Encrinal and Shell Marbles are those which derive their figure from embedded fossils, encrinites (lily-shaped plants with jointed stems), or fossils of ordinary shells.

Madrepore Marbles are made up entirely of fossil corals.

Ancient Marbles

Many of the marbles used by the ancients, and handed down to us in the shape of works of art, are not now known 111 their natural state.

Their markings and tints are frequently imitated in artificial marbles, and the ancient names are applied to the imitations.

Varieties

A good deal of the marble used in this country comes from the Continent.

Of the varieties found in England, the best known are those of various colours from Devonshire; black and grey marbles from Derbyshire; the Purbeck marble from Dorsetshire; Mona marble from Anglesea.

There are many varieties in Scotland, but they are chiefly used locally, and burnt for lime.

Ireland supplies marbles of all colours. Black from Galway, Kilkenny, and other counties; dark grey and sienna from King's County; white from Donegal; red from County Cork. The so-called Connemara marble is a serpentine (see p. 34).

Table Of Some Of The Principal Marble Quarries In Great Britain And Ireland

NAME OF QUARRY.

NEAREST POST TOWN.

COUNTY.

Weight

COLOUR OF STONE. PER Foot-Cube in Lbs.

GEOLOGICAL FORMATION.

WHERE USED, AND REMARKS.

English Marbles

ASHFORD..

Kowsley .

Derbyshire

Black .

...

Mountain limestone

These marbles are highly figured, as they contain embedded fossils of all kinds.

Bakewell ...

Bakewell .

Do.

Brown .

...

Do.

..

Berry Pomeroy

..

Devonshire

Dove coloured, and red and white.

..

..

..

Bridstow ...

..

Do.

..

..

...

Chudleigh..

..

Do.

Do.

. • •

..

Chimney-pieces.

Cole Hill ...

Matlock .

Derbyshire

Black .

...

Mountain limestone.

...

Dent ...

..,.

Yorkshire

...

■ • a

Full of fossil encrinites or "stone lilies."

Drewsleighton .

Drewsleighton .

Devonshire

..

• . •

Granite.

Ipplepen ...

Newton .

Do.

Purple clouded with red and white

163.4

Devonian

Blocks 18 feet square sent to London. Used for shafts of columns, National Provincial Bank, Bishopgate Street.

Killey Park..

..-

Do.

Green; rose coloured.

..

..

One Ash

Matlock .

Derbyshire

...

...

Mountain limestone.

..

Oreston

Plymouth

Devonshire

...

...

Devonian

Used for Plymouth Breakwater. Attacked by Pholades. (See p. 10.)

Petit Tor (No. 1)

St. Mary's Church

Do.

Grey

...

..

Known as Babbicomb marble. Some blocks consist entirely of fossil corals, and are known as Madrepore marble.

PETWORTH .

Arundel .

Sussex

Do.

...

Wealden .

Very similar to Purbeck. The Episcopal chair of Canterbury is made of this marble. Found also near Horsham, Eastbourne, Lewes.

Plymouth .

Plymouth

Devonshire

..

...

Plymouth Forts and Barracks.

Pocombe

Exeter

Do.

Purple; white veins

..

Devonian.

..

Purbeck, Swan-age

Swanage .

Dorsetshire

Grey

...

Purbeck beds .

A mass of shells; occurs in beds from C in. to 9 in. thick; much used for slender shafts in old churches.

Sheldon

Matlock .

Derbyshire

..

...

Mountain limestone.

..

Staverton

...

Do.

Dove-colonred, and red and white.

..

S. Tauton .

Totness .

Devonshire

..

...

Devonian.

..

Wilton

...

Stafibrdshire.

..

..

..

Anglesea .

• •*

Isle of Man

Black.

..

..

..

Isle of Man. Mona

.......

Anglesea

Dark green, light green, and sometimes purple, with white

...

• ••

Apparently formed by a combination of crystalline limestone and serpentine.

POKTWASH .

• .•

Isle of Man

Black and grey

...

Carboniferous .

Steps of St. Paul's Cathedral; full of encri-nites and shells.

Port St. Mary .

• • .

Do. .

Black .

...

Do.

Takes a good polish.

Scarlett .

.....

Do. .

Pale

• >•

Do.

Castle Rushen built with this marble.

Scotch Marbles.

Aboyne

Aboyne .

Aberdeenshire .

Grey and white.

..

..

..

Assynt

...

Sutherlondshire

Grey, blue, and dove-colour.

..

..

..

Ballachulish .

Olencoe .

Argyleshire

White and grey.

..

..

..

Blairgowrie

Blairgowrie

Perthshire

White.

..

..

..

Glentilt .

Blair- Athol

Do. .

White and grey

..

...

Occasional yellow spots.

Iona .

Oban

Argyleshire

Grey and white

..

...

Sometimes has yellowish spots or rims of steatite; does not take a high polish.

Skye .

• •

• . .

Greyish.

..

..

Tiree

Tiree

Hebrides

Pink, with dark green crystals.

172.3

Block for bust of Sir W. de la Beche, Museum of Practical Geology.

NAME OF QUARRY.

NEAREST POST TOWN.

COUNTY.

COLOUR OF STONE.

Weight

Per Foot

Cube in Lbs.

GEOLOGICAL FORMATION.

WHERE USED, AND REMARKS.

Irish Marbles.

ANGLIHAM ...

Gal way .

Galway

Black.

..

..

..

Ballykiloboy.. .

Waterford

Waterford

Grey.

..

Ballymore..

Dunfanaghy

Donegal .

Creamy white .

...

...

Polishes well; highly crystalline; difficult to work; chimney-pieces.

Boston...

Rathangen

Kildare .

Black

..

..

..

CARLOW..

Carlow

Callow

Do.

..

..

..

Chukchtown..

Churchtown

Cork

Red, black, brownish red

...

...

Museum of Irish Industry, Dublin.

CLIFDEX..

Clifden .

Galway .

White .

••

...

Stones of considerable area but small depth; no cubical blocks of any size.

Clonmacnoise .

Clonmacnoise .

King's County .

Sienna.

..

DONERAILE ...

Doneraile

Cork

Black .

..

...

Museum of Irish Industry, Dublin.

DUNKERROW..

...

Black, white, purple, veined with green.

..

..

..

GLANNAN ....

Glasslough

Monaghan

Black .

..

..

Takes a good polish.

KlLKENNY ...

Kilkenny

Kilkenny

Do.

1714

..

When dressed the figures of shells appear.

KlNTAIL..

Rathmullin

Donegal .

Do.

..

..

Rathmullin Pier.

Letternaphy..

Clifden .

Galway

Green

..

...

Rather coarse; works any size; exported.

Limerick, several Quarries near..

Limerick

Limerick .

Black .

..

Used in London.

Mento..

Galway .

Galway .

Do.

..

...

There are three beds. The middle is called the "London bed," and exported. Blocks 5 feet to 10 feet long and 4 feet to 5 feet wide. Sawn on the spot into slabs, etc.

Merlin Park..

Do.

Do.

Do.

..

..

..

Monte..

...

Meath

Grew

..

..

..

Pallas Kenry .....

Limerick

Limerick .

Red

...

...

Spotted from embedded fossils; hard and laminated; takes and retains a good polish.

TULLAMORE..

Tullamore

King's County .

Grey

...

...

Some varieties clouded. Used for polished work, chimney-pieces, etc.