This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
222. The implements used by the plasterer are simple and inexpensive; the principal ones are shown in Fig. 103.
At (a) is shown the ordinary screen used for separating the coarser particles of sand and gravel from the finer ones. At (6) is shown a screen through which the slaked lime is passed to free it from gritty or unslaked particles. For very fine division, small wire and hair sieves are sometimes employed.
Fig. 103. (Continued.)
The mixing box is a platform of rough boards battened on the bottom and having sides 10 or 12 inches high, making a water-tight box, in which the lime is slaked and the materials mixed.
The hoe and shovel, shown at (c) and (d), are used in mixing the materials, etc.
The ordinary laying trowel, shown as (f), is used for applying the plaster to the walls. It is a thin plate of polished steel, about 10 inches long and 4 1/2 inches wide, having a wooden handle. Various other forms of trowel, for gauging, pointing, etc., varying in length from 3 to 7 inches, are shown at (g), (h), and (i).
Floats are used for smoothing, or floating, the surface of the second coat. At (j) is shown the hand float, which is merely a piece of board with a handle on the back. It is usually made of pine, but for very fine work a cork face is sometimes used for producing the finished surface. For rough finish, the face of the float is often covered with carpet, etc. The two-handled float, called the derby, is shown at (k); this is a straightedged piece of wood, usually from 3 to 6 feet long, and is used for floating larger surfaces than can be readily worked with the hand float.
The square, shown at (;;/), is used for testing the trueness of the angles.
The plumb, shown at (n), is used to determine the perpendicularity of the surfaces by applying one of its straight sides to the surface; if the plumb line, hanging freely, lies along a shallow groove cut in the face, parallel to the sides, the edges are plumb.
The comb, shown at (s), is used for scratching the surface of the first and second coats of plaster, to form a good key for the ensuing coat. It consists merely of pieces of lath, having one end sharpened, and nailed together as shown.
Brushes of various kinds are used by the plasterer. That shown at (t) is used for dampening the surface of the plaster, while it is being worked smooth.
Molds of various kinds are used for forming cornices, etc., and are made of wood or sheet metal cut to the required outline. At (u) is shown one form of mold, consisting of a board a, to the beveled inner edge of which is attached a thin zinc or steel plate, cut to the outline of the cornice as at b. The strip c and handle h brace a firmly and keep it square with the wall; f g represents a guide strip on which c slides, and de a line drawn on the ceiling, flush with the outer edge of a, which is always kept along the line. Another form of mold is shown at a, Fig. 106.