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A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery



Masonry, the art of shaping, arranging, and uniting stones or bricks to form the walls and other parts of structures, is one of the most important branches of the building trades. The province of the mason, while not as extensive as that of the carpenter, is equally as important, especially in cities where the buildings are generally built of brick or stone, thus demanding the employment of masons.

TitleA Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol2: Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery
AuthorThe Colliery Engineer Co.
PublisherThe Colliery Engineer Co.
Year1899
Copyright1899, The Colliery Engineer Co.
AmazonA Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction

Prepared for Students of The International Correspondence Schools Scranton, Pa

Volume II

Masonry. Carpentry. Joinery

With Practical Questions And Examples

-Masonry. Province Of Masonry
1. Masonry, the art of shaping, arranging, and uniting stones or bricks to form the walls and other parts of structures, is one of the most important branches of the building trades. The province o...
-Excavation. Character Of Soil
6. Nearly all structures, from the four or five room cottage to the massive and towering mercantile building, rest on masonry foundations. If the foundations are insufficient or defective, all the sub...
-Rock
9. Rock, in its original geological formation, is called bed rock, and as a rule, makes the best support for foundations. It requires, however, good judgment to determine its value, and careful handli...
-Virgin Soil
10. Virgin soil is either clay, loam, gravel, marshy ground, or sand, in its natural condition. 11. Clay is the most uncertain of soils, owing to its elasticity, due to being mixed with marl, etc.;...
-Made Ground
17. Made, or artificial, ground may consist of various kinds of materials; such as the refuse of cities, earth and other materials removed from cellars and other excavations, the cinders, ashes, etc. ...
-Masonry Conclusions
18. From the above description of the various kinds of soil and other materials met with in foundation beds the following practical deductions may be made: 1. It is generally safe to build on bed r...
-Cellars And Foundations. Area And Depth Of Excavation
20. In cities and towns of good size, it is customary to have the building lines laid out by an engineer; but in country work - remote, possibly, from professional talent of that sort - the architect ...
-Protection Of Excavations
25. Especial care should be taken, especially in cities, to properly protect the adjoining property, sidewalks, etc. from injury by the caving in of the bank during excavation. To guard against thi...
-Removal Of Material
27. Blasting Blasting. In many cases, when rock is reached, blasting must be resorted to; in cities, this is a separate branch of contracting, and the blasting is usually let as a subcontract. 2...
-Cesspools
31. In cities, drainage by regular sewerage is provided, but in the country, cesspools are usually built to receive the sewage from the building. In many cases the old leaching cesspool, or dry wel...
-Disposal Of Sewage
34. An efficient system of subsoil irrigation and drainage must consist of two parts: the tight cesspool, or tank, where the waste matters from the house are retained until they are decomposed, and th...
-Cisterns
35. Cisterns are often necessary where springs are scarce and wells are not available. A cistern should be built in much the same manner as the cesspool shown in Fig. 2, but should be larger; about...
-Protection Of Foundation Walls
37. One of the dangers that may be met with during the excavation is the presence of a clay bank between limestone, sandstone, or sand beds. These beds being watertight, that is, not permitting rain w...
-Foundations. Footings. Purpose Of Footings
40. If a man stands on soft mud, marshy ground, or quicksand, he sinks to a greater or less degree, proportional to his weight. If, however, he stands on a plank or wooden platform, or on a post, or p...
-Timber Footings
42. Timber is often used for footing courses where a large bearing surface can be obtained and is necessary; providing, always, the timber can be kept from rotting. In some cases the timber is charred...
-Concrete And Stone Footings
43. Fig. 8 shows a 20-inch brick wall b, on a concrete footing a, 20 inches thick and 3 feet wide. Figs. 9 and 10 show the concrete base a, and stepped-up brick footing courses b. In Fig. 9, each c...
-Footings Ox Rock And Gravel
53. In placing foundation footings on rock, it is sometimes found that some portions of the footings will rest on the rock, and others, owing to the diversified character of the surface, will rest on ...
-Footings On Sloping Ground
55. Footing courses built on slopes - especially of clay - are always likely to slide; this may be avoided by cutting horizontal steps in the slope as shown in Fig. 17, where the slope e f is stepped ...
