The term "joinery," applied in a general sense, includes all the finishings to the carcase of a building, whether they be external or internal, such as doors, windows, stairs, skirtings, skylights, lanterns, dadoes, and other panelling, - in fact, it may be said to include everything which is planed and wrought up to a nice smooth and often ornamental face, and framed together in such a workmanlike and precise manner that it is difficult to discern the joints unless helped by the different grain and colour of the "stuff," as the wood is called.

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Fig. 534.

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Plan.

Fig. 534.

It is intended to devote most of this chapter to a description of the various joints, mouldings, and terms which are used m this particular branch of building; but the principal and most common joints, etc., will be again pointed out to the student when they are met with in the different kinds of joiner's work which will be dealt with in the course of these lessons.

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Fig. 535.

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Fig. 536.

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Fig. 537.

Framed Joints

The mortise and tenon is the chief and most common of all joints used in joinery framing. All rails of doors, for instance, are tenoned through the styles and wedged up tight, as Fig. 534, the tenon usually being one-third of the thickness, and with a haunch left on as at X, to fill up the panel groove on the styles and strengthen the joint. This is the origin of the term haunched tenon, a sketch of which, as it is on the rail before being wedged up into the styles (as shown on Fig. 534), is given (Fig. 535).

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On wide rails, such as lock or middle and bottom rails, this tenon is in two parts in its depth, as Fig. 536; and where doors are more than 2 inches thick, or where provision has to be made for a mortise lock, which, when let into the centre of the style, at lock rail height, completely cuts away a central single tenon, the tenons are double in thickness, and called double tenons, as Fig. 537.

A bare-faced tenon is a tenon with only one shoulder, S, used chiefly in framed ledged and braced doors, where the rails are not so thick as the styles by the thickness of the boarding nailed on the rails between the styles. Fig. 538 illustrates a bare-faced tenon, one view being given of each side.

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Fig. 539.

Stump tenons are those which have a projection on each side of them to go into mortises part of the way of the principal mortise. They were designed to give the tenons on the thinner stuff greater strength, and to hold into wider mortises on the wider. Fig. 539 represents a stump tenon and its mortise.

A housed tenon is a tenon let into a mortise with the section of the stuff let into the mortise to the depth of half an inch, as Fig.. 540.