An ordinary framed or quartertd partition consists of head H, sill S, posts P, studs or quarters Q, and nogging pieces N, and generally, though not always, braces B (see fig. 315).
The partition is 4 1/2 inches thick, the head and sill 4 1/2 x 3 inches, posts 4 1/2 x 4 inches, studs 4 1/2 x 2 inches, braces 4 1/2 x 3 inches, and nogging or stemming pieces 3x2 inches.
If a doorway is required in the partition it is framed either as fig. 316 or as fig. 317.
I Scale Fig. 318.
The joints used in framed partitions of the ordinary kind are very simple, and as follows: -
The joint at head or sill with the posts, being an ordinary mortise and tenon, as in fig. 318; S S being the shoulders, T the tenon, and C C the cheeks. The tenon - as, in fact, all tenons should be, as a rule - is in width one-third of the thickness of the stuff, so that it has no less than one-third (or its width) on each side of the mortise.
A stub tenon is the name given to the joint between studs and sill or head, the tenon only being for the purpose of keeping it in position, and going into the mortise about one inch (fig. 319).
The joint between studs and brace should be as fig. 321, but it is usually as fig. 320.
The junction of the brace, post, and sill is very simple, being as fig. 322. But where the brace is framed into a doorpost (as fig. 317) it is done as fig. 323.
The joist between doorhead and post, where the brace does not spnng.
I Scale Fig 324.
Elevation from it, as fig. 324, is similar to the tusk-tenon between trimmer and trimming joist.
Where partitions have to be built on floors, and cannot rest on stouter joists (as fig. 325), they are supported by bearers framed between two joists (as fig. 336), about 4 feet apart.
Sometimes they rest only on the floor-boards, as fig. 327.
It should be borne in mind that the studs are fixed from 12 to 14 inches apart, or from 14 to r6 inches centre to centre, on the same principle as joists, ceiling joists, rafters, and other bearing timbers.
Trussed partitions are those which have to carry a floor above, or they have some other work to do, requiring more than the ordinary strength of "framed" partitions. They are similar to roof trusses in construction, but oblong instead of rectangular, and of two kinds - king-post, as fig. 328, to suit side doors; or queen-post, as fig. 329, where the doorway comes in the centre.
They are really framed trusses, filled in afterwards with studding or quarters.
The joints employed other than those used in the ordinary partition, as explained, are those of the principal members of the truss, as between principal back, and intertie, T, in both trusses, which is done as fig. 330;
King and principal back, etc, as fig. 331.
The queen-post, etc., joint should be as fig. 333.
It is as well to boh the bead and sill of the complete truss together in one or more suitable places, as X X, figs. 328 and 329, when possible, der to make the partition one complete framing, though made up of rent parts.
All braces, where practicable, should incline (or abut) at an angle of about forty degrees.
Partitions of ordinary span, and carrying only their own weight, are generally understood to be 4 1/2 inches thick; but, wherever they are of greater span, they should be, say, 1 inch thicker for every 10 feet; and, of course, where they have to carry floors or roofs, they must be of special thickness to meet the requirements, and, moreover, must be trussed in one way or other, as the circumstances will allow - either between head and sill or between intertie and head. The latter is the usual way, owing to the presence of doors and other openings, which take up so much of the height of a partition.