-Spread Footings
56. It is often found that compressible soils, even alluvium and soft clay, will bear from 1 to 2 tons per square foot with but little settlement, and under a steady load, this settlement is in most c...
-Proportioning Footings
65. It is very important that the foundations, whether continuous, as in a foundation wall, or isolated, as when divided into piers, should have the footing courses proportioned to the weight they wil...
-Piling
71. We now come to the subject of piling - an important branch of foundation work, which, though not masonry work in itself, is, as a supporting- structure, yet considered as pertaining to masonry con...
-Piling. Part 2
76. Calculations For Piles Calculations For Piles. The efficient bearing power of piles in different soils is very indefinite. A pile may go down through a stiff clay or gravel for some distance, s...
-Piling. Part 3
80. Protection Of Piles Protection Of Piles. When timber foundations have to be constructed, and the piles are exposed to sea-water, they are likely to be attacked by various wood-boring worms that...
-Piling. Part 4
86. Cluster Piles With Brick Arches Cluster Piles With Brick Arches. Piles are sometimes driven in groups, and the building is carried on arches sprung from one group or cluster to another. Fig. 27...
-Cribs For Caissons
88. Formerly, caissons were used exclusively for the foundations of bridge piers, but the advent of steel skeleton construction, and consequent erection of very lofty buildings, have caused caissons t...
-Foundation Walls. General Considerations
96. The foundation walls above the footing courses are usually of stone or brick. The method of building brick foundations is the same as for all brick walls, therefore it will not be described here, ...
-Thickness Of Walls
97. A very good rule to fix the thickness of stone foundation walls is, that they shall be at least 8 inches thicker than the wall next above them, for a depth of 12 feet below grade or curb level; an...
-Stone Rubble Foundation Walls
98. Stone foundation walls below ground, when concealed from outside view, are usually constructed of rough rubble, as shown in Fig. 34. This represents an elevation (a) and section (b) of a 20-inch r...
-Foundation Walls Partly On Rock
106. A very faulty construction sometimes met with is that in which a portion of a ledge of rock projects into the foundation wall, and the foundation is built partly on the rock and partly on the foo...
-Openings In Foundation Walls
107. When there are window or door openings in a foundation wall, the stones under the opening should be laid as shown at a, b, c, Fig. 40. This is done to spread the weight of the wall under the door...
-Area Walls
108. It is often found necessary to excavate areas outside the foundation walls of a building. These serve to light the building in some cases, and in others to give access to the basement. In order t...
-Window And Entrance Areas
111. These are not strictly a part of the foundations, but are usually made part of the same contract, and built at the same time and in the same manner as the foundation walls. All window areas sh...
-Area Steps
113. All area steps, when practicable, should be of stone or a combination of stone and brick. Areas that are more than 6 feet deep, or where the soil is sandy, gravelly, or a wet clay, should be exca...
-Vault Walls And Vaults
115. It is customary in all large cities to utilize the space under sidewalks for storage and other purposes. Indeed in many cases engines and boilers used for driving machinery or hoisting elevators ...
-Calculation For Size Of Stone
122. The size and thickness of stone flagging required for sidewalks, when the distance between supports is given, can be calculated by the following formula: Let b = width of stone in inches; d = ...
-Pavements And Sidewalks
123. Pavements being so nearly related to the masonry work of a building, and usually specified in a mason's contract, are discussed at this point. 124. Pavements may be made of thin slabs of stone...
-Retaining Walls
129. When a wall has to keep in place a filled-in backing of earth, rock, or gravel, it is called a retaining wall, because it retains the earth in its place, and resists its natural tendency to cave ...
-Dampness In Cellar Wales
134. A dry cellar is one of the most essential requisites of a healthy house. A moist or damp cellar acts as a reservoir of chilly and impure air, and the constant movement of air in the living and sl...
-Shoring, Needling, And Underpinning
141. When the foundations of a building, whether new work or an alteration, extend below the foundation walls of adjoining property, shoring, needling, and underpinning must be resorted to, in order t...
-Shoring
142. Shoring is a method of temporarily supporting the walls of a building by means of posts or struts set at an angle, to keep the wall from tipping or bulging while the 2-6 foundations are being car...
-Needling
144. When a wall already built is supported on beams or needles placed transversely through holes cut in the wall, as shown at b, Fig. 57, and supported at each end by posts, jack-screws, ox pumps, as...
