This kind of door is the most general in ordinary use, and consists of a framing, made up of narrow pieces, mortised and tenoned together, and grooved in the inside to receive the panels.
Fig. 645 represents the plan and elevation of the skeleton of a four-panelled door, Fig. 646 those of a five-panelled door, and Fig. 647 those of a six-panelled door.
S S are the styles, the one with the butts on being called the hanging style, and the other the closing style. Styles always run through the whole height, and are really the foundation of the complete framing, the other members being directly or indirectly connected to them.
M M are the muntins or muntings, which are tenoned, at top and bottom, about 2 inches into the rails, as, for obvious reasons, they cannot be wedged.
TR is the top rail, which is tenoned into the styles.
L R is the lock or middle rail, the top of which should always be 3 feet 2 inches above the floor line, that being the acknowledged height of convenience for the handles of the locks.
B R is the bottom rail; and F R, when used, the frieze rail; P represents the panels, which are sometimes distinguished as "top," "bottom," or "middle " panels, according to position; and F P are the frieze panels.
The door, Fig. 645, is hung with one pair of butts, which should be of wrought-iron, either 3 inches or 4 inches in length; the lock is a rim-lock, which, though on the same principle, is of a better kind than the ordinary stock-lock - viz., a projecting lock, screwed on to the face of the framing, the bolt, when turned, going into a box staple secured to the jamb of the frame or lining.
The five and six-panelled doors, Figs. 646 and 647, are hung with 11/2 pairs of butts, on account of their increased size, while they are secured by a mortise-lock, which is sunk into the style and part of the lock-rail, as shown by dotted lines.
In addition to the furniture, as the handles or knobs, etc., are commonly called, it will be noticed that these doors have what are called finger-plates screwed on to the styles above and below the lock.
Fig. 648 will give the student an idea how a door is put together, the example being a five-panelled door.
It will be seen that the styles are made with horns, XX, 1 1/2 inches longer than the size of the door, at top and bottom, to give the workmen something to knock the styles off by while framing, and allow of more substance to withstand the driving home of the wedges at top and bottom.
Where the doors are 2 inches or more in thickness, all rails, etc., must be double-tenoned; and under any circumstances all lock-rails must be double-tenoned into the closing style when mortise locks are to be used.
Before entering into the details of the various modes by which the skeleton framing of the door is ornamented, it must be impressed on the student that all panelled doors can be treated in the same manner with one class of work on both sides, or a different one on each side. For instance, a four, five, or six-panelled door can be either square-framed both sides, as Fig. 649; moulded both sides, as Fig. 650; or square-framed one side and moulded the other, as Fig. 651.
Square-framed consists of the panels being left in square recesses; in fact, left as the skeleton framing. Fig. 649 represents a door square-framed on each side.
Moulded both sides is the term used when mouldings are mitred round the panels (Fig. 650), whether they be "stuck" or "planted" mouldings, as explained in Chapter XVI (Joints And Mouldings In Joinery. Joinery Defined).
Square-framed and moulded is a combination of the last two, one kind being on each side.
Bead butt and square is as Fig. 652, the beads running up beside the styles, and butting up against the rails. It will be noticed that the panels in this kind of door are thicker, which is an advantage in external doors. Bead flush and square has the bead mitred round inside the panel instead of only on two sides, and butting against the rails. The plan is precisely the same as Fig. 652, the difference only being detected on the drawings upon the elevation and vertical section (see Fig. 653); and comparing them with Fig. 652, it will be noted that the bead is shown on the sectional elevation in a "bead-flush" door, but not in the "bead butt."
Fig. 649. 1" Scale.
Fig. 650. 1" Scale.
Fig. 651. 1" Scale.
The two kinds of doors last named are often made moulded instead of square on the inside, being "bead butt and moulded," or "bead flush and moulded." The beaded work is seldom put inside, being most suitable for outside, and having a more substantial and strong appearance, unsuitable for internal effect.
Chamfered and square is as Fig. 654, and requires no further explanation, except that the chamfers are worked "on the solid" - i.e., of the framing itself.
Fig.654. 1" Scale.
Stop-chamfered is as Fig. 655, the elevation of the panels being as shown.
Bolection-mouldcd doors are on plan as Fig. 656, and on elevation as Fig. 657; whereon it will be noticed that the lines of the framing are within the outsides of the moulding, which is the proper way to show a bolection moulding in elevation.
Fig. 655. 1" Scale.
Often in addition to these mouldings - which are connected to the sides of the framing, and really enclose the panels - the panels themselves are more or less ornamented, the most general methods being the following: -
Raised panels, as Fig. 658, from which it will be seen that the panels are thicker in the centre being raised up from the usual face which goes into the groove of the styles and rails.
Raised and sunk appear the same, in front elevation, as the last; but, before the bevel starts from the face of the panel, it is first sunk about 1/8th of an inch, as X X on Fig. 659.
Fig. 659. 1/4" Scale.
Moulded, raised, and sunk panels are yet a step higher, the edge of the raised portion being moulded, as Fig. 660, which carries a double line in elevation.
Linen panels are occasionally used in the best kind of work, the face of the panel being moulded and carved to represent a roll of linen twisted about (Fig. 661).