There are no list brands for steel (see p. 296). Each maker has his own trade mark, generally the name of his firm, with or without name of his work. Thus - (Atlas), Jno. Brown and Company, Limited; (Cyclops), Cammell and Company, Limited; (Globe), Ibbotson and Company; (Norfolk), Messrs. Thomas Firth and Sons, Limited; (Vickers), Messrs. Vickers, Sons, and Company, Limited. There are no marks to indicate quality, such as best best, etc. etc.

1 Steel baling hoops show an advantage of 20 to 30 per cent over iron hoops, as, although higher in price, much lighter gauges can be substituted.

The following' are some of the marks used : -

Thomas Jowitt's double shear steel for the trade generally.

Thomas Jowitt's double shear steel for the trade generally.

"BRADES." William Hunt and Son's "Brades Company."

Mushet's borer steel. Titanic.

Mushet's borer steel. Titanic.

Blister steel

Blister steel, known as Hoop L Swedish brand, that iron being used in the manufacture. Used by many firms.

Turton and Sons.

Turton and Sons.

Osborn.

Osborn.

The Sheffield merchant steels have usually a paper wrapping with the maker's name and address in full.

Crucible Cast Steel

The ingots have each a paper label attached, on which is marked the purpose for which the steel is best adapted, as follows - borer, welding, tool, rivet.

Shear and Double Shear steel bars are marked with the words shear and double shear in indented letters on each bar.

Bessemer Steel has no marks. Rails of this material are generally stamped with the maker's name, and the word steel.

Landore Steel is the trade mark of the Landore Siemens - Steel Company, Limited. The following brands1 in addition indicate different qualities of steel: -

Crucible Cast Steel 300205

Landore Ds

Dead soft steel, having a tensile strength of from 23 to 26 tons per square inch. Of this quality are produced bars for manufacturing into tin plates for deep stamping. Soft wire rods, having great conductivity, for telegraph purposes are also produced from this brand.

Landore

Soft steel, having a tensile strength from 26 to 31 tons per square inch, as may be specified. Of this brand are produced ship, bridge, and boiler plates, angles, tees, bars, rivet bars, etc., such as are supplied under contract to the Admiralty, or guaranteed to conform to the requirements of the Board of Trade and of Lloyd's Committee.

N.B. - Bridge plates are supplied of higher tensile strain than above, as engineers may specify.

Landore Ss

Special soft steel, of the highest quality, with a maximum tensile strength of 28 tons per square inch, and a minimum elongation of 25 per cent in 8 inches. It is prepared from the purest brands of iron, and specially treated. Plates made of this quality are recommended particularly for boiler furnaces, tube plates, galvanising baths, hollow stampings, etc., and generally in place of the best brands of Yorkshire iron usually employed for such purposes.

1 From the Company's Circular, January 1878.

Landore M

Medium steel, having a tensile strength of from 31 to 50 tons per square inch, as may be specified. It is used in the manufacture of axles, general forgings, castings, wire rods, etc., and is of a tough and malleable nature.

Landore Sm

Special medium steel, same tensile strength as M, but prepared from special materials, similar to S S Suitable for the highest class of axles, forgings, shafting bars, engineering purposes generally, wire rods, etc.

Landore H

Sard steel, with a tensile strength of over 50 tons per square inch. Suitable for springs, wire rods, and some descriptions of castings.

Landore Sh

Special hard steel, same tensile strength as H, but made from special materials, similar to S S and S M . It is recommended for the highest class of wire rods, boring tools, jumper steel, stamp heads, shoes, and dies, and for mining purposes generally, in place of the best crucible steel.