-Underpinning
147. The new wall under the needle holes is built up from the lower level, between and around the needles. It is customary in first-class work, to place two layers of stone, dressed top and bottom, be...
-Bracing
149. When adjoining buildings have been built originally with party walls, or walls supporting the floorbeams of two buildings, and one of these buildings is to be torn down, the adjacent walls should...
-Materials Used In Masonry Construction. Lime, Cements, Sand, And Mortar
151. All walls, whether of brick or stone, should be laid in cement mortar, or lime-and-cement mortar mixed in the proportions hereafter given. If the soil is wet or damp, cement mortar should be used...
-Lime
152. Pure, rich, or fat lime is the product of the calcination, or burning, of limestone or marble. By this burning, the carbonic acid and water are driven from the stone in the form of vapor, and t...
-Cements
154. The ordinary cements, known as the Rosendales, comprising the Cumberland, Round Top, James River, Louisville, and others, are manufactured from natural cement stones existing in most of the state...
-Sand And Its Substitutes
157. The sand used in making mortar should have no mixture of clay or loam in it, but should be clean and sharp particles of quartz or other disintegrated rock. These particles enter readily into the ...
-Mortar
158. Lime Mortar Lime Mortar. This mortar is prepared in much the same way as pure cement mortar. For mixing lime mortar, a bed of sand is first made in a mortar box, and the lime is distributed as...
-Bricks And Brick Making. Introductory
163. Brick may be called an artificial stone, manufactured in small pieces for convenience in laying. The principal ingredients in brick are clay and protoxide of iron. Other substances that form part...
-Hand-Made Brick
164. Many of the common brick, especially in the smaller towns and cities, are made by hand. The clay is thrown into a circular pit, where it is mixed with water, and tempered with sand or ashes by...
-Machine-Made Brick
165. Where bricks are made on a large scale the work is now done by machinery, by three different processes, known as the soft-mad, the stiff-mud, and the dry-clay processes. 166. Soft-Mud Process ...
-Burning The Brick
169. When either the hand-made, soft-mud, or stiff-mud processes are used, the bricks, after drying, are built in a large mass, or kiln, containing from 100,000 to 300,000 bricks. Eyes, or flues, are ...
-Classes Of Building Brick
170. Common Brick Common Brick. The term common brick includes all those that are intended for constructional, and not for ornamental purposes, and have no special pains taken in their manufacture....
-Size Of Bricks
181. In this country, unfortunately, there is no legal standard regulating the size of brick, and the dimensions vary not only with the maker, but also with the locality. In the New England states, ...
-Strength And Quality Of Brick
182. An architect should, if possible, examine the brick to be used in a building before they are laid in the wall, and they should meet the following requirements: 1. They should be sound, free ...
-Brick Masootiy. Thickness Of Brick Walls
183. Before taking up the subject of bricklaying, the student should become acquainted with the laws for the thickness of walls in this country. For this purpose, an extract is given from the ...
-Brick Masootiy. Thickness Of Brick Walls. Continued
Table 3. Thickness of Walls In Inches For Warehouses, Etc Height of Building. City. Stories. 1st. 2d. 3d. 4t...
-Bricklaying
187. To build any kind of a brick structure, so as to make a strong and durable piece of work, it is necessary to have a bed of mortar between the bricks. Brickwork consists therefore both of bricks ...
-Laying Common Brick
189. Common brick should be laid in a bed of mortar at least 3/16, and not more than 3/8 of an inch thick. Every joint and space in the walls, not occupied by other material, should be filled with ...
-Laying Pressed Brick
192. Face brick are usually laid in mortar made of lime putty and very fine sand; often the mortar is stained with mineral pigments to match the. color of the brick. The joints should not exceed 3/16 ...
-Joints In Brickwork
193. For inside walls that are to be plastered, the mortar projecting from the joints is merely cut off flush with the trowel. All outside walls and inside walls, where the bricks are left exposed, ...
-Pointing Brickwork
194. Pointing consists in scraping out the old mortar in the outer joints, to the depth of at least half an inch, and filling them with fresh mortar, which is well worked in with a trowel. The object ...
-Bricklaying In Extreme Weather
199. Mortar, unless very thin, will not adhere to a dry, porous brick, because the brick robs the mortar of its moisture, and therefore prevents the proper setting. On this account, brick should ...
