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Notes On Building Construction Vol3 | by Henry Fidler



Materials. Advanced Course, and Course for Honours. With 188 Illustrations

TitleNotes On Building Construction Vol3
AuthorHenry Fidler
PublisherLongmans, Green, and Co.
Year1893
Copyright1893, Henry Fidler
AmazonNotes on building construction

In Four Parts

Part I. - First Stage, or Elementary Course. With 552 Illustrations, 10s. 6d.

Part II. - Second. Stage, or Advanced Course. With 479 Illustrations. 10s. 6d.

Part III. - Materials. Advanced Course, and Course for Honours. With 188 Illustrations. 21s.

Part IV. - Calculations for Building Structures. Course for Honours. With 597 Illustrations, 15s.

-Part III. Materials. Course For Honours. Preface
THESE Notes are intended to furnish a Student with information amply sufficient to enable him to pass the Honours Examination of the Science and Art Department, so far as a knowledge of Building Mater...
-Note To Part III
The following List contains the names of the books which have been referred to and consulted in the preparation of these Notes. Information derived from them has been acknowledged as far as possible ...
-Note For Students
The Syllabus of the Science and Art Department contains the following particulars regarding the examination in materials: - 1 Examination for Second Stage or Advanced Course. This includes questions...
-Chapter I. Stone
General Remarks In the following Notes no attempt will bo made to describe the appearance and characteristics of all the different kinds of stone used in this country. Such a task would be almost en...
-Characteristics Of Building Stone
In selecting a stone for a building or engineering work, inquiry and investigation should be made to ascertain whether it possesses certain important characteristics mentioned below: - Durability, or...
-Characteristics Of Building Stone. Part 2
Facility For Working The readiness with which stone can be converted by the mason into the various shapes in which it is required for different kinds of work is of importance from an economical point...
-Characteristics Of Building Stone. Part 3
Position In Quarry In order to obtain the best stone that a quarry can furnish, it is often important that it should be taken from a particular stratum. Mould. Clay and shingly matter; debris of ...
-Agents Which Destroy Stones
The two principal classes of agents which destroy stone have already been described. They are - Chemical agents, consisting of acids, etc., in the atmosphere; and Mechanical agents, such as wind, dus...
-Examination Of Stone
Speaking generally, in comparing stones of the same class, the least porous, most dense, and strongest, will be the most durable in atmospheres which have no special tendency to attack the constituent...
-Granite And Other Igneous Rocks
Granite is, as its name implies, a stone of crystalline granular structure. True Or Common Granite There are several varieties of stone practically known as granite, but true granite consists of cry...
-Quarrying And Dressing
Granite is quarried either by wedging or by blasting. The former process is generally reserved for large blocks, and the latter for smaller pieces and road-metal. It is better to have the blocks cut ...
-List Of Some Of The Principal Granite Quarries In Great Britain And Ireland
NAME OF QUARRY. NEAREST POST TOWN. COUNTY. COLOUR OF STONE. Weight Per Foot Cube in Lbs. REMARKS. English Granites. Anglesea . Holyhead. N. Wales.....
-Igneous Rocks Other Than Granite
There are several rocks which more or less resemble the granite in their characteristics, and are generally associated with it in the classification of building stones. These rocks are, however, seld...
-Trap Rocks
Greenstone, also called Trap or Whinstone, is a mixture of felspar and hornblende. It has sometimes a granular crystalline structure, and at other times it is very compact without apparent grains. I...
-Slates And Schists
Clay Slate The ordinary slate used for roofing and other purposes is an argillaceous rock, compact and fine grained. It was originally a sedimentary rock, but it will no longer divide along the plane...
-Characteristics Of Slates
Hardness And Toughness A good slate should be both hard and tough. If it is too soft it will absorb moisture, the nail holes will become enlarged, and the slate will be loose. If it be brittle it w...
-Pyrites
Crystals of iron pyrites are often found in slates, especially in those from Scotland, etc. They are often considered objectionable. It should, however, be borne in mind that there are two varieties ...
-Different Forms Of Slate
Slate Slabs Besides the small thin slates used for roofing, large and thick slabs, and even blocks of slate, are quarried out and used for many purposes connected with building and engineering works....
-Different Forms Of Slate. Continued
Irish Slates Many of the best qualities resemble the Welsh varieties, others are thicker and coarser. Among the best known Irish roofing slates are those from Killaloe, or from the county Kilkenny. ...
-Stone Slates
So called slates, being merely thin slabs of stone which splits into thin layers along the planes of bedding, are found in various parts of the country, and used for roofing purposes. They are tiles...
-Serpentine
Serpentine derives its name from the mottled appearance of its surface, which is supposed to resemble the skin of a serpent. Composition Pure serpentine is a hydrated silicate of magnesia, but it is...
-Sandstones
Composition Sandstones consist generally of grains of quartz i.e. sand - cemented together by silica, carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia, alumina, oxide of iron, or by mixtures of these substan...
-Sandstones. Principal Varieties In Common Use
A few of the best known sandstones will now be described, after which a list will be given of some of the principal quarries in Great Britain and Ireland. Bramley Fall The original stone known under...
-Sandstones. Part 3
White Mansfield There are several beds of this stone. The top bed of all has a coarser grain than the others. The second and third beds supply a very good fine-grained stone, fit for the finest ashla...
-Limestones
The term limestone is applied to any stone the greater proportion of which consists of carbonate of lime; but the members of the class differ greatly in chemical composition, texture, hardness, and ot...
-Marbles
Marble is the name practically given to any limestone which is hard and compact enough to take a fine polish. The name is frequently, however, erroneously applied to other stones, such as serpentine,...
-Different Forms Of Marble
Encrinal and Shell Marbles are those which derive their figure from embedded fossils, encrinites (lily-shaped plants with jointed stems), or fossils of ordinary shells. Madrepore Marbles are made up ...
-Different Forms Of Marble. Continued
Table Of Some Of The Principal Continental Marble Quarries NAME OF QUARRY. COUNTRY. COLOUR OF STONE. Weight Per Foot Cube in Lbs. GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. WHERE USED...
-Compact Limestone. Composition And Structure
Compact limestone consists of carbonate of lime either pure or in combination with sand or clay. It is generally devoid of crystalline structure, of a dull earthy appearance, and of a dark blue, grey...
-Shelly Limestone
There may be said to be two classes of this stone. Structure The first consists almost entirely of small shells cemented together, but shows no crystals on fracture. Purbeck is an example of this c...
-Magnesian Limestones. Composition
Magnesian limestones are composed of carbonate of lime and carbonate of magnesia in variable proportions, together with a small quantity of silica, iron, and alumina. 1 Wray. Many limestones contain...
-Marble Quarries
There are several quarries in the neighbourhood of Bath, among which may be mentioned the following: - Box Ground Found in beds from 10 inches to 41/2 feet thick. A coarse but sound stone, which wea...
-Marble Chemical Composition
The chemical composition of the different varieties is almost the same, and it may therefore be given at once for the whole. The following is the analysis made by Professors Daniel and Wheatstone for...
-Chilmark Stone
This stone is procured from the Portland and Purbeck series of the oolitic formation as developed near Tisbury, Wardour Castle, in Wiltshire. It is known also as Wardour stone, and in London as Tisbu...
-Chilmark Stone. Continued
Land Rag About 8 or 10 inches deep; dark grey; free working. Below this is a bed of fine hassock. Header laying. - Thin dark stone used for headers. Green Rag 10 inches thick; greenish colour; fre...
-Table Of The Principal Limestone Quarries In Great Britain And Ireland
NAME OF QUARRY. NEAREST POST TOWN. COUNTY. COLOUR OF STONE. Weight Per Foot Cube in Lbs. WHERE USED, AND REMARKS. English Limestones. Cretaceous. .. ...
-Artificial Stone
In consequence of the difficulty which exists in many localities of obtaining durable natural stone at a moderate cost, many processes have been invented for the manufacture of artificial stone. Some...
-Preservation Of Stone
In consequence of the rapid decay of some of our public buildings (especially the Houses of Parliament), the question of the preservation of stone has of late years attracted much attention. Several ...
-Preparations Containing Organic Substances. Filling The Pores With Organic Matter
Paint. - One of the most common methods of preserving the surface of stone is to paint it. This is effectual for a time, but the paint is destroyed by atmospheric influence in the course of a few year...
-Preparations Not Containing Organic Substances
Soluble silica.- There is a large class of preparations whose preservative influences depend upon the presence of soluble silica, which combines with substances contained in, or added to the stone und...
-Tables Illustrating The Properties Of Different Stones
The following Tables give a selection from the results of a great number of experiments upon stone made by various authorities. In many cases the figures given are not directly comparable with each o...
