This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
224. In some sections of the country, dwellings and other buildings that are often three or four stories high, are built with the inner walls of frame construction, and this frame is veneered on the outside with a 4-inch facing of brick. This, of course, is to a certain extent a sham, as buildings constructed in this way have the same appearance, both externally and internally, as though constructed entirely of brick. Where lumber is cheap, and brick scarce and expensive, this method of construction, however, possesses some advantages.
A brick-veneered house costs less than a house constructed entirely of brick; and the air space prevents moisture entering, making the house warmer in winter and cooler in summer. About the only real advantage that a brick-veneered house has over a well built frame building, other than that above mentioned, is that the brick veneer offers some protection from fire in adjoining buildings, thus reducing, somewhat, insurance rates. A fire occurring inside would probably destroy a brick-veneered building as rapidly as though the frame were covered with wooden siding or shingles.
225. In planning a brick-veneered building, it must be remembered that the walls are 5 inches thicker (4 inches of veneer and 1 inch of air space) than the walls of a frame building, and the stone or brick foundations ought to project far enough beyond the frame to support the veneer.
When the walls are laid out on the floor plans, allow 6 inches from the face of the studding to the face of the brick-veneer wall. This will leave a 1-inch air space between the brick and the diagonal sheathing after the latter is put on, and also avoids cutting away the bricks, should the framing be a little too full. In many cases, a 2-inch V-shaped drain is built under the air space in the foundation wall to collect any moisture that may come through the veneer. Care must be taken to construct the frame in the best manner, and the timber used in framing should be extra heavy, for it must be borne in mind, that the brick veneer carries absolutely no part of the inside construction of the building, and in fact has to be tied to the wood framing for support. After the frame is up it should be sheathed diagonally and then covered with tarred felt. All the framing timber, particularly the sills and girths, should be as dry as possible, and the frame must be perfectly plumb and straight; if not, the brick veneer will not lay up properly.
226. Pressed, or face, brick are usually tied to the diagonal sheathing with metal ties. The wire tie, known as the Morse tie, shown at (a) in Fig. 90, is most generally used, although a tie made of No. 16 iron, 1 1/4 inches wide, with the end turned under, as shown at (b), Fig. 90, gives satisfactory results. The ties should be placed on every other brick in every fifth course of brickwork.
Ventilation is usually accomplished by means of a 2-inch drain tile at the bottom, as shown on Fig. 91 at o.
The brickwork usually finishes under the eaves or gables. If there should be a flat roof on the building, with parapet walls, the parapet should be coped with tin, copper, or galvanized iron, and tinned on the back down to the flashing.
227. Fig. 91 shows a section through part of the foundation of a veneered building, and the principal features of its construction. At a is shown the stone foundation wall, projecting 5 inches beyond the diagonal sheathing b; the 6" X 4" sill is shown at c; the 3" X 10" floor joist, at d; and the air space between the brickwork and the sheathing, at e.
The 4-inch brick-veneer wall is shown at f, and the Morse wire tie, at g; the stone window sill is shown at h; the 2"x4" studding, at k; the lathing, at /; the flooring, at m; and the window frame, at n; while o shows the 2-inch ventilating drain pipe at the bottom of the 1-inch air space.