-Bond In Brickwork
201. The proper construction of a brick wall involves many things besides the mere laying of one brick on top of another, with a bed of mortar between. The manner of laying or bedding the bricks, and ...
-Bond In Brickwork. Part 2
209. Heading Bond Heading Bond. When all the courses present the end brick in the face of the wall, the wall will then be composed entirely of headers; this method, however, is only adapted for ...
-Bond In Brickwork. Part 3
213. Garden Or Running Bond Garden Or Running Bond. The bond most generally used in this country is shown in Fig. 79. This method, which enables the bricklayer to build a larger amount of wall in ...
-Hollow Walls
217. Even a solid brick wall readily absorbs moisture and also transmits heat and cold. A driving rainstorm of several days duration will often penetrate a 12 or 16 inch wall, and so dampen the brick ...
-Hollow Walls With Brick Withe Bonds
223. There is also a method of constructing hollow brick walls with a 4-inch outer and inner facing, connected by solid brick withes (as these short cross brick partitions are called). The air space ...
-Veneered Walls
224. In some sections of the country, dwellings and other buildings that are often three or four stories high, are built with the inner walls of frame construction, and this frame is veneered on the ...
-Terra-Cotta Furring
228. A form of construction much used, especially in fireproof buildings, is by means of terra-cotta blocks, as shown in Fig. 92, or hollow brick, as given in Fig. 93. Fig. 92 shows the hollow ...
-Chimneys
229. In planning and building brick chimneys, the chief things to be considered are the height of the chimney, and the number, size, and arrangement of the flues. To make the chimney draw ...
-Fireplaces
234. Fig. 95 shows a section through a fireplace with an ash flue leading down to the cellar. The back of the fireplace is often constructed of firebrick and brought forward as shown at a, and an ...
-Construction Details. Anchoring The Walls
235. This is very often specified under carpenter work, and is by some considered as belonging more especially to that trade, but it is also a matter of concern to the mason. It is extremely ...
-Corbeling For Floor Joists
238. Architects sometimes specify a ledge to support the floor joists, by using a continuous brick corbel of three or more courses. This mode of construction is shown in Fig. 99. At a is the 4-inch ...
-Carrying Up Walls Evenly
240. It is very important that the walls of a building should be carried up as evenly as possible, no wall being built more than 3 feet above the rest unless separated by an opening. If one part of a ...
-Bonding Walls At Angles
241. A very important feature in brick construction is that both the front and rear walls should be securely bonded and anchored to the side, party, or partition walls. If possible, all the walls ...
-Openings In Walls
242. When a brick wall contains door and window openings, their location and relative position should be very carefully considered, not only with regard to convenience and symmetry, but also with ...
-Joining New Walls To Old
246. In joining a new wall to an old, when the walls come at right angles, the new work should not be toothed or bonded into the old work, unless the new work is laid up in cement mortar. All mason ...
-Party Walls
247. A party wall is the wall separating two adjoining buildings, and carrying the floor and roof beams of both of them. A party wall is sometimes owned jointly, when two persons own adjacent ...
-Wood Lintels And Wood Bricks
248. As a rule, no more woodwork should be placed in a wall than is absolutely necessary. Wooden lintels supporting walls are especially objectionable, because, besides being combustible, they are ...
-Damp-Proof Courses
250. Moisture in wet ground is very likely to soak up into the walls from the foundation, thus causing the building to be very unhealthy and producing rot in the woodwork. To prevent the moisture ...
-Ornamental Brickwork
252. There are numerous ornamental effects produced by the varied use of bricks. First, there are the constructive features, such as arches, imposts, pilasters, belt and string courses, cornices, and ...
-Brick Cornices
257. When brick buildings have a parapet wall and flat roof, and the item of cost has to be considered, a brick cornice is generally the most satisfactory, provided one of terra cotta cannot be ...
-Brick Arches
261. When there is sufficient height above a window, door, or any other opening in a brick wall, a brick arch, either circular or segmental, is used to span the opening, and forms a very durable and ...
-Relieving Arches
268. In place of cambering ox curving the under side of a flat brick arch over an opening, the soffit is often made flat and is supported on an iron angle bar. This form of construction is shown in ...