-Resistance Of Stone To Crushing
The following results are from Mr. Kirkaldy's experiments with 6-inch cubes :- Stone. Crushing Weight per Square Inch in Tons. Scotgate ... 5.1 Brarnley Fall .... ...
-Tensile Strength Of Stone
Stone is rarely employed so as to be subject to a tensile stress. The following Table is chiefly from Mr. Stoney's work on Strains, and he remarks that it would be well to have the figures corroborate...
-Transverse Strength Of Stone
Modulus of rupture lbs. per square inch. Sandstone 1100 to 2360 Slate .... 5000 1 Fairbairn's Experiments. 2 From Rankine's Useful Rules and Tabl...
-Table Showing The Bulk Of Water Absorbed In Twenty-Four Hours By Various Stones
Nature of Stone. Bulk of Water absorbed as compared with bulk of stone per cent. Authority. Several specimens of good granite and syenite .... 1/2 per cent w ...
-Table Giving The Weight And Bulkiness Of Different Varieties Of Stone
Weight per cubic foot in lbs. Granites and Syenites .... 162 to 187 Trap and Basalt .... 164 to 187 Slate ...... 165 to 181 Sandstones .......
-Resistance To Wear of Granite and Whinstone
Mr. Walker exposed the undermentioned descriptions of granite and whinstone to very heavy waggon traffic for seventeen months, and found their vertical wear to be as follows :- Inch. ...
-Chapter II. Bricks, Tiles, Terracotta, Etc
THERE are many different forms in which clay after it is burnt or baked is used by the builder and engineer. Some of the more important of these will now be described under the following classificati...
-Bricks
Ordinary building bricks are made of clay or other earths subjected to several processes (which somewhat vary according to local practice, influenced by the nature of the material), formed to the requ...
-Practical Classification Of Brick Earths
Brick earths are generally divided into three classes. 1. Plastic or Strong Clays (called by the brickmaker foul clays), which are composed of silica and alumina, with but a small proportion of lim...
-Brickmaking
The operations involved in brickmaking are very numerous, though not intricate; they differ in several particulars in different localities, according to local custom, generally influenced by the natur...
-Brickmaking. Part 2
Washed Bricks These contain a certain proportion of malm, and are made in two ways. In some parts of the country - in Essex for example - they are composed wholly of an inferior malm, made like the ...
-Brickmaking. Part 3
Scintling When the raw bricks are half dry they are scintled, that is, placed diagonally and a little distance apart, so that the wind may pass between them. They therefore take up more room in plan,...
-Brick Burning
Bricks are burnt in clamps or in kilns according to the practice of the locality. 1 Dobson. 2 Except in over-sailing courses or when they are to receive a layer of asphalte for a damp course. Cl...
-Brick Burning. Part 2
Quality Of Bricks The bricks taken from a clamp will be found very unequal in quality. Those from near the eyes are often fused together, or misshapen, forming burrs. Those near the outside are under...
-Brick Burning. Part 3
Fuel About a half-ton of soft coal is required for burning 1000 bricks. The exact quantity depends upon the nature of the clay, the quality of the fuel, and the skill in setting the kiln. Size Of Ki...
-Brick Burning. Part 4
Size And Produce Of Kiln Each chamber, if made about 36 feet long, 15 feet mean width, and 8 feet high, will hold 25,000 bricks. 12 x 25,000 = 300,000 bricks may therefore be burnt in the whole kiln...
-Ordinary Building Bricks
The second class of bricks includes the bulk of those required for building. The qualities and characteristics of these vary, not only in different localities, but also in the same brickyard (see p. 1...
-White Bricks
The best materials from which to make white bricks are a refractory clay, which will naturally burn to pale yellow or white, and a fine white or yellow sand, which vitrifies slightly under a strong he...
-Characteristics Of Good Bricks. Freedom From Flaws Or Lumps
Good building bricks should be sound, free from cracks and flaws, also from stones, or lumps of any kind. Lumps of lime, however small, are specially dangerous; they slake when the brick is exposed t...
-Characteristics Of Good Rubbers
A really first-class rubber (see p. 104) will not be easily scored by a knife even in the centre, and the finger will make no impression upon it. Such a brick will be of uniform texture, compact, reg...
-Size And Weight Of Bricks
Before the year 1839 a duty was paid upon bricks; their size was then practically fixed by Act of Parliament, and it has since remained materially unaltered. Ordinary bricks in the neighbourhood of L...
-Tests For Bricks
The best method of testing bricks is to see if they ring when struck together; to ascertain their hardness by throwing them on to the ground, or by striking them against other bricks. The fractured s...
-Strength Of Bricks
In practice bricks are subjected to compression, and sometimes to transverse stress, but not to tension. The compressive stress brought upon evenly-bedded bricks is generally far less than they are a...
-Different Forms Of Bricks
The different forms in which bricks are made for special purposes are almost innumerable. It would not be worth while, even if space were available, to describe them all; but a few of the principal v...
-Different Forms Of Bricks. Continued
Round-Ended And Bull-Nosed Bricks Figs. 28 and 29 are for use at corners where sharp arrises would be liable to damage. Splay Bricks are bevelled off on one side, like Fig. 30. They are sometimes ca...
-Fireclay And Firebricks
Fireclay is the name given to any clay which is capable of standing a high temperature without melting or becoming soft. Such clays are also called refractory. Uses In Building Fireclay is required ...
-Fireclay And Firebricks. Continued
Lee Moor Firebricks are made from the refuse of china clay produced by the disintegration of felspathic granite (see p. 16), found chiefly in Cornwall and Devonshire granite. A well-known variety of ...
-Terra Cotta
Terra Cotta is a kind of earthenware which is rapidly coming into use as a substitute for stone in the ornamental parts of buildings. 1 Percy's Metallurgy, p. 238. 2 Mr. Baldwin Latham, Sanitary Engi...
-Terra Cotta. Continued
Cost It is cheaper in London than the better descriptions of building stone. It is so easily moulded into any shape, that for intricate work, such as carvings, etc., it is only half the cost of stone...
-Pipes And Miscellaneous Clay Wakes
Pipes and other articles made in clay are practically divided under four heads. 1. Unglazed Earthenware, made from ordinary clays, similar to those used for common bricks and tiles. Earthenware of t...
-Glazing Articles Made In Clay
It is often advisable to glaze the surface of articles made in clay, sometimes for appearance, but more generally in order to protect portions exposed to the action of the atmosphere, to sewage, or ot...
-Terra Cotta, Stoneware, And Fireclay Ware Burning
Terra cotta, stoneware, and fireclay ware, are all burnt in domed kilns. The heat is applied gradually, and after it has risen to its height is kept up for a period varying from 24 to 72 hours, accor...
-Different Forms Of Sewer Pipes
Several forms of sewer pipes have been devised, but only one or two of the most common need be noticed. Socket Pipes Pipes intended to convey sewage are generally made with sockets. Care should be t...
-Different Forms Of Sewer Pipes. Continued
Tests For Sewer Pipes The impermeability of a pipe may be tested by tying a piece of bladder over one end, reversing it, and filling with water. If it is not perfectly impervious, the water will beg...
-Miscellaneous Clay Wares
The variety of articles used by the engineer and builder - which are made from burnt or baked clay - is endless. A few of the more important may now be mentioned. Perforated Air Bricks are made in s...
-Bonding Bricks
These bricks, introduced by Mr. Jennings, are used for uniting the opposite sides of hollow walls. The original bricks were straight. A sketch of one is given in Fig. 61. The improved bonding bricks ...
-Tiles
The tiles used in connection with buildings may be divided into two great classes. 1. Common tiles of different shapes used for roofing and paving. 2. Encaustic tiles used for decorative purposes. ...
-Wade And Cherry's Tiles
These tiles are each shaped something like the ace of spades, so that their form renders the amount of lap smaller than in ordinary tiles. Fig. 78. Fig. 79. Fig. 80. A flange, or raised rim,...
-Wall Tiles
Hall's Hanging Tiles are glazed of different colours and fixed to walls by a nail in each tile driven into the joints of the brickwork, and are used to cover walls where light is important, as in area...
-Dry Tiles
These tiles, each of which is of the same colour throughout, are made by the dry process. The clay having been very carefully prepared is mixed with the colouring matter, slipped dried, and reduced...
-Chapter III. Limes, Cements, Mortar, Concrete, Plasters, And Asphaltes. Limes And Cements
THERE are hardly any materials used by the engineer, architect, or builder, on which so much depends as upon mortar and concrete. There are differences of opinion on many points connected with the pr...
-Constituents Of Limestone
Constituents of Limestones which do not produce Hydraulicity. - Carbonate of Lime.1 - As already noticed, some limestones, such as chalk and marble, consist entirely of this substance, and in all it ...
-Classification Of Limes And Cements
The calcined limestone is divided, according to its action in slaking and setting, into the following classes: - 1. Rich, Fat, or Pure Limes. 2. Poor Limes. 3. Hydraulic Limes. 4. Cements .Natural...
