The finishings to cased and solid frames being alike, the student must understand that the various framings, mouldings, etc., explained in this chapter equally apply to both kinds of windows, although each kind of work will be shown in connection with a cased frame,
In common work, where the back of the window frame finishes flush with the face of the plastering, the only finishings required are a window-board at sill line and an architrave up the jambs and across the head.
Fig. 765 represents a jamb, and Fig. 766 the head and sill of a window, treated as above.
It will be noticed that the architrave is fixed to "plugs," grounds being seldom used to ordinary windows; and the window-board is grooved into the oak sill.
Window-boards have rounded nosings, as Fig. 766; or they are moulded with a bed-mould underneath them, as Fig. 767, in better work.
Architraves may be single or double, the single being as shown on Figs. 765 and 766; and the double-faced (the proper term) are as Fig. 768, consisting of two separate moulded members.
When the sash frame does not take up the whole depth of the jamb linings nave to be employed to make a finish up to the face of the plastered wall, and the window-boards have to be widened, as Figs. 769 and 770.
The window jamb linings are grooved into the inside linings of the frames, and fixed to backings, B, which are secured to plugs in the wall.
The window-board, being of increased width, also requires backing underneath, as shown'.
All backings should be no more than 3 feet apart.
Sometimes, in these wider walls, the brick or stonework is left out between the jambs, beyond the back of the frame, from the window sill to the floor line, as Fig. 771, in which case the jamb linings of the windows last described are continued down to the floor, and called elbow linings below sill level; and this finishing of course dispenses -with the wide window-board, the narrow nosing (Figs. 765 and 766) being again brought into requisition; and beneath it, instead of plaster, we have wood panelling, called window backs, from beneath the window-board to the floor-line; the skirting, as around the room, covering the legs or styles, which run down as explained in Fig. 774 (for dadoes).
Fig. 773 represents a plan, and Fig. 774 a section of a window treated and finished off in this way.
From the front elevation, Fig. 773, the window back will be seen to consist of a panelled framing about 1 1/2 inch thick, flush at the back and fixed to grounds, as G on section, Fig. 774. The front of the panelled framing may be plain, chamfered, or moulded to any design; and the usual method is to show the window backs by dotted lines on the plans, as Fig. 771. The jamb and elbow linings combined are fixed on the splay, as Fig. 775, when they are called splayed lining, the bead of course remaining flat.
Linings are tongued at their top angles, just as door linings or casings, to join the horizontal to the vertical portions.
Plinth blocks or bases, P B (Fig. 773), are often put at the bottom of architraves, as shown, for the skirting to run up against, as well as for appearance.
Section. Fig. 777.
Linings, in the best work, are often panelled, whether square or on splay, the soffits also being treated in the same manner. Figs. 776 and 777 will fully explain all matters in connection therewith; though it may be well to remark that that put of the lining called the elbow should be made to range with the panels of the window backs, with the window nosing returned round it in the shape of a flush-bead(Fig. 777) because the architrave would not allow of the board itself being returned.
In designing window finishings the blinds should always be borne in mind, and spaces left on each side the window and above the head for them; and it will be noticed that provision has been made for them in every case hereinafter illustrated and explained.
Shutters, as applied to the internal finishings of a house, are of two kinds - boxing shutters, and lifting or sliding shutters, their object being to give greater security and warmth at night.
Boxing shutters are also called folding shutters, because they fold back, into one or two leaves, into the "boxings " which are made for them where the jamb linings are usually fixed.
The first thing to be done, according to Fig. 778, is to leave a space for the "blinds" all the way round the window by "blocking-out" (as shown by B S on all the drawings), and to this member the shutters are hung. To the left of the blind fillet we get a plain side of the boxing, blocked out from the wall to the face of the blind space or fillet; and into this is tongued the back lining of the boxing, which is generally panelled, moulded, and fixed to backings like a jamb lining, because it is visible when the shutters are unfolded to cover the windows. The other end of this back lining is tongued into a wide moulded ground, which is securely plugged to the brickwork, and in addition to its own work forms a rebate for the front shutter and part of the double-faced architrave (as Z), on which the other member of the architrave is fixed.
Having completed the boxing according to plan, the shutters (which are usually 1 1/4 or 1 1/8 of an inch thick) only have to be put in, and the front shutter is panelled, moulded on the face exposed in the daytime, to the same design as the window backs, soffits, elbow linings, and other work in connection, and the hinder side of it is generally made "bead butt," as is also the same part of the back flap or other shutters, which are exposed by night when the shutters are unfolded. The other part of the back flap is left square-framed.