-Brick Vaults
270. Brick vaults are constructed in the same manner as common brick arches. The bricks are bonded lengthwise of the vault, with a header course every five or seven courses. Vaults are sometimes ...
-Brick Piers
272. Brick piers are built in the same manner as brick walls. When they are less than 3 feet square, and support a beam, girder, arch, column, or lintel carrying a wall, the piers should, at ...
-Brick Nogging
273. Stud partitions in brick buildings, and the space between the outside studs in wooden houses, are often filled in with brickwork, to obstruct as much as possible the passage of fire, sound, and ...
-Cleaning And Protection Of Brickwork. Cleaning Down
274. The outside of a building, when faced with pressed brick, should be cleaned down soon after completion. This is done by washing and scrubbing the walls with muriatic acid and water, in the ...
-Protecting Outside Of Brickwork
276. After a driving rain or sleet storm, a wall even as thick as 12 inches may be soaked through by rain. It is therefore not desirable to plaster directly on the walls; if this is done, the wall ...
-Strength Of Brickwork
280. As a usual thing, the brickwork in walls is of ample strength to carry the loads imposed. The principal loads come on the piers, arches, and under bearing plates. Of course, the strength varies, ...
-Measurement Of Brickwork
281. In making a contract for brickwork, when the payments depend on the number of brick and other materials in the wall, it should be distinctly stated, in order to avoid disputes, how the work is ...
-Inspection Of Work
285. The architect, when superintending the erection of brickwork, should see that sufficient mortar is used to fill all the joints, and that the bricks are shoved as described in Art. 190. The ...
-Building Stone. Varieties Of Stone
1. It is necessary for the student of architecture to have a good knowledge of the different kinds of stone, in order to decide which is best to use under any usual condition. It can hardly be expecte...
-Granite, Gneiss, And Syenite
2. Granites are generally massive in form, and compose the main part of most mountains. They are hard and granular in structure, the principal constituents being feldspar, mica, and quartz, in varying...
-Limestones
5. Limestone is a term which includes all stones containing lime, although they may differ from one another in almost every other respect. Those used for building purposes have, besides lime, one or m...
-Sandstones
8. Sandstones are so called because they are formed by the cementation of particles of sand - usually quartz grains - into rock. The character of the stone depends greatly on the nature of the cementi...
-Qualities Of Good Stone
10. No branch of mason work, from an architectural standpoint, is of greater importance than the selection of stone for structural purposes; and the qualities of stone, such as its strength and durabi...
-Qualities Of Good Stone. Part 2
13. Weight Of Stone Weight Of Stone. The following are average weights of stone of the class mentioned, per cubic foot: Marble, in blocks................. . 170 pounds. ...
-Qualities Of Good Stone. Part 3
21. Seasoning Stone Seasoning Stone. In order to evaporate the quarry water, which most limestones and sandstones contain when freshly quarried, they should be exposed to the air for a considerable...
-Inspection And Tests
22. A close inspection should be made of all stone before it is used, to see that the specified quality is being delivered. A visit to the quarry is advisable when large quantities of stone are to be ...
-Stoke Cutter And Finishing
26. Before treating of stone masonry, it is proper to consider the preliminary work of dressing the component stones in the wall. Therefore, if the architect desires to specify correctly the manner in...
-Stone-Cutting Tools
27. The double-face hammer, shown at (a), Fig. 1, weighs from 20 to 30 pounds, and is used for breaking and roughly shaping the stones as they come from the quarry. The face hammer, shown at (d), i...
-Finish Of Stonework
30. As the method of forming plane and curved surfaces on stone will be the subject of a separate section, Stereotomy, it will not be taken up at this place; only the different surface finishes will b...
-Finish Of Stonework. Continued
38. Crandalled Work Crandalled Work. Fig. 10 shows the two kinds of crandalling, a representing the appearance when the lines all run the same way, and b showing the lines crossing. When the work i...
-Stone Masonry. General Considerations
44. The stonework which enters into the construction of buildings may be divided into three classes: rubble, ashlar, and trimmings. Before describing these, however, a few general observations, applyi...
-Rubble Wales
49. Rubblework is used for rough masonry, as in foundations, backing, etc., and frequently consists of common field stone, roughly dressed; but whenever possible, quarried rubble should be used, as be...
