"In some cases, when the goods are not branded, the second quality have a red mark across the ends; third being easily distinguished from first quality goods.

"The well-known Gromoff Petersburg deals are, however, marked with C. and Co., the initials of the shippers, Clarke and Company. Another good Petersburg brand is P B (Peter Belaieff) for best, and P B 2 for second quality.

"Swedish Goods are never hammer-marked, but invariably branded with letters or devices stencilled on the ends in red paint, which makes it difficult to judge of their quality by inspection, as they are stacked in the timber yards with their ends only showing. Some of the common fourth and fifth quality Swedish goods are left unmarked, but they may generally be distinguished from Russian shipments by the bluer colour of the sapwood.

"In the English market the first and second qualities, in Swedish deals, are classed together as 'mixed,' being scarcely ever sorted separately; after which we get third, down to fifth quality goods.

1 Seddon.

District.

Shippers.

Mixed, or French 1st.

3ds, or French 2ds.

4ths, or French 3ds.

5ths, or French 4ths.

6ths, or French 5ths.

Unsorted, or French non-classes.

Sweden.

Gefle..

J. E. Francke . . . one end

E*F

E AF

EBF

E C F

..

..

Do. ...

Do. . . . other end

GEFLE

GEFLE

GEFLE

GEFLE

..

.

Do. .. .

Kormas Savgerks ....

K AB

N AS

♦ ♦ ♦

♦ ♦

...

.E B

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300233

Do. ...

Stromsbergs Bruksegare .

B P

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300234

Extra 1st

B + P

1st

B♦P

2d

BP

...

BP

Do. ...

Do. . floorings

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300235 B P Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300236

B P

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300237

B + P

..

Gothenburg..

A. Karrberg and Co.

K K

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300238

S♦F

T + F

- + -

• ■ •

♦ ♦ ♦

Do...

J. W. Wilson . English shipment

J WW

J W

W

..

Hernosand..

J. E. Francke and others .

BERGERE

BERGER

EL B

K + M

D B

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300239

B R

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300240

Stockholm..

Lind, August, and Co.

F Co. or

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300241

A Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300242 L

F♦Co. A♦L

F Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300243 Co. or A Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300244L

F o Co. or

A oL

..

..

Sundswall..

Axell and Co. .....

AXELL

AXL

AXE

AXX

..

..

Do. and Umea..

J. Dickson and Co. English shipment

D B & Co.

DDD

D

MFD

..

..

Do...

Do. . . flooring

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300245

D B & Co.

J D & Co.

DDD

DDF

..

..

Soderhamm..

W. H. Kempe English shipment

W Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300246 K

1st

WK

2d

K

3d

K#K

4th

...

*W*

Do...

J. Dickson and Co. do.

D B & Co.

J D & Co.

DDD

DDF

..

..

Norway...

lsts

2ds

3ds

4ths

5ths

Unsorted.

Christiania1..

Haneborg . . . flooring

A H 0

AHA

DOL

..

..

Dranimen..

Haugan, 0., and Co.

0 + H

OH

H

0

..

..

Do. ...

Do. . . flooring

HAU GAN

Marks And Brands Upon Timber Continued 300247

HAUGAN

HGN

..

..

..

Russia...

..

.

..

....

..

..

Archangel..

Brandt, E. H., and Co .

E H B & Co.1

E H B & Co.2

E H B & Co.3

..

..

Do...

Do. . flooring

E B & Co.

E B & Co.

E B & Co.

..

..

1

0

+

..

..

Figures on flat in red chalk.

Onega..

Onega Wood Co. ....

No mark

2

3

4

...

St. Petersburg...

Belaieff, successors and Co., Peter .

P B S & Co.

P B S & Co.2

P B S & Co.3

..

..

Do...

Gromoft", F., and Co.

Seve ral different m arks.

..

..

1 The marks on sawn wood shipped at Christiania are always red in colour, those on flooring mostly in black, but some in other colours.

"The French class the mixed as first, and our third as second quality, and so on."

"Except for temporary purposes, or for rough work such as slate boarding, no deals of a lower quality than mixed Swedish, or, as the timber merchants and contractors would call them, best Swedish, should be used on Government works."

The few brands on p. 386 are taken from the Timber Trades Journal List,1 and are given merely as characteristic examples. As before mentioned, the marks are constantly changing, and any information regarding them should be renewed from year to year. A long list is published annually in Laxton's Price Book, and at intervals in the Timber Trades Journal Lists.

"To give an idea of the value of the different qualities, the mixed are worth from 15 to 20 per cent more than third, and third from 12 to 15 per cent more than fourth quality.

"It may be noticed in the above brands that three similar letters, when used, generally denote the shipper's third quality; but a merchant would call these second quality goods, for it must be clearly understood that the term 'mixed' is confined to the shippers and brokers. Timber merchants always call the mixed 'best,' and the third quality second quality, and so on, or one class higher than that at which they were shipped.

"The Norwegian marks are very numerous, but, as the chief import is of cheap and very inferior battens (mostly 21/2 x 61/2), they are not worth enumerating.

"From Christiania, however, some of the very best white deals come, marked HJIH for first quality, and H M M for second quality.

"Battens from Dram have several marks, among which are for 1st class HK JB, for 2d class HK and Co. I 00, for 3d class IW B, etc. etc.

"Norway also exports large quantities of cheap boards for flooring and other purposes, match or grooved and tongued boarding, mouldings, doors, window sashes, etc., all ready for fixing, which may often be used with advantage for inferior or temporary purposes.

"American. Goods are not branded as a rule, though some houses use brands in imitation of the Baltic marks already described, though without following any definite rules. The qualities may, however, very often be known by red marks I II III upon the sides or ends, but the qualities of American yellow deals are easily told by inspection, the custom in the London Docks being to stack them on their sides, so as to expose their faces to view, and allow of free ventilation."

The following are marks upon some Quebec deals: -

Hamilton's bright dry floated deals in red on flat Gilmour and Co., pine deals, etc. do, and on end.

1st.

A.

A.

2d.

B.

B.

3d.

C.

C.

Mahogany, Cedar, and other imported woods, are also marked with letters, a long list of which is given in Richardson's Timber Importer's Guide.

The following extract, from a valuable article in the Building News, shows the importance of the subject.

" From these remarks it will be seen that brands upon timber is a great and important subject. It is one in the hands of a small community of our traders, and is, conseqxiently, a class of knowledge over which they are strict conservators. It is a subject new to authors, and that portion of our tradesmen whose office it is to buy and consume timber. This is somewhat strange, as the meaning of brands is well known on other goods that people engaged in trade are called upon to purchase. With architects, clerks of works, and builders generally, brands upon timbers are looked upon with perfect indifference. The current remarks are, ' I can tell a bit of good wood when I see it,' etc., and, as builders generally pursue the old-fashioned system of buying from inspection, the question carries but little importance.

"Were brands upon timber better known, architects would get better work and builders would obtain greater credit. The cheap builder would find his place, and what are termed ' old-fashioned builders ' would again occupy the position they so richly merit."

Value of Timber, Deals, etc., and Method of Measuring. - The prices of different descriptions of timber, deals, etc., vary at the different ports. They are published weekly in the engineering and building journals, and also annually in the builders' price-books. The method in which timber is measured and the "standards" under which deals are sold, are described in Seddon's Builder's Work, Hurst's Pocket Book, and in works devoted to the subject of measuring and estimating.

1 Published by W. Rider and Son, London, E.C.