-Limes
Rich or Pat Limes are those calcined from pure, or very nearly pure, carbonate of lime, not containing sufficient foreign constituents to have any appreciable effect upon either the slaking or setting...
-Classification Of Hydraulic Limes
Name of Class. Percentage of Clay, associated with Carbonate of Lime only, or with Carbonate of Lime and Carbonate of Magnesia. Behaviour in slaking after being wetted. Behaviou...
-Cements Used In Building And Engineering Works
The cements used in building and engineering works are calcareous substances, similar in many respects to the best hydraulic limes, but possessing hydraulic properties to a far greater degree. They m...
-Artificial Cements
Hydraulic cement is made artificially by a process similar to that already described for artificial hydraulic limes (see p. 155), a higher proportion of clay being added to make the mixture resemble t...
-Artificial Cements. Part 2
Manufacture From Limestones And Clay Or Shale In some parts of the country the denser limestones are used in the absence of chalk for the manufacture of Portland cement: hard shales have also often t...
-Artificial Cements. Part 3
Tests Of Quality A very slight difference in the manufacture may make a great difference in the character of the material, and rigid testing is necessary in order to secure the best cement. Before u...
-Artificial Cements. Part 4
Gauge Of Wire Of Sieves It is a curious thing that though many engineers specify the number of meshes to the square inch in the sieves to be used, very few mention the gauge of the wire of which the ...
-Artificial Cements. Part 5
Specific Gravity Mr. Mann found1 that the specific gravity of cement supplied by the best English manufacturers slightly exceeded 3.0. The particles rejected by a sieve of 2900 meshes to the square ...
-Artificial Cements. Part 6
Test For Tensile Strength This is the most important test in most cases, and it should be made with the aid of a proper machine, as hereinafter described (see p. 182). Seven Days' Test The tensile ...
-Artificial Cements. Part 7
Thirty Bays' Test It will be noticed that most of the tests above mentioned are applied seven days after the cement is gauged and formed into a briquette. It has, however, often been suggested that,...
-Cement. Adhesive Strength
Yet another objection is made to the method of testing hitherto and still adopted by most engineers. It is pointed out that, as the principal function of cement is to produce adherence between portio...
-The Briquette
The tensile stress that a cement will bear depends greatly upon the manner in which the test is made, the form of briquette, the method in which the cement is gauged, the amount of water used, etc. et...
-The Briquette. Continued
Nature And Proportion Of Water In Cement Mortar No more water should be used than is necessary to make the cement fit for use, an excess produces porosity and retards the process of hardening. Grant...
-Cement Hardening And Setting
It is important to know how long a cement takes to harden and set. This is generally roughly ascertained by the impression of the finger nail upon the cakes of cement, as described on page 172, but as...
-Cement Storing
Portland cement is .generally received in sacks in this country, in casks abroad; these should at once be emptied,the cement spread out for a month or so on a wooden or concrete floor, to a depth not ...
-Portland Cement Strength
The strength of Portland cement varies, as has already been mentioned, according to its original composition as regards the percentage of chalk and clay used in its manufacture, with the degree of bur...
-Portland Cement Strength. Part 2
Remarks This Table shows (1) that the coarsely ground cement broke at a higher point when used neat than when finely ground or sifted, but at a much lower point when mixed with sand : (2) that at 25 ...
-Portland Cement Strength. Part 3
Table Showing The Compressive Strength Of The Same Limes And Cements TABLE showing the Compressive Strength of the same Limes and Cements mixed with different proportions of Sand weighing 127 lbs. to...
-Portland Cement Market Forms
Portland cement is sold in casks or in sacks for home consumption, and in casks for export. The inside dimensions of the casks are sometimes as follows, but they vary. Length, 271/2 inches. Diameter ...
-Pozzuolana Mortars
These are formed by adding to ordinary fat lime or feebly hydraulic mortars such a proportion of pozzuolana (see p. 196) as will make good their deficiency in clay. This proportion depends upon the co...
-Pozzuolana Mortars. Continued
Means For Testing Tensile Strength Of Cement It has already-been mentioned that the tensile strength of Portland cement for important works should always be tested by direct experiment. There are se...
-Michele's Machine
Fig. 91 is a sketch taken from the illustrated advertisement of the machine. A briquette of neat cement hving been made as before described, and immersed in water for the specified number of d...
-Lime And Cement Burning
Limestone is calcined (burnt into lime) in clamps or in kilns of different forms. Clamps consist merely of heaps composed of alternate layers of limestone and coal, having a fire-hole below, and ...
-Portland Cement Kilns (Common Form)
Fig. 99 is the section, and Fig. 100 an elevation, of a form of kiln commonly used for burning Portland cement in the Medway district. Fig. 99. Section. Fig. 100. Elevation. It is worked upon t...
-General Remarks On Burning
Gradual heating is necessary in burning lime or cement stone. If the heat be suddenly applied, the carbonic acid and moisture will be driven out with such violence as to blow the stone to pieces. App...
-Portland Cement Clinker
The clinker of good Portland cement, when properly burnt, is of a dark greenish-black colour, differing in density according to the amount of fuel used. It is almost impossible to burn the contents o...
-Dangerous Limes And Cements
Sometimes, from defects in the process of calcination of a stone which should produce an eminently hydraulic lime or cement, compounds result which are of a most dangerous character. These are caused...
-Sand And Substitutes For Sand
Sand is known as argillaceous, siliceous, or calcareous;' according to its composition. It is procured from pits, shores of rivers, sea-shores, or by grinding sandstones. It is chiefly used for...
-Pozzuolanas, Etc
Pozzuolana is a name given to several substances which somewhat resemble each other; including the Pozzuolana proper, also Trass, Arenes, Psammites, etc. These are clayey earths containing 80 to 90 p...
-Mortar
Ordinary Mortar is composed of lime and sand mixed into a paste with water. When cement is substituted for the lime, the mixture is called Cement Mortar. Uses The use of mortar in brickwork or maso...
-Mortar. Continued
Substitutes For Sand In Mortar Any of the substances mentioned at page 195 may be used as substitutes for sand in mortar, some of them with advantage, as there pointed out. Smiths' ashes and coal du...
-Proportion Of Ingredients in Mortar
In considering the proportion of sand to be mixed with different limes and cements it is necessary to bear in mind that the strength of the joint formed by the mortar will have an influence upon that ...
-Table Showing The Effect Of Different Proportions Of Sand In Mortars Made From Various Cements. Continued
Preparation And Mixing The quicklime and sand having been procured, and their proportions decided, the preparation of the ingredients commences. Slaking A convenient quantity of the quicklime is me...
-Mortar Made From Given Quantities Of Lime And Cement And Sand
Description. Quicklime or Cement. Sand. Water. Mortar made. Remarks. Cub. ft. Cub. ft. Gallons. Cub. ft. White chalk lime in lump 1...
-Mortar Made From Given Quantities Of Lime And Cement And Sand. Continued
The Use Of Sugar In Mortar It was pointed out many years agol that the bad qualities of rich limes may be in some degree corrected by the use of a comparatively small quantity of the coarsest sugar ...
-Table Showing The Relative Breaking Weights
TABLE Showing the relative Breaking Weights in lbs. of Briquettes having a sectional area at the neck of two and a quarter square inches. Nature of Lime or Cement. Age in Days when fractu...
-Concrete
Concrete is an artificial compound, generally made by mixing lime or cement with sand, water, and some hard material, such as broken stone, gravel, burnt clay, bits of brick, slag, etc. etc. These in...
-Concrete Packing
In building walls, or other masses of concrete, large pieces of stone, old bricks, chalk, etc., are often packed in for the sake of economy. Care should be taken that the lumps thus inserted do not t...
-Concrete Mixing
As before mentioned, the materials are generally mixed in a dry state, not upon the bare ground, but upon a clean timber or stone platform. The proportions decided upon are measured out either roughly...
-Concrete Laying
Concrete should, after thorough mixing, be rapidly wheeled to the place where it is to be laid, gently tipped (not from a height) into position, and carefully and steadily rammed in layers about 12 in...
-The Cementing Material To Be Used For Concrete
It is hardly necessary to say that when there is a choice the strength and quality of the cementing material should be in proportion to the importance of the part the concrete has to play. Thus fat l...
-Uses Of Concrete
Concrete has long been used for the foundations of structures of all kinds, and for filling in the spandrils of arches or the hearting and backs of walls. Of late years, as the material has improved,...
-Strength Of Concrete
Concrete blocks 12 inches cube, made of Portland cement, weighing 110.56 lbs. per bushel. This cement (neat) broke under a tensile stress of 427 lbs. per square inch after seven days' immersion in wat...