-Ashlar
54. When the outside facing of a wall is of cut stone, it is called ashlar, regardless of the manner in which the stone is finished. Ashlar is usually laid either in regular courses, with continuous h...
-Ashlar. Continued
59. Random Work Random Work. Broken ashlar is often arranged as shown in Fig. 28, the courses being 18 to 24 inches high. This is called random-coursed work, for the reason that the stones have bro...
-Bond Stones And Templets
64. Strictly, these are not ashlar, but as more or less dressing is necessary on them, they are here mentioned. In most of the larger cities, the building regulations require bond stones in brick p...
-Quoins And Jambs
66. Quoins are the corner stones of a wall, and are often dressed differently from the other stones, in order to make them more prominent, as, for example, those shown in Fig. 25. Quoin stones should ...
-Trimmings
69. The term trimmings, as generally used, includes moldings, belt courses, sills, caps, and other cut stone (except ashlar) used for ornamental purposes. The stones for such work should be of good...
-Lintels
71. A lintel, often called a cap, is a stone supporting the wall over a door or window opening; and, as it is to resist bending stress, should be a strong, tough stone, having an ample cross-section. ...
-Lintels. Continued
77. Built-Up Lintels Built-Up Lintels. It is sometimes necessary to use a stone lintel 10 or 12 feet long, which is difficult to obtain in a single piece. In such a case, the lintel may be made in ...
-Copings
80. A wall having no roof covering should be capped by a wide stone called the coping. Terra cotta is occasionally used for this purpose, and sometimes tin. The upper surface of the coping should be p...
-Columns And Entablatures
82. When possible, it is best to have the shaft of a column formed in one piece, irrespective of length - that is, a monolith. All the columns in the later portion of the Capitol at Washington are mar...
-Stone Steps
84. A hard stone, such as granite or bluestone, should be used for steps; but for private residences, where the wear is not great, limestone or a fairly hard sandstone may be used. Outside steps shoul...
-Stone Arches
87. Stone arches are generally used in both stone and brick structures, over door and window openings, for porches, etc. They are also erected over streams and roads for highway and railway bridges an...
-Kinds Of Arches
93. Arches are frequently named from the curve of the intrados, as semicircular, segmental, semielliptic, pointed, etc. The semicircular arch is, as its name indicates, one whose intrados is a half ci...
-Kinds Of Arches. Continued
103. Rubble Arches Rubble Arches. For rough purposes, arches are sometimes built of rubble, as shown in Fig. 58, in which b represents the wall carried by the rubble arch, the ring stones of which,...
-Construction Of Arches
104. Voussoirs Voussoirs. The ring of the arch should be built of the very best kind of ashlar masonry, cut, so that the voussoirs bear evenly and closely against one another, with the thinnest pos...
-Construction Of Arches. Continued
108. Bonding Bonding. Whenever arches are carried on piers or columns, care must be taken in cutting the springing stones, so that they will bond properly into the spandrel masonry. In Fig. 59 are ...
-Pointing Stonework
113. The effects of the weather on the exposed edges of the joints in masonry usually cause the mortar to crumble and fall out. For this reason, it is customary to refill the joints, to a depth of fro...
-Cleaning And Protecting Stonework
115. After pointing, it is usually necessary to remove the mortar stains, etc. from the face of the wall. This may be done by washing the stonework with a brush dipped in water containing muriatic aci...
-Strength Of Masonry
118. The Figures given in Table 2 are the safe bearing strengths of different classes of masonry. The first values may be used when the stonework is of fair quality and good lime mortar is used; the s...
-Measurement Of Stonework
121. At the quarry, stone is divided into two classes: dimension stone and rubble. The first consists of those pieces which are quarried in regular shapes, and to a fixed size, usually 24 inches squar...
-Inspection
123. The inspector or superintendent should be very careful to have the work properly done, during erection, both in cutting and setting stone, as an imperfect piece, when once set in place, can only ...
-Concrete Construction. Use And Value
127. The value of concrete, as a substitute for stone and brick, has been known for many centuries, and is to be seen in the ruins of ancient Roman temples and palaces, in domes and arches, in the cor...
-Methods Of Construction. Molds
128. It is usual to build concrete walls, piers, arches, etc. by depositing the concrete in forms, or molds, made somewhat as follows: Posts of 4x4, or 4 X 6 timber are set up in pairs on opposite...
