It will be gathered from the drawings that these last casements have the advantages of sashes, in that they neither open inwards nor outwards, which may be said to be disadvantages in casements and solid frames and, moreover, they are not so liable to let in the wind and wet as hanging casements; but, on the other hand, they require more space in thickness, and often cause trouble with narrow jambs.

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Fig. 743.

Sometimes the casements are kept in their place by iron studs, let into the sill, as Fig. 746; and the writer thinks that to be the better way, as it is not so intricate and, consequently, not so liable to defects.

French casements are folding casements and windows, which answer the purpose of doors as well, being continued down to the floor-line.

Fig. 744.

Fig. 745.

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Fig. 746.

Fig. 747 is an elevation, and Fig. 748 a section of one. The details of jambs, meeting styles, heads, and sills, are similar to those of ordinary folding casements; but these have to be thicker, 2 1/4 inches, and each casement is more like a sash-door with diminished or gunstock styles; and where the glass panel is very long, a low panel, like that of a door, is framed at the bottom, to lessen it, as Fig. 747.

Hit and miss casements are those used for farm buildings, etc., as Figs. 749 to 752 the top part being glazed between moulded bars, stumped into head and transo; and the lower part consisting of upright slats, with alternate spaces framed into transom and sill outside, with slatted framing within, which, being moved aside two or three inches, either opens or closes the alternate spaces between the single slats outside. One plan shows the slatted frame moved aside, so that the holes are open, and the Other plan shows them shut.

Fig. 747.

1" Scale.

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Fig. 749.

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Fig. 750.

Two-light solid frames are those which have a solid mullion, which is treated like a double jamb, as at A, Fig. 753; but they may also be made two-light by a transom, one light above and one below it, as Fig. 754; the transom being in section similar to Fig. 755, which is for both casements made to open outwards.

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Fig. 751. 1" Scale.

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Fig. 752 1" Scale.

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Fig. 753.

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Fig. 754.

Fig. 756.

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Fig. 756.

It will be understood that the section of the transom varies in every case, where the top and bottom lights differ with regard to their opening and shutting. From the various illustrations given in these notes die student ought to be able to draw them to suit any requirements.

Four-light casements and frames are generally made by a mullion and transom, which divide the opening into four spaces, as Fig. 756.

Sometimes the casements are hung folding in solid frame, in which cases the section of the meeting or locking styles is made as Fig. 757; or it is occasionally treated as Fig. 758.

It has been proved that it is a great advantage to make the rebates on the solid lrames and the side of the hanging style of the casements, as Fig. 759 - i.e., on the splay; the contention being that the joint fits better and tighter, without any liability to knock the edges off the styles when the casement opens, as shown by the comparison of Figs. 760 and 761. The outer edge of the style gets away quicker in the one case than in the other. Borrowed Lights, of which the object is to give light from one room to another which has no external walls, consist of a plain sash, rebated and fixed into a plain lining, of the thickness required by the walls. The lining goes all round the opening, as Fig. 763, but a little wider at the bottom, to form a window-hoard, which takes the place of the architrave on the jambs and head.

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Fig. 757.

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Fig. 758.

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Fig. 759.

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Fig. 760.

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Fig. 761.

Fig. 762.

Water bars, of iron or brass, of different sections, are often fixed to the bottom or end of casements, as Fig. 763, which is only one of the many equally efficacious patented methods for keeping out driving rain.

Weather boards are another means of throwing the water off the bottom of casements. They are of wood, and similar in section to Fig. 764, being tongued into the bottom rail, or housed.