometimes with the addition of a ...
-Stone
Characteristics Of Good Building Stone Stone is found of many different descriptions and qualities, but the chief characteristics required in a good stone for building are as follows: - Durability, ...
-Limes And Cements, Mortar, Grout, Concrete, Etc. Lime
Quicklime is produced by burning limestone in a kiln, the carbonic acid is driven off, and the result is quicklime. Slaking is effected by thoroughly wetting a quicklime and covering it up. It then s...
-Cements
Cements are either natural or artificial. Roman Cement is the best-known natural cement in this country. It is made by burning nodules containing some 30 to 45 per cent of clay, found in the London c...
-Mortar - Concrete
Mortar is made by mixing to the consistency of soft porridge limes or cements with clean sands, the proportion of which depends upon the description of the lime or cement. Proportion Of Sand Rich an...
-Plaster And Asphalte
Plaster for common work is a sort of mortar spread over surfaces to make them smooth. It is laid on in successive coats, the composition of which varies, and is given at pp. 178-179. Plaster of Paris...
-Timber
Appearance Of Cross Section The timber used in engineering and building works is obtained from a class of trees which grows by the deposit of successive layers of wood outside under the bark, while a...
-Descriptions Of Different Kinds Of Timber. Soft Woods
Red or Yellow Fir, or Northern Pine,1 is obtained chiefly from the Baltic or Russia. Its cross section shows distinct annual rings, the hard portions of which are much darker than the others ; the wo...
-Hard Woods
Oak is found both in this country and also in America, Holland, and the Baltic. British Oak is found in three principal varieties1 which need not be described in detail. It is in section of a light ...
-Iron And Steel
Iron is produced by smelting different ores with a flux, which extracts from them most of their impurities. The liquid iron runs out of the blast furnace into rough bars called pigs. 1 See Part III...
-Pig Iron (Bars)
Carbon In Pig Iron The bars or pigs run from the blast furnace are not pure iron, but contain several impurities, such as carbon, silicon, sulphur, phosphorus, and manganese. Of these carbon is the ...
-Cast Iron (Moulds)
Cast iron is obtained by remelting pig iron with a little limestone flux to get rid of its impurities, and running it into moulds. Classification Gray Cast Iron is made from foundry pigs. No. 1. the...
-Wrought Iron. Manufacture Of Wrought Iron
Wrought iron is manufactured from forge pig by the following processes. Refining, or exposure when fused to a strong current of air which removes part of the carbon. Puddling, by which the molten me...
-Steel Varieties
Steel varies very much in its characteristics according to the amount of carbon it contains. Thus Mild or Soft Steel contains from 2 to .5 per cent of carbon. When more carbon is present it becomes H...
-Table Of Breaking And Working Stresses For Materials For A Dead Load
Material. Breaking Stress in Tons per square inch. Working Stress in Tons per square inch. Tension. Compression. Tension. Compression. Cast Iron......
-The Weights Of Sheet Lead Generally Used Far Hoofs Are As Follows
lbs. per square foot. Aprons and Flashings 5 Thicker if much exposed. Roofs 6 to 8 Flats Gutters Hips and Ridges 6 or 7 ...
-Chapter XIII. Stresses In Structures
THIS chapter will give merely the information called for by the Syllabus for the Advanced Course. The subject is fully gone into in Part IV. The headings in this chapter, marked A to F, are quoted fr...
-Fixed Beams
A Beam fixed at both Ends - that is, so fixed that the ends cannot tilt up when the beam is loaded - is shown in Fig. 437. Such a beam is in the condition of two cantilevers, Af and Bi, carrying a be...
-Roofs Generally
Members In Compression Generally speaking all rafters, struts, straining beams, etc., are in compression. Members In Tension All king posts, queen posts, and rods, and all tie beams or tie rods are...
-Appendix. Examination Papers. Second Stage Or Advanced Course
Set In The Years 1888, 1889, 1890 By The Science And Art Department, South Kensington In Building Construction. General Instructions If the rules are not attended to, the paper will be cancelled. Y...
-1888. Second Stage Or Advanced Examination
Instructions. Read the General Instructions at the head of the Elementary paper. You are only permitted to attempt six questions. 21. Explain the meaning of hydraulic lime, and how you would pract...
-1889. Second Stage Or Advanced Examination. Instructions
Read the General Instructions at the head of the Elementary paper. You are only permitted to attempt six questions. 21. Describe the following bricks, stating the purposes for which they are suitable...
-May And June 1890. Second Stage Or Advanced Examination
Instructions. Read the General Instructions at the head of the Elementary paper. You are only permitted to attempt six questions. 21. What is the difference between single and double laths, and what...









TOP
previous page: Notes On Building Construction Vol1 | by Henry Fidler
  
page up: Architecture and Construction Books
  
next page: Notes On Building Construction Vol3 | by Henry Fidler