This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
Crandalled Work. Fig. 10 shows the two kinds of crandalling, a representing the appearance when the lines all run the same way, and b showing the lines crossing. When the work is well done, the stone assumes a fine, pebbly appearance. This finish is especially effective for the red Potsdam and Long-meadow sandstones. In the Eastern states, it is used for sandstones probably more than any other finish.
Rubbed Work. Sandstones, and most of the limestones, are often finished by rubbing their surfaces until they are perfectly smooth. This may be done either by hand, using a piece of soft stone, with water and sand, or by a machine which performs the same operation. If the rubbing is done soon after the stones are sawed into slabs, and are yet soft, it is very cheaply and easily performed, as the sawing makes the face of the stone comparatively smooth. By continuing the rubbing long enough, granite, limestone, and marble can be given a beautiful polish.
Bush-Hammered Work. Fig. 11 shows the finish of a stone after having been bush hammered, which leaves its surface full of points. This makes a very attractive finish for hard limestones and sandstones, but should not be used on the softer kinds.
Patent-Hammered Work. Fig. 12 shows a stone finished by a patent hammer, which is generally used on granite and hard limestone. The stone is first dressed to a fairly smooth surface with the point - shown at (a), Fig. 2 - and is then finished with the patent hammer. The degree of fineness in the finish is determined by the number of blades in the hammer. For United States government work, 10 cuts per inch are generally specified, while ordinary work usually has 8 cuts. The ax - see (d), Fig. 1 - may also be used, but much more time is required to obtain the same finish.
Vermlculated Work. In Fig. 13 is shown a stone of somewhat elaborate finish, known as vermiculated, from the worm-eaten appearance. Stones so cut are principally used as quoins and in base courses. Owing to the cost, this dressing is not often used in this country, except for the most expensive work.
Rusticated Work. This term is now generally used to designate sunk or beveled joints, but originally was applied to work honeycombed over the face, to give a rough effect, as in Fig. 25. Figs. 14 and 15 represent examples of rusticated work, the former showing square recessed joints at a, and the latter, rounded exterior edges. This finish is used largely for basement work, and to emphasize piers and other projections.