The edges of the styles of all shutters and back flaps are rebated out alternately, so that when they are unfolded they fit together and form one surface, with no spaces at the joints, as they would if they were square-jointed.

The elevation of the shutters is exactly the same as the jamb linings of a window, and the soffits, window backs, and elbow linings are made and used in the ordinary way; in fact, a window with shutters is not complete without them.

It is unnecessary to explain and illustrate these matters again. The student must look back to the part of this chapter concerning them if he still requires any information.

It may be as well, however, to give a section through the head; top, and bottom of the boxing, and also to show the sill and the mode of dealing with the bottom of the shutters at window-board level, to allow of the space for blinds when the shutters are in use (vide Figs. 779, 780, and 781).

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Pan Sectional Elevation.

Fig. 779.

1'" Scale.

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Part Elevation snowing Shutters Closed Fig.780 1" Scale.

At the top, as Fig. 779, the styles of the soffit run through, and an irregular piece of wood about J an inch thick, beaded on the front edges, is nailed underneath them to lower the top of the shutters, so that when they are unfolded their tops do not touch the underside of the soffit The bottom is treated in a similar way, to prevent the shutters from scratching the window-board.

Part Sectional Elevation Showing Elbow Lining etc.

Fig. 781.

1" Scale.

Fig. 782.

1" Scale.

The section of the sill (Fig. 781) will explain how the shutter bottoms are treated there, to allow of stopping in front for blind space. In very thick walls the shutters are often made square - i-e., at right angles to the windows in lieu of on the splay, as Fig. 778, which is the common way in ordinary walls. Fig. 782 gives a plan of such method, and it is needless to give any other details, as they are similar to those already given.

In thinner walls, where there is no room for shutters of ordinary and reasonable widths, the boxings have to be blocked out beyond the face of the plastered walls, as Fig. 783 for splayed shutters, and Fig. 784 for square shutters.

Fig. 785.

1"Scale.

Another method, as Fig. 785, is to throw a wide flap back on the face of the wall, the joint between the small and large parts, at X, being called a rule joint, on account of its similarity to the joint of a 2-foot rule; and they are treated as mullions, as Fig. 786, where they do not want projecting boxings (as in Figs. 778, 783, and 784). It will be seen on Fig. 786 that the mullion must be wide, so that the shutter and back flap, which are hung to the blind space, can be got into a small boxing blocked out on the right-hand side by a moulded upright to which the front boxing flap is hung; and when the shutters are out and in use a small blocking, A, hinged to the left blind space (smaller than the right), is brought out to receive the back of the boxing flap, and make a complete ornamental boxed mullion, as if the shutters were not in use and formed it.

Folding or boxing shutters are sometimes made in two heights, the joint being at the meeting rail level of the sashes; and where they are in one height a flush bead is often worked on them at that level, as X, on Fig. 787, which may either represent a flush bead or a beaded joint.

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Fig. 787. 1" Scale.

From the preceding illustrations and explanation the student will have noticed that the back flap is narrower than the shutter, and only one back flap has been shown on this illustration; but more may be added, according to the size of the window, to be covered by shutters from two boxings, one set on each jamb. Still, it is always better, where possible, to have wider shutters and back flaps, and less of them in number, as the more there are the more likely they are to get out of order. At best they are often very awkward and troublesome.

In setting out this kind of shutter great care must be taken that the rebates are in pairs, one to fit the other - not forgetting the meeting styles of the sets from each jamb. It is always of advantage to leave as much space as possible between the shutter and back flaps, when in the boxing, to make room for the shutter bar, etc., which is secured to the back of the shutter.

Shutters are hung by small special butts, called back flaps, fixed about 3 feet apart up the styles, the complete set of shutters (when unfolded)being held together in position by the shutter bar, which stretches from behind the back of the back flap of each jamb, as Fig. 788, and is secured to one shutter by a loose joint, to fall down, when not required, at A; and let into the other, at B, when in use.

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Fig. 786.

1 "Scale.

Fig. 789.

1" Scale.

The other kind of shutters, for internal windows, though not so commonly used as the "boxing" shutters, is the lifting or sliding shutters, which are framings the whole width of the window, enclosed and hung in cased frames similar to sashes. When not in use, they are made to slide down the casings into a well, formed for them between the back of the window back and the wall, as shown on Fig. 791, the toprails being then just below the window-board, which is fitted so as to act as a flap. The cased boxings are made up the jambs of the windows from underneath the soffit-lining to the bottom of the well below the window-board, and often below the floor, as shown.

Fig. 789 is a plan of this kind of shutter, Fig. 790 an elevation, and Fig. 791 a section.

On account of the heavy weights of the shutters (which are about 1 1/8 or 1 1/4 inches thick), lead weights are used instead of the iron weights generally used in sash frames, and cords are fixed to work them. The only fittings and fastenings required for these shutters are the rings in the top of the toprails, to lift them up, and a screw to connect the two leaves together, where they meet in position, as Fig. 791. The window-board, used as a flap, is hung with small butts, and lifted up by a flush ring.

Sometimes internal shutters are made to slide laterally, though they are seldom met with now. They are worked on the same principle as sliding doors and casements, to which the student must refer, the only difference being the lightness of the framing for shutters as compared with that for doors.

External shutters, whether for houses or shops, are now almost obsolete; but it may be as well to say that house shutters are folding framings, the same height as the windows, each fold being secured by parliament hinges to the outside lining of the sash frames, and thrown by them outside the brick reveal, as Fig. 793.

Shop shutters consist of numerous narrow panelled framings, about 15 inches wide, the same height as the window; and they can be removed and put in position one by one at pleasure. They are secured by mortises in the bottom of the shutters, which go on to small dowels fixed on the window sill.