-Making And Laying Concrete
129. The concrete should be made of a good quality of Portland or best Rosendale cement, mixed with clean, sharp sand, and a proper amount of aggregates. The proportions vary for different classes of ...
-Making And Laying Concrete. Continued
132. Expansion And Contraction Expansion And Contraction. When concrete sets in air it contracts slightly, but often sufficiently to produce cracks in the walls and floors. To prevent this, it is c...
-Hollow Concrete Walls
134. Sometimes the walls of concrete buildings are made hollow and strengthened by twisted steel rods, which form what is called the Ransome system of concrete construction. Fig. 69 represents a secti...
-Other Uses Of Concrete
135. Concrete Beams And Lintels Concrete Beams And Lintels. When these are to be made, they should be formed of concrete and twisted iron or steel rods. Fig. 70 indicates the method of construction...
-Terra Cotta. Value In Construction
137. The uses of terra cotta in architectural work are so varied and extensive as to be almost endless. Both for inside and outside decorative and plain work, it forms a very important substitute for ...
-Manufacture Of Terra Cotta
139. The material in terra cotta is practically the same as that in brick, but a much better quality of clay must be used, and the method of manufacture is also different from that of brick. The prope...
-Construction Details
142. Size Of Pieces Size Of Pieces. In designing any terra-cotta work, care should be used in limiting the size of the pieces to the most practical and economical dimensions; these may be said to b...
-Construction Details. Continued
148. Cornices Cornices. For these, terra cotta is greatly used, as it is much lighter, and usually cheaper, than stone, especially if the work requires elaborate decoration. When a stone cornice is...
-Fireproofing. Introductory
151. As the materials made use of in modern fireproof construction, to protect the structural parts of buildings from fire and heat, come within the province of the architect, a good knowledge of the ...
-Fireproof Materials
153. Tiling consists of clay molded in either solid or hollow shapes, and thoroughly burned. It may be divided into two general classes. The first is variously termed porous terra cotta, cellular pott...
-Floor Construction
157. Formerly, fireproof floors were almost exclusively made of concrete supported on brick arches sprung between the lower flanges of I beams, although in some cases corrugated-iron arches were subst...
-Flat Tile Arches
158. There are at present three methods of constructing flat tile floors in use in this country. The first is known as the side method, so called because, in each transverse row, the sides of the bloc...
-Flat Tile Arches. Part 2
162. Combination Method Combination Method. In this system, the object is to utilize the superior strength of the end method, and at the same time provide greater bearing surface against the beams....
-Flat Tile Arches. Part 3
165. Strength Strength. There are extremely few, if any, cases on record of failure of arches in actual use, and under ordinary conditions the arches herein described are amply strong. Experimental...
-Flat Tile Arches. Part 4
169. Ceilings Ceilings. Before plastering the ceiling under flat arches, any inequalities should be filled with mortar, so as to make a flat surface. It is usual to apply two coats of plaster direc...
-Segmental, Tile Arches
173. When flat ceilings are not required, as in warehouses, etc., tile arches of the forms shown in Figs. 83 and 84 are generally used, the plaster being applied directly to the under side of the bloc...
-Ventilated Floors
178. In Fig. 85 is shown a system of floor construction, which is known as the Fawcett ventilated floor, by the use of which a saving of one-quarter of the dead weight is effected. Fig. 85. ...
-Concrete And Metal Floors
179. Concrete containing iron or steel wires, rods, netting, etc. embedded in it, is now extensively used for floor construction, and in many respects is equal to tile-arch floors, and is cheaper. One...
-Concrete And Metal Floors. Continued
185. The Roebling System The Roebling System. In this floor, the concrete is used as an arch, and not as a beam. The method of construction is shown in Fig. 89. The first step is to spring between ...
-Selection Of A Fireproof System
189. The question of choosing the best floor system out of the many of nearly equal merit, hinges largely on the cost, as any of those that have been described will be found amply strong and ...
-Fireproof Roofs
190. Flat Roofs Flat Roofs. The roof of a fireproof building is usually flat, with a pitch of from 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch to the foot. The advantage of a flat roof is the ease of making it fireproof,...
-Protection Of Columns And Girders
193. In case of fire, the columns and girders in a building are naturally more exposed to heat than are other parts of the structure, and, hence, should be most amply protected, as the effect of fire ...