-Mortar-Mixing And Concrete-Mixing Machinery
Mortar-Mixing Machines. Mortar-Mill Driven By Steam Power A full description of the different machines in use for mixing mortar would be out of place in these Notes, but a glance at one or two of the...
-Messenfs Patent Concrete-Mixer
The following description of this machine and the illustration Fig. 108, are taken from the circular of the makers, Messrs. Stothert and Pitt of Bath. It consists of a closed box or chamber, A, revo...
-Messenfs Patent Concrete-Mixer. Continued
American Concrete-Mixer This machine consists of a long box or shoot divided vertically into compartments separated from one another by doors. The ingredients are placed in the uppermost compartment...
-On The Action Of Foreign Constituents In Limestones And Cements
The following is an attempt to convey some information with regard to the peculiarities connected with the burning, setting, etc., of limes, cements, and mortars of different classes. The subject is ...
-Mortar Made From Fat Lime
It has before been pointed out that the addition of sand improves the setting of fat limes - 1. Because the porous structure caused by the presence of the sand enables the carbonic acid of the air to...
-Hydraulic Limes And Cements Containing Clay
With a lime containing clay the action is different from that of a pure lime, and not quite so simple. Before attempting to explain this action it will clear the ground to make a few remarks regardin...
-Hydraulic Limes And Cements Containing Clay. Part 2
Effects Caused By Different Degrees Of Calcination It has already been pointed out that the temperature at which the calcination is affected greatly influences the nature of the hydraulic lime or cem...
-Hydraulic Limes And Cements Containing Clay. Part 2. Continued
On the other hand, there must not be too much clay, or, after the lime is turned into silicate, there will be a surplus of free clay left - -having in itself no hardening property, and which will decr...
-Efflorescence On Walls
The surfaces of walls are often covered with an efflorescence of an unsightly character. This efflorescence is formed by a process known as saltpetreing. It shows itself chiefly in the case of newly ...
-Analysis Of Limes And Cements
The strictly chemical view of this subject is beyond the scope of these Notes; but in order to render them more complete, the following directions 3 for testing and analysing a lime or cement are adde...
-Plasters, Etc
Materials Used By Plasterers A great variety of compositions are used by plasterers, some of which will be described. Among the most important of these are cements of various kinds. Many of these ar...
-Plaster. Hair
The hair used by the plasterer in order to make his coarse stuff hang together is obtained from the tanner's yard. It should be long, sound, free from grease and dirt, thoroughly separated, beaten ...
-Stucco
This term is very loosely applied to various substances which differ considerably from one another. These may be classed as follows : - 1. Compounds of hydraulic lime, formerly much used for external ...
-Plaster Enrichments
The plasterer requires a great variety of mouldings, ornaments, pateras, flowers, and other enrichments for the decoration of his work. These may be made either in plaster of Paris composition or in ...
-Asphaltes
Asphaltes are combinations of bitumen and calcareous matter, sometimes found in nature, sometimes artificially formed. Natural asphaltes are superior to artificial imitations, probably because in the...
-Asphaltes. Continued
Hot Compressed Process The natural rock having been ground to powder, is subjected to great heat in a revolving boiler. The boiler may be on the spot, or the powder may be brought in a hot state in c...
-Whitening And Colouring
Whitewash is made from pure white lime mixed with water. It is used for common walls and ceilings, especially where, for sanitary reasons, a frequent fresh application is considered preferable to an...
-Table Of The Quantity Of Materials Used In Plastering, Rendering, Etc
10 Yards Superficial. Chalk Lime Slaked. Hydraulic Lime. Sand. Hair. Water. Ptld. Cement. Lath and Half-Laths. Feet cube. Feet cube ...
-Weight Of Limes, Cements, Etc
The weights of various limes and cements are given approximately below. The precise weight varies, of course, according to degree of freshness, size of lumps, fineness of grinding, etc. Quickli...
-Chapter IV. Metals
THE metals used by the engineer and builder are iron, copper, lead, zinc, tin, and some of their alloys. Ores These metals are not found to any great extent in the pure metallic state, but chiefly i...
-Iron
Production. Ores Iron ores are generally carbonates, hydrates, or oxides of the metal, the latter being the best. British iron is obtained from ores found in several strata, but chiefly in those of ...
-Pig-Iron
Pig-iron is the name given to the rough bars of unpurified iron run from the blast furnace. In this form it is sold to the founder or to the iron manufacturer. By them it is subjected to various pro...
-Pig-Iron. Continued
The Effect Of Carbon Upon Cast Iron There are many varieties of pig-iron, which themselves also differ pretty much according to the proportion of carbon contained by them. These differences depend u...
-Bessemer Pig
A distinct variety of pig-iron made from haematite ores for conversion by the Bessemer process (see p. 304). It should be as free as possible from sulphur, phosphorus, or copper; but a small percentag...
-Cast Iron
Cast Iron is obtained by remelting the foundry pig-iron of commerce, and running it into moulds of the shape required as hereinafter described. In some cases the metal is run into the moulds direct f...
-Castings
The description of the art of the ironfounder does not come within the range of these Notes. The few remarks which follow are intended only to give such a general idea of the process of ironfounding ...
-Casting In Loam
Large pipes and cylinders are cast in a somewhat different way. A hollow vertical core of somewhat less diameter than the interior of the proposed cylinder is formed either in metal or brickwork. Th...
-Examination Of Castings
In examining castings, with a view to ascertaining their quality and soundness, several points should be attended to. The edges should be struck with a light hammer. If the blow make a slight impress...
-Wrought Iron
Wrought Iron is, or should be (as before mentioned), very nearly the pure metal, containing not more than about 0.15 per cent of carbon. It may, by a peculiar process, be procured direct from the ore...
-Effect Of Rolling Iron
All wrought iron, after fusion, or after having been exposed to high temperatures sufficient to induce softening or pastiness, which is the case when iron is reheated to a white heat, consists of an a...
-Different Qualities Of Bar Iron
The products of the rolling process are classified as follows : - Puddled Bars, also known as No. 1 or rough bars. The puddled bar obtained by the processes above described is of a very weak and inf...
-Manufacture Of T And I Iron
In manufacturing iron of T, I, or other sections, or rails, a pile of bars is formed, heated, and welded together under a steam hammer. This is then rolled, in the roughing or cogging rolls, into a b...
-Tests For Wrought Iron. General Remarks
There are several ways in which the quality of a piece of wrought iron may be ascertained. It may be broken by direct slow tension, or by a falling weight, the breaking stress, elongation, contractio...
-Tests For Wrought Iron. General Remarks. Part 2
Uniformity In choosing iron for railway bridges and similar structures it is not only important that the iron should be strong and tough, but also that it should be uniform in quality. Iron structur...
-Tests For Wrought Iron. General Remarks. Part 3
Admiralty The Admiralty Tests for iron for ship-building may be tabulated as follows : - BB or 1st class plate iron and sheet iron 1/4 inch thick and above . . (grain lengthways).. T...
-Tests For Wrought Iron. General Remarks. Part 4
Different Descriptions Of Iron May Be Tested As Follows HOT. COLD. Angle Irons Notched and broken across to show quality of the iron. May be bent thus ...
-Appearance Of The Fractured Surface Of Wrought Iron
At one time it was thought that a fibrous fracture was a sign of good tough wrought iron, but that a crystalline fracture showed that the iron was bad, hard, and brittle. Mr. Kirkaldy's experiments l...
-Different Descriptions And Market Forms Of Wrought Iron, And Their Relative Value
Descriptions Of Wrought Iron The following are the different kinds of wrought iron most generally known in this country. Swedish Iron is made from pure magnetic iron ore - chiefly from Danne-mora - ...
-Angle And T Irons
Iron of these sections is most useful in a great many building and engineering structures, such as roofs, girders, bridges, etc. etc. The sections are made of a great variety of dimensions. Iron merc...
-Rail Bars
These are made of various sections; some of them may be illustrated, but need not be described. Figs. 132. Fig. 133. Fig. 134. Fig. 135. Fig. 135a. Double-headed Rail (Fig. 132). - For...
-Sash And Fancy Iron
This class includes a great variety of forms of iron sash bars, such as those in Figs. 136 to 138; Beading Iron, for ornamental work, as in Figs. 139 to 141; Cross Iron (Fig. 142), for struts; Quadran...
-Mallet's Buckled Plates
These are plates of any shape in plan, arched from the edges towards the centre; the arch has a very slight rise, and forms a dome or groined surface, according as the plate is round or square. Such ...
-Relative Value Of Different Descriptions And Forms Of Wrought Iron
The price of iron of all kinds fluctuates continually according to the state of the market. These Notes do not profess to deal with the cost of materials; and the following lists are given merely to s...
-Relative Value Of Different Descriptions And Forms Of Wrought Iron. Continued
Bars - Flat, Round, and Square. Rods - Flat and Round. Weight, cwts.. .To 3 1/2, 3 1/2 to 5, 5 and upwards. Sizc.1 1/4 x 3/8 Under 3/8 to 1/4 Price per cwt.... 18s. 19s. 20s. Price, cwt. 18s. 19s. ...
