There are a considerable number' of different bonds, including the following: -
Heading bond, which consists entirely of headers, is very seldom used because of the difficulty there is in making a finish and bond as well, it being necessary to use a stretcher at the commencement of each alternate course, as shown in fig. 48. It can only be used for walls of the thickness of or exceeding 9 inches.
Stretching bond (fig. 49), as the name implies, consists of stretchers only, with headers at ends to bond; and is suitable for walls 4 1/2 inches or 1/2-brick thick only, being practically no bond at all in thicker walls, as shown at X in fig. 50. It is also used for chimneys, which are only 4 1/2 inches thick; and is accordingly sometimes called chimney bond.
English bond consists of one row or course of headers and one of stretchers alternately, as in fig. 51. This is the simplest, best, and strongest form of bond, employing a good combination of cross and longitudinal ties.
Flemish bond, as in fig. 52, is built up of alternate headers and stretchers in the same course, and may be said to look better in elevation than "English," though this is its only advantage, the latter being much stronger owing to the extra number of headers required. "Flemish" certainly makes better 9-inch walls, because the unevenness of walls showing two faces is not so apparent with courses of alternating header and stretcher, instead of alternate heading and stretching courses.
There are two kinds of "Flemish bond," similar in elevation but differing on plan, called single and double; the latter showing a "Flemish" face on each side (as shown on the plans in figs. 75 and 76, 82 and 83, etc., pp. 21, 22), and the single a "Flemish" face outside, and "English" inside (as in figs. 78 and 79).
It will be noticed that single Flemish bond is only applicable to walls of 14 inches and over in thickness, and that it entails the use of false or half-headers, a 14-inch wall being formed of two skins, not bonded together in the one course, and only slightly bonded by alternate headers in the others. It is a very inferior bond, and only used to save expensive bricks in facings; as one whole brick will answer for two false or snap headers, which come inside in the Double Flemish.
Garden-wail bond, a commonly used bond in inferior 9-inch work, may either consist of one header to three stretchers, as in fig. 53, or one course of headers to three courses of stretchers, fig. 54; the former being called Flemish garden-wall, and the latter English garden-wall.
Raking bond can be of two kinds - either diagonal, as fig. 55, or herring-bone, as. fig. 56. It is used for thick walls only, with an outer casing of another kind, only bonded inwardly occasionally. It is, on the whole, a useful longitudinal bond inside; though the triangular fittings next the outer skin are an objection and defect.
Footings should always be bonded, or break-joint; and this can be effected without closers by making the offsets 2 1/4 inches, instead of using a closer. For this purpose English bond (if it may be called so) is the best, most suitable, and most used; as all bricks in footings should show as headers, and whatever stretchers are absolutely necessary must be used in the middle, because an offset taking place over a stretcher allows of only 2 1/4 inches bearing for the top brick, as shown by fig. 57. All offsets should be 2 1/4 inches, and the bottom course of footings generally double the width of the wall built thereon; the steps rising either 3 or 6 inches per offset. Figs. 58, 59, and 60 represent the footings of a 9-inch wall in plan, front and sectional elevation; figs 61 and 62 those, respectively, of a 14-inch and 18-inch wall in sectional elevation. These will require no special explanation if the student has mastered the points previously enumerated; it being remembered that the first course of the wall above the footings should be a stretching course - i.e., start with a stretcher.