-Brands On Iron
Pig-Iron Brands The different pig-irons in the market are distinguished by brands, which indicate the locality from which the iron was procured. The brands, which are in raised letters on the pig, s...
-Brands On Iron. Part 2
Staffordshire Brands It will be seen that these irons are divided into three classes, which are (putting them in order of price) list brands, good marked iron, and common iron. List Brands are those...
-Brands On Iron. Part 3
Shelton used by the Shelton Bar Iron Company, Stoke. Granville do. do. S&H. Silverdale (Stanier and Company). TK. Kinnersley and Company, Clough Hall Iron Works, Kids-grove. by the Bi...
-Steel
Steel has been denned by Dr. Percy as iron containing a small percentage of carbon, the alloy having the property of taking a. temper; and this definition is substantially equivalent to those found i...
-Varieties Of Steel. Methods Of Making Steel
Steel may be produced either by adding carbon to wrought iron, or by partially refining pig-iron, thus removing a portion of its carbon until the proper amount only remains. There are several ways in...
-Shear Steel, Sometimes Called Tilted Steel
By the process of cementation just described, the exterior only of the bars is carbonised. To produce steel of uniform quality throughout its mass, bars of blister steel are cut into short lengths; th...
-Cast Steel
There are several ways of producing cast steel, some of which will now be mentioned. The ingots produced by any of these processes generally contain cavities. In order to get rid of these, they are r...
-Bessemer Steel-Making Process
By this process steel is made from pig-iron. The whole of the carbon is first removed so as to leave pure wrought iron, and to this is added the precise quantity of carbon required for the steel. The...
-Siemens' Process
In this process pig-iron and ore are the ingredients employed to produce steel by fusion upon the open hearth of a regenerative gas furnace. The pig metal is first melted upon the hearth of the furnac...
-Whitworth's Compressed Steel
It has already been stated that ordinary steel, as first cast, is porous, full of small cavities, which have to be removed by hammering before a sound metal is produced. In order to remedy this evil,...
-Hardening And Tempering Of Steel
Homogeneous Metal is a name that was formerly given to a variety of cast steel containing about '25 per cent of carbon. This material welds with facility, and, with proper precautions, may be joined...
-Hardening And Tempering Of Steel. Continued
Different Methods Of Heating There are several ways of heating steel articles both for hardening and tempering. They may be heated in a hollow or in an open fire, exposed upon a hot plate, or in a d...
-Still Blazing
Saws are hardened in oil, or in a mixture of oil with suet, wax, etc. They are then heated over a fire till the grease inflames. This is called being Mazed. After blazing the saw is flattened while ...
-Tests For Steel
Steel to be used in important work should be tested as to its strength, ductility, and other qualities. The methods of testing are similar to those adopted for wrought iron and described at p. 276. 1...
-Market Forms, Relative Value Of Different Kinds, And Brands On Steel
Market Forms Steel may be obtained in most of the forms adopted for wrought iron, and described at page 284. Angle and T of all sizes up to 4 inches x 4 inches are easily obtained, but many sections ...
-Brands On Steel
There are no list brands for steel (see p. 296). Each maker has his own trade mark, generally the name of his firm, with or without name of his work. Thus - (Atlas), Jno. Brown and Company, Limited; (...
-Strength Of Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, And Steel
It is beyond the province of these Notes to enter upon the general subject of the physical properties of materials. The meanings of a few of the terms used in connection with those properties are give...
-Ultimate Strength And Ductility
The tests which are applied in practice to cast iron, wrought iron (of different classes), and steel, have been described in previous pages. In order to apply these tests intelligently, it is necessa...
-Iron. Tensile Strength
The following Table shows the tensile strength, contraction of area and elongation after fracture, ascertained by experiments upon some of the more important descriptions of iron found in the market. ...
-Effect Of Different Processes And Circumstances Upon The Strength Of Wrought Iron
It has already been stated that the strength and elasticity of wrought iron depend not only upon its quality, but upon the treatment to which it has been subjected in working, and upon other surroundi...
-Strength And Ductility Of Steel
The strength and ductility of steel varies greatly in different descriptions. It depends not only upon the original composition of the metal, but also upon the treatment to which it has been subjected...
-Tensile Strength, Elastic Limit, And Ductility Of Cast-Steel
Ultimate or breaking tensile stress per sq. inch. Elastic limit in tension. Contraction of area per cent. Elongation per cent. C. Bessemer steel (average of differen...
-Tensile Strength And Ductility Of Steel Of Different Descriptions. Selected From Sir W. Fairbairn's Experiments
Manufacturers and Description of Steel Breaking tensile stress per square inch of section. Corresponding ultimate elongation. Contraction or set due to compression under 100.7 ton...
-Tensile Strength And Ductility Of Steel Plates With And Against The Grain
Tensile Strength and Ductility of Steel Plates With and Against the Grain. From Mr. Kirkaldy's Experiments-.1 L. signifies lengthways of the grain; C. across the grain. Names of Makers or Works...
-Tensile Strength And Ductility Of Steel Bars. Selected From Mr. Kirkaldy's Experiments
Names of Makers or Works. Description. Average breaking weight per square inch of original area. Ultimate elongation or set after fracture. Contraction of area at fracture. ...
-Cast Steel For Chisels
Breaking weight per sq. inch, in tons. Contraction of area per cent. Elongation per cent. Highly heated, and cooled in oil ... 96 3.5 3.3 Do. do. i...
-Safe Or Working Stresses For Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, And Steel
The limiting or working stresses that can be safely applied in practice to cast iron, wrought iron, and steel respectively, depend not only upon the quality and characteristics of the material, but up...
-Safe Or Working Stresses For Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, And Steel. Part 2
Working Stresses The following working stresses may be used in practice: - Cast Iron. For Girders, Etc., To Carry A Dead Load Compression... 8 tons per square inch. Tension . ...
-Safe Or Working Stresses For Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, And Steel. Part 3
Bearing Strength The resistance of wrought iron to indentation by bolts or rivets varies, of course, according to the quality of the iron. For most ordinary work the safe statical pressure per squar...
-Limit Of Iron and Steel Elasticity
In investigating the properties of a specimen of iron or steel a very important point to be ascertained is its limit of elasticity. The meaning of this term has been defined in several different ways...
-Fatigue Of Iron
Many careful experiments made by Sir W. Fairbairn and others have led to the conclusion that a load may be applied to a wrought iron bar, removed and reimposed thousands of times without the slightest...
-Elastic Limit Of Cast Iron, Wrought Iron, And Steel
Cast Iron is very imperfectly elastic, that is, even a very small load will produce in it an appreciable permanent set. There is no clearly-defined elastic limit. The permanent sets are, however, very...
-Live And Moving Loads
To consider the effect of moving and live loads upon the strength of iron and steel would open up an interesting subject, which, however, is outside the scope of these Notes. 1 Proceedings Institute ...
-Forging
Forging metal consists in raising it to a high temperature and hammering it into any form that may be required. It is not proposed to describe the process, but merely to mention one or two points, th...
-Welding Wrought Iron
The property of welding possessed by wrought iron is due to its continuing soft and more or less pasty through a considerable range of temperature below its melting point. When at a white heat it is ...
-Corrosion And Preservation Of Cast Iron Wrought Iron, And Steel
Corrosion The different varieties of iron and steel will not oxidise in dry air, or when wholly immersed in fresh water free from air, but they all rust when exposed to the action of water or moistur...
-Corrosion And Preservation Of Cast Iron Wrought Iron, And Steel. Continued
Bright Ironwork The portions of ironwork that have been turned or fitted, and all tooled surfaces, should be protected by a coating of tallow, mixed with white lead to prevent it from easily melting ...
-Characteristics And Uses Of Iron And Steel
The student will have perceived that the products of the iron manufacturer may be divided into three classes - cast iron, wrought iron, and steel, the differences in which are caused partly by the amo...
-Copper
Uses Copper is used by the builder chiefly for slate nails and bell wires, sometimes for rain-water pipes and gutters, for covering roofs, for lightning-conductors, and for dowels; also for bolts and...
-Table Of Weight Of Sheet Copper
Birmingham Wire Gauge. Weight per foot superficial in ounces. Weight per sheet, 4 feet by 2 feet, in lbs. 20 26 13 22 20 10 24 16 ...
-Lead
Uses Lead is much used by the builder for cisterns, pipes, flat roofs, etc., and from it is prepared white lead, the basis of most ordinary paint. The engineer requires it as a bedding for the ends o...
-Action Of Water Upon Lead
Soft water, especially when full of air, or when containing organic matter, acts upon lead in such a way that some of it is taken up in solution, and the water is poisoned. This makes lead a dangerou...
-Lead Encased Pipes
Tin pipes, and copper pipes, lined with tin, have been proposed as substitutes for lead pipes, but they are too expensive. The lead encased pipe, made under Haines's patent, has, however, been found ...
-Strength Of Lead Pipes And Lead-Encased Pipes
Mr. Kirkaldy found the strength of lead pipes and of lead-encased pipes to be respectively as follows : - 1 Lead Pipe. Lead-encased Pipe. Internal Diamr. Thickness. Weig...
-Zinc
Uses Zinc is much used for roofs, for light gutters and pipes, for cisterns, chimney pots, ornaments, ventilators, etc.; for slating nails, for tubing, and for covering iron to protect it from oxidat...
-Tin
Uses Tin is used in building for lining lead pipes, occasionally as a protective covering for iron plates, and for small gas tubing. Ores The metal is obtained from an ore called tin-stone - the ...
-Alloys
Alloys are mixtures formed by melting two or more metals together. They are not, however, mere mechanical mixtures, for they often exhibit properties different from those possessed by the metals in t...
-Alloys. Continued
Sterro-metal varies in composition as shown in the Table p. 350. This alloy has great tensile strength, and may be used instead of wrought iron. Babbit's Metal is used for bearings of machinery. It ...
-Soldering
It is not proposed here to describe the operations connected with soldering of different kinds, but one or two points may be noticed with advantage.2 The surfaces to be united must be perfectly clean...
-Brazing
The process of brazing is conducted as follows : - Granulated spelter and borax, ground together in water, are spread over the carefully cleaned surfaces of the joint, and exposed gradually to the he...
-Soft Soldering
Soft solder is applied in several different ways. For joints in lead the surfaces to be soldered are carefully cleaned and covered with tallow - the space around is smeared with a mixture of size and...
-Tables
Tables showing the properties of metals, and giving the weights of plates, wires, tubes, angles, tees, and sections of various kinds, are to be found in Molesworth's, Hurst's, and other engineering po...
-Melting Points Of Alloys Of Lead And Tina (Degrees Fahr.)
Temp. Lead. Tin. 400 11 8 410 25 16 420 7 4 430 15 8 440 8 4 450 17 8 ...
-New Imperial Standard Wire Gauge. - Denominations Of Standards
Descriptive Number. Equivalents in parts of an inch. 7/0 0.500 6/0 464 5/0 432 4/0 400 3/0 372 2/0 348 ...
-Whitworth's Standard Wire Gauge
Whitworth's Standard Wire Gauge is given below. It will be seen that the number or mark of the gauge is the number of thousandths of an inch in the thickness : - No. or Mark. Thickness. In...
-Birmingham Plate Gauge
Mark or No. Thickness in inches. 1 004 2 005 3 008 4 010 5 012 6 ΜΆ...
-Birmingham Plate Gauge. Continued
Weight Of Metals Weight in lbs. of a Square Foot of Different Metals, in Thicknesses varying by 1/16th of an Inch. Thickness. Inches. Wrought Iron. Cast Iron. Steel. Copper...
-Chapter V. Timber
THOROUGH knowledge of the nature and properties of different kinds of timber is very important to the engineer or architect. Before entering upon a description of the different varieties of timber un...
-Timber. Continued
Squaring Directly the tree is felled it should be squared, or cut into scantling, in order that the air may have free access to the interior. Characteristics Of Good Timber The quality of timber de...
-Classification Of Timber
The following classification of timber is a modification by Professor Eankine and Mr. Hurst of that originally proposed by Tredgold: - Class I Pine Wood (natural order Coniferce). Characteristics. ...
-Classification Of Timber. Continued
Market Forms Of Timber Before proceeding further, it will be well to describe the different forms to which timber is converted for the market. A Log is a trunk of a tree with the branches lopped off...
-Descriptions Of Different Kinds Of Timber. Pine Wood Or Soft Wood. Northern Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)
This timber, frequently known as red or yellow fir, is from the Scotch fir tree. The term Northern Pine has been introduced by Mr. Hurst for the reasons given in the following remarks, extracted ...
-Varieties In General Use. Balk Timber. Dantzic Timber
The best balks of northern pine are imported from Dantzic, Memel, Eiga. Dantzic Timber is grown chiefly in Prussia, and takes its name from the port where it is shipped. Appearance Its general appe...
-Memel Timber. Riga Timber. Norway Timber. Swedish Timber
Memel Timber is very similar to that from Dantzic, but is considered hardly so strong. The scantlings of the balks are rather smaller, being from 13 to 14 inches square. Riga Timber is like the other...
-Planks, Deals, And Battens
Planks, deals, and battens from the Baltic, when cut from the northern pine (Pinus sylvestris) are known as yellow deal or red deal. When cut from the spruce (Abies) (see pp. 363 and 371), they are ca...
-American Pine
There are three or four descriptions of this timber in the market, which will now be described. As a rule American pine is in many respects inferior to that from the Baltic. It is generally weaker, a...
-American Yellow Pine (Pinus Strobus)
American Yellow Pine (Pinus strobus) is produced from a straight and lofty tree found in North America; used to be sometimes known as Weymouth Pine, because it was first introduced into this country...
-Quebec Yellow Pine (Pinus variabilis). Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida)
Quebec Yellow Pine (Pinus variabilis) is imported chiefly from the place after which it is named. It is used for masts and yards of large ships, but not much for other purposes. Pitch Pine (Pinus rig...
-White Fir Or Spruce (Abies Excelsa)
This timber is from trees found in Norway, in most of the mountainous parts in the north of Europe, in North America, and also in this country. The peculiarities of the tree, leaves, etc., are given ...
-White Deal
Some of the best white deal comes from Christiania; but that from the other Norwegian ports is not to be relied upon, being apt to warp and split in drying.1 Both good and bad qualities are sent fr...
-American Spruce
There are at least four varieties of the tree from which this timber is produced : - The white spruce (Abies alba), which nourishes in the colder parts of North America; the black spruce (Abies nigra)...
-The Larch (Larix Europcea)
The Larch (Larix Europcea) is found in various parts of Europe; the finest varieties being in Russia. Appearance The wood is honey yellow or brownish white in colour, the hard part of each ring bein...
-The Cedar (Cedrus Libani)
The Cedar (Cedrus Libani) properly so called, comes from Mount Lebanon, and Asia Minor, and is not much known in this country. The wood generally known as cedar is from trees of the genus Juniperus. ...
-The Kawrie, Cowrie, or Cowdie Pine (Dammara Australis)
The Kawrie, Cowrie, or Cowdie Pine (Dammara Australis) is found only in New Zealand. Appearance The heartwood is yellowish white, fine and straight in grain, with a silky lustre on surface. Charact...
-British Oak
Hard Wood Or Leaf Wood The varieties of timber of this class most in use for building purposes are oak, beech, ash, elm, mahogany, teak. These, with a few others, will now be described in more or les...
-American Oak
There are many varieties of this timber, but that chiefly imported into this country is the White Oak (Quercus alba), so called from the white colour of its bark. It is this variety that is generally ...
-Dantzic Oak
Dantzic Oak is grown chiefly in Poland, and shipped at the port after which it is named, also at Memel and Stettin. Appearance It is of a dark brown colour, with a close, straight, and compact grain...
-Italian Oak - Sardinian Oak
This timber is formed from several varieties of the oak tree. It is of a brown colour, hard, tough, strong, subject to splits and shakes in seasoning, difficult to work, but free from defects. It is e...
-Beech. (Fagus sylvatica)
Beech. (Fagus sylvatica) is known as black, brown, or white beech, all procured from the same species of tree, the difference in the wood being caused by variety in soil and situation. This tree is f...
-Alder (Alnus glutinosa)
Alder (Alnus glutinosa) is from a tree found in both Europe and Asia, generally near swamps or the low banks of rivers. Appearance The wood is white when first cut, then becomes deep red on the surf...
-Sycamore (Acer psevdo-platanus)
Sycamore (Acer psevdo-platanus) is from a tree generally called the plane tree in the north of England. It is very common in Great Britain, and is found in Germany. Appearance The wood is white wh...
-Chestnut (Castanea Vesca)
This tree flourishes in sandy soils, and is found in most parts of England, in the south of Europe, in Africa, and North America. Appearance The wood resembles that of oak in appearance, but can be ...
-Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior)
This tree flourishes throughout Great Britain, in Asia, and America. Appearance The colour of the wood is brownish white, with longitudinal yellow streaks; each annual layer is separated from the ne...
-Elm (Ulmus)
No less than five varieties of this tree are found in Great Britain, besides which it flourishes in many parts of Europe and in America. The principal varieties of this timber are as follows: - The ...
-The Canada Rock Elm (Ulmus racemosa)
The Canada Rock Elm (Ulmus racemosa) is grown in North America, and imported chiefly from Canada. The wood is of a whitish-brown colour, with very close annual rings. It is very tough, flexible, free...
-Common Acacia (Robinia pseudo-acacia)
Common Acacia (Robinia pseudo-acacia) is found in America. Appearance The wood is of a greenish-yellow colour, with reddish-brown veins. Its structure is alternately nearly compact and very porous, ...
-Sabicu (Acacia Formosa), Or The True Acacia
Sabicu (Acacia formosa), or the true acacia, is found in the West Indies and Cuba. Appearance It resembles mahogany, but is darker, and is generally well figured. 1 Laslett. Characteristics The w...
-Poplar (Populus)
Of this tree there are several species common in England. The black and the common white poplar are the most esteemed. The Lombardy poplar is inferior. Appearance The colour of the wood is a yellowi...
-Mahogany
Mahogany comes chiefly from Central America as Honduras or Bay mahogany, or from the West Indies as Spanish mahogany. The latter is the best for strength, hardness, and stiffness; the former i...
-Jarrah, or Australian Mahogany (Eucalyptus marginata)
Jarrah, or Australian Mahogany (Eucalyptus marginata), comes from West-Australia. Appearance The wood is of a red colour, and close, wavy grain, with occasionally figure enough for ornamental purpos...
-Teak (Tectona grandis)
Teak (Tectona grandis), sometimes called Indian Oak, is found in Southern India, Pegu, Java, Siam, and Burmah. The lightest, cleanest, and most flexible comes from Moulmein; the heaviest and stronges...
-Greenheart (Nectandra rodicei)
Greenheart (Nectandra rodicei) is found in British Guiana and in the N.E. portion of South America. Appearance The section of this timber has a peculiar appearance, being of a fine grain, and very f...
-Mora (Mora Excelsa)
This timber comes from Guiana and Trinidad. Appearance The wood is of a chestnut-brown colour, sometimes beautifully figured. Characteristics The timber is very tough, hard, and heavy; the grain i...
-Hornbeam, (Carpinus betula)
Hornbeam, (Carpinus betula) is from a British tree. Appearance The wood is white and close. The medullary rays are plainly marked, and there is no sap. Characteristics The timber is hard, tough, a...
-Marks And Brands Upon Timber
There are several distinguishing marks used by the shippers and importers of timber. Some of them refer merely to the number of the balk and to its cubic content, others refer to the quality. In gene...
-Marks And Brands Upon Timber. Continued
In some cases, when the goods are not branded, the second quality have a red mark across the ends; third being easily distinguished from first quality goods. The well-known Gromoff Petersburg deals...
-Selection Of Timber
In consequence of the great number of marks used in the timber trade, the difficulty of ascertaining what they mean, and the frequent changes that take place in them, the practical engineer or builder...
-Seasoning Timber
The object of seasoning timber is either to expel or to dry up the sap remaining in it, which otherwise putrefies and causes decay. One effect of seasoning is to reduce the weight of timber, and this...
-Seasoning Timber. Continued
Boiling And Steaming Boiling water quickens the operation of season-ing, and causes the timber to shrink less,1 but it is expensive to use, and reduces the strength and elasticity of the timber. The...
-Decay Of Timber
To preserve timber from rot or decay it should be kept constantly dry and well ventilated. It should be clear of the influence of damp earth or damp walls, and free from contact with mortar, which has...
-Preservation Of Timber
The best means for preserving timber from decay are to have it thoroughly seasoned and well ventilated. Several processes have, however, been introduced at different times with a view of preventing d...
-Preservation Of Timber. Continued
Combined Process In cases where the complete preservation of the timber is of vital importance, and expense no object, Mr. Britton recommends that the timber should first be injected with metallic sa...
-Conversion Of Timber
In reducing timber from the log or baulk to scantlings, the dimensions and form that the timber ought to possess when actually in use should be borne in mind, in order that proper allowance may be mad...
-Conversion Of Timber. Continued
Experiments have shown that timber beams having the annual rings parallel to their depth are stronger than those which have the rings parallel to their width. Thus, in the log shown in Fig. 164 the pi...
-Destruction Of Timber By Worms And Insects
Timber both in its growing and converted states is subject to the attacks of worms and insects; when these exist in large numbers they remove so much of the wood as seriously to impair the strength of...
-Destruction Of Timber By Ants
Of the ants proper, or those belonging to the order Hymenoptera, there are three species in particular which attack timber, viz. - l 1. The Black Carpenter Ant (Formica fuliginosa), which prefers har...
-Varieties Of Timber Useful For Different Purposes
The undermentioned are the best of the ordinary descriptions of timber to use for the purposes named. Piles Oak, beech, elm. Posts Chestnut, acacia, larch. Great Strength In Construction Teak, o...
-Strength Of Timber
The following Table, showing the strength and weight of timber, is gleaned from the records of many experiments, chiefly those given by Hodgkinson, Tredgold, Barlow, Rankine, and Laslett. Some of thes...
-Strength Of Timber. Continued
Resistance To Crushing Across The Fibres When a vertical piece of timber stands upon a horizontal piece, the latter is compressed at right angles to the length of the fibres, and in this position it ...
-Chapter VI. Paints And Varnishes
PAINTS and Varnishes are used by the engineer and builder for covering the surfaces of wood, iron, and other materials, in order to protect them from the action of the atmosphere, or to improve their ...
-Bases. White Lead
White Lead is a carbonate of the metal. The best is produced by the Dutch process, which consists in placing gratings of pure lead in tan, and exposing them to the fumes of acetic acid; by these they ...
-Old White Lead
White lead improves by keeping. It should not be exposed to the air, or it will turn grey (see p. 407). Old white lead of good quality goes further and lasts better than if it is used when fresh; more...
-Red Lead
Red Lead is produced by raising massicot (the commercial name for oxide of lead) to a high temperature, short of fusion, during which it absorbs oxygen from the air, and is converted into red lead or ...
-Oxide of Zinc
Oxide of Zinc is the basis of ordinary zinc paint (see p. 421). It is prepared by distilling metallic zinc in retorts, under a current of air; the metal is volatilised, and white oxide is condensed. ...
-Linseed Oil
Linseed Oil, produced by compressing flax seed, is the most commonly used, and by far the best of the oils used as an ingredient of paint, putty, and other similar substances. It oxidises and becomes...
-Oil of Turpentine, Spirits of Turpentine, or Turps
Oil of Turpentine, Spirits of Turpentine, or Turps, is an essential or volatile oil, produced by distilling turpentine tapped from pines or larches. The residuum left after distillation is common ...
-Driers
Driers are substances added to paint in order to cause the oil to thicken and solidify more rapidly. The action of these substances is not thoroughly understood. Chevreuil has shown that the drying o...
-Colouring Pigments
It is unnecessary to give anything like a complete list of the pigments used to produce the colours and tints used by the house painter and decorator. A few of the most useful may, however, be mention...
-Colouring Pigments. Continued
Vandyke Brown is an earthy mineral pigment of dark-brown colour. It is durable both in oil and in water, and is useful for graining. Purple Brown is of a reddish-brown colour. It should be used with ...
-Colouring Pigments. Continued. Continued
Uses Of Pigments The uses for which the pigments above mentioned are suitable may be classified as follows - 4 (a). More or less transparent, and fit for graining and finishing. - Blacks (except min...
-Proportions Of Ingredients In Mixed Paints
The exact proportions of the ingredients to be used in mixing paints vary considerably according to circumstances. The composition of paints should be governed by the nature of the material to be pai...
-Lead Paint
Ordinary white paint is generally composed of white lead, linseed oil, driers, and spirits of turpentine. A coloured lead paint is produced by adding a pigment to the above. In the mixture each cons...
-Lead Paint. Continued
White Lead Paint Good paint of this description should be made of pure white lead. If it is to be untinted, care must be taken to exclude any substance which will detract from the brightness of the w...
-Zinc Paint
Zinc Paint, ordinarily so called, is made with oxide of zinc (see p. 409), instead of white lead, as a basis. Characteristics And Uses Zinc white does not combine with oil so readily as white lead. ...
-Special Paints
During the last few years a great many substances have been proposed as bases for paint instead of white lead. The paints made with these substances are called by special names, and often have peculi...
-Oxide Of Iron Paints
In these oxide of iron (see p. 409) forms the basis. They are free from injurious ingredients such as those of lead paints. For painting iron work they are said to be particularly suitable, on the gro...
-Tar Paint
The paint successfully used for the canvas roof over the tubes of the Britannia Bridge was composed as follows : - Coal tar, 9 gallons; slaked lime, 13 lbs.; turpentine or naphtha, 2 or 3 quarts - the...
-Coating Iron
(1.) The surface of the iron is prepared and coated with two coats of red lead or oxide of iron paint. (2.) An adhesive composition composed of the ingredients mentioned below is then applied rather m...
-Varnish
Varnish is a solution of resin in either oil, turpentine, or alcohol. The oil dries and the other two solvents evaporate, in either case leaving a solid transparent film of resin over the surface var...
-Ingredients Of Varnish
The Gums are exudations from trees. At first they are generally mixed with some essential oil. They are then soft and viscous, and are known as Balsams; the oil evaporates and leaves the Resin, which ...
-Resins
The quality of the resin greatly influences that of the varnish. The softer varieties dissolve more readily than the others, but are not so hard, tough, or durable. Common Rosin or Colophony is eithe...
-Solvents
These must be suited to the description of gum they are to dissolve. Boiling Linseed Oil (and sometimes other oils, such as rosemary) is used to dissolve amber, gum anime, or copal. Turpentine for m...
-Different Kinds Of Varnish
Varnishes are classified as oil varnish, turpentine varnish, spirit varnish, or water varnish, according to the solvent used. They are generally called by the name of the gum dissolved in them. Oil V...
-Mixing Oil Varnishes
The gum must first be melted alone till it is quite fluid, and then the clarified oil is poured in very slowly. The mixture must be kept over a strong fire until a drop pinched between the finger and ...
-Mixing Turpentine Varnishes
In many cases the resin, such as mastic, dammar, or common resin, is simply mixed with turpentine alone, cold or with slight heat. Care must in such cases be taken to exclude all oil. Application of ...
-Recipes For Varnishes
The following recipes give the proportions of ingredients for a few varnishes in connection with house-painting : - Oil Varnishes Copal Varnishes. - Best Body Copal Varnish.2 - Fuse 8 lbs. of fine A...
-Recipes For Varnishes. Continued
French Polish The simplest and probably the best is made by dissolving 11/2 lb. of shellac in 1 gallon spirits of wine without heat. Other gums are sometimes used, and the polish may be darkened by ...
-Ash For Removing Paint
Dissolve 2 oz. soft soap, 4 oz. potash, in boiling water, add 1/2 lb. quicklime. Apply hot, and leave for twelve to twenty-four hours. This will enable the old paint to be washed off with hot water. ...
-Chapter VII. Glass
General Remarks Glass of the kind used in buildings is a mixture of pure sand, soda, and chalk, with a proportion of broken glass,1 etc. These are melted together at a very high temperature, and brou...
-Crown Glass
Crown Glass is made as follows: - A blowpipe is dipped into melted glass, which is then blown into the form of a large globular bottle. A rod tipped with a blob of hot glass is so placed that the blob...
-Sheet Glass
Sheet Glass is first blown in the form of a large hollow cylinder. The ends of the cylinder are then cut off, and it is split down one side with a diamond, after which it is placed in a flattening kil...
-Patent Plate Glass, or Blown Plate
Patent Plate Glass, or Blown Plate, is made by polishing sheet glass 011 both sides. It must not be confounded with British plate glass, which is a better and more expensive material. Patent plate m...
-Rough-cast Plate, or Rough Plate
Rough-cast Plate, or Rough Plate, is the glass cast as above described and rolled upon a smooth iron table. One side has a wavy but polished appearance; the other side is also wavy but dull. Quality...
-Fluted Glass
Small, with about 11 flutes to the inch. Large, with about 4 flutes to the inch. Sizes Those kept in stock range as high as 30 feet in area, the length not exceeding 120 inches, or the width 36 inch...
-British Polished Plate Glass
British Polished Plate Glass is made from material of a superior description, cast and rolled in the same way as rough plate, and then carefully ground down to a plane surface, and polished on both si...
-Perforated Glass
Patent rough plate 1/8 and 1/4 inch thick, and 26 oz. sheet glass, are both made in panes containing up to 8 feet superficial. The perforations run across the width of the pane, and are useful for pur...
-Chapter VIII. Paperhanging
ALL papers may be divided into three classes : - Common or Pulp Papers, in which the ground is the natural colour of the paper as first made, the pattern being printed upon it. Satin Papers, of whic...
-Paperhanging. Continued
Colours The colouring pigments used for wall papers are as a rule harmless, being pretty much the same as those given at page 422. Some of the white grounds contain, however, a proportion of white l...
-Chapter IX. Miscellaneous. Glue
THIS Chapter will include the description of a few materials which could not be conveniently brought under any of the heads comprised in the former chapters. Glue is prepared from waste pieces of ski...
-Size
Size is, or should be, made from the best glue. The glue is prepared by boiling down the skin and horny parts of animals, parchment clippings, etc. Inferior glue is said to remain damp and to become ...
-Knotting
Knotting is the material used by painters to cover over the surfaces of knots in wood before painting. The object is to prevent the exudation of turpentine, etc., from the knots, or, on the other han...
-Paste
Paste is required by the paperhanger, in different degrees of strength, according to the thickness and weight of the paper to be hung with it. Paste should be made with the best white wheat flour. T...
-Gold Leaf
Gold leaf is required for gilding, in order to ornament different parts of buildings, more especially the internal fittings, such as the mouldings of the joinery or the decorations of the ceilings or ...
-Putty
Painters' and Glaziers' Putty is made with whiting (see p. 254) and oil. The whiting is reduced to very fine powder, carefully dried, passed through a fine sieve (about 45 meshes to the inch), mixed w...
-Rust Cement
Rust Cement, known also as Cast Iron Cement, and by other names, is used for caulking the joints of cast iron tanks, pipes, etc. It is composed of cast iron turnings, pounded so that they will pass t...
-Laths
The laths principally required by the builder are of two kinds - those used for plastering, and those used for roofs to support the covering of slates or tiles. Plasterers' Laths are thin strips of w...
-Vulcanised Indiarubber
Vulcanised Indiarubber consists of indiarubber mixed with 44 per cent oxide of zinc and 4 per cent of sulphur. An excess of sulphur injures the material, causing it to become brittle with age. This m...
-Tar
Coal Tar is produced by heating coal in close iron vessels, and is a bye product in the manufacture of gas. When itself distilled it produces, in various stages - first, coal naphtha, which is useful ...
-Creosote
Creosote is a product obtained in distilling tar. It is an oily, dark liquid, varying in composition according to the quality of the coal from which it is obtained, and containing hydrocarbons of diff...
-Felt
Felt, generally saturated with bitumen and other substances, is sold in various forms useful to the engineer and builder. The following information regarding the different descriptions is from the cir...
-Asbestos
Asbestos, the well-known fireproof and acidproof fibrous mineral, is the basis of several substances useful to the builder.1 The raw material comes from Italy, Canada, California, Australia, etc. The...
-Willesden Fabrics
Willesden Fabrics1 are vegetable substances which have been treated with certain compounds of copper and ammonia, the effect of which is to coat and impregnate them with cupro-cellulose, a varnish-lik...
-Nails
There are some 300 varieties of nails, named chiefly from the shape of their heads and points, or according to the particular use for which they are intended. No attempt will be made to describe them...
-Varieties Of Nails In Common Use
The following descriptions are of nails in common use : - Rose Nails are either wrought, cut, or pressed. They take their distinctive name from the shape of their heads, and are divided into classes ...
-Weight Of Nails
The Table on the next page, which is taken chiefly from Government schedules, shows the weight per 1000 of some of the most useful sizes of different kinds of nails. Spikes are generally sold by the ...
-Adhesive Force Of Nails
The following abstract of records of experiments on the holding power of nails may be useful : - Holding Power of Wrought Iron Tenpenny Nails, 77 to the lb., about 3 inches long, nailed through a 1-i...
-Types of Screws
Wood-Screws (for screwing into wood) are made of metal, with sharp or bevelled threads of different forms. The most usual is shown by the section Fig. 180. The points are generally made sharp, so tha...
-Whitworth's Standard Thread Screws
Screws for bolts and nuts, and for metal work, are now generally made according to Sir J. Whitworth's standard, the same form of thread being used throughout, and the same pitch and depth of thread be...
-Adhesive Power Of Screws
Mr. Bevan experimented on iron wood-screws 2 inches long, 22/100diameter at exterior of threads, threads 35/1000 deep, 12 to the inch. These were driven into boards 1/2 inch thick. The force required ...
-Appendix. Short Note On The Physical Properties Of Materials, And On The Loads And Stresses To Which They Are Subjected
A DETAILED description of the physical properties of materials, and of the loads and stresses to which they are subjected, would be beyond the province of this volume, especially as the subject will b...
-Short Note On The Physical Properties Of Materials, And On The Loads And Stresses To Which They Are Subjected. Continued
It should be observed, however, that long columns and struts tend to fail by bending outwards in the centre and then breaking across. This form of failure is called buckling. Transverse strength is t...
-Notes On Building Construction
Official Report on the Examination in Building Construction, held by the Science and Art Department, South Kensington, in May 1875. - The want of a text-book in this subject, arranged in accordance w...









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