-Fireproof Partitions
199. Fireproof partitions are usually made of tile, or wire lathing or plaster, although brick and iron are used to some extent. The objection to brick is that it must be at least 1 foot thick in ...
-Plastering
204. Plastering may be described as a process of clothing the structural members, which compose the skeleton of the building fabric, with plastic material so as to render it more agreeable and ...
-Lathing
205. As plastering consists in the application of a plastic material called mortar, composed of various substances, and which is spread over the surfaces of the walls and ceilings in thin layers, the ...
-Wooden Lathing
207. In old work, the lath was generally made of oak, but in current practice, pine, spruce, and hemlock are used. The regular size of the lath strips is 1/4 in. X 1 1/2 in., and 4 feet in length; ...
-Metal, Lathing
210. Steel, in the shape of wire netting and of expanded and perforated metal lath, has come into very extensive use for the support of plastering, especially in fireproof structures. Plaster becomes ...
-Metal, Lathing. Part 2
212. Stiffened Wire Lathing Stiffened Wire Lathing. The use of separate furring strips forms an item of expense that may be avoided by substituting, for the plain wire lathing, those having ribs ...
-Metal, Lathing. Part 3
215. Metal Lath In Wood Construction Metal Lath In Wood Construction. While metal lath is, of course, preferable to wood for ordinary frame structures, the additional cost generally precludes its ...
-Lime Plastering. Materials
217. Up to quite a recent period, practically all the interior plastering in this country was composed of lime, sand, and hair. When plaster is made of a good quality of lime, well slaked and ...
-Plasterers' Tools
222. The implements used by the plasterer are simple and inexpensive; the principal ones are shown in Fig. 103. At (a) is shown the ordinary screen used for separating the coarser particles of ...
-Proportions of Materials
223. The quantity of thoroughly slaked lime paste that a barrel of ordinary lump lime will yield varies from about 2.6 to 2.75 barrels. The voids in sharp and clean sand are about 1/3 of its bulk. ...
-Mixing Plastering Mortar
225. Hand Mixing Hand Mixing. The great bulk of plastering mortar, outside of a few large cities, is mixed by hand, and, for the best results, requires very close regulation of materials and ...
-Applying The Plaster
229. Preliminary Examination Preliminary Examination. Although the carpenter's specifications require that all surfaces be properly prepared for lath and plaster, and that suitable plaster grounds,...
-Applying The Plaster. Part 2
232. Brown Coat Brown Coat. The second coat, consisting of fine stuff, to which a little hair is sometimes added, is applied from 1/4 to 3/8 inch thick, when the scratch coat has become ...
-Applying The Plaster. Part 3
238. Finishing Coat Finishing Coat. Sometimes this coat is omitted, in cheap work, when the walls are to be papered, the brown coat being smoothed as well as possible. This method is not a good ...
-Hard Wall Piasters
239. While, by the use of the best materials and proper care in preparing and applying them, a good wall may be obtained with lime plaster, yet there are so many uncertainties about it that numerous ...
-Plaster Ornaments And Scagliola
245. Plaster ornaments are now much less used than formerly. They are usually made of plaster of Paris and lime, but for cast work, only the former is used. A light and strong material, used to ...
-Stucco
247. The term stucco was first used by the early Italian artificers to define a superior grade of plaster compounded by them; and their skilful manipulation of the material has never been excelled. ...
-Whitewashing
250. Whitewashing being often included in the plasterer's specifications, a brief mention of it is desirable. Common whitewash is made by slaking fresh lime, adding enough water to make a thin paste, ...
-Fireproof Lathing And Plastering
251. It is evident that, if buildings are to be fireproof, as little wood as possible should enter into their construction; hence, only expanded metal or wire lath should be used to hold the plaster, ...
-Inspection Of Fireproof Lathing And Plastering Work
255. Loathing Loathing. Before the lathing is begun, the inspector should see that the furring and grounds are properly placed and are plumb and square; also, that the angles of chimneys and other ...
-Floor Tiling
259. The method of manufacturing tiles for floors and wainscots, etc. is similar to that described under Terra Cotta, but as these uses of tiles are in the nature of finishing processes, analogous ...
-Carpentry. Province Of Carpentry
1. The art of carpentry consists of the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to properly execute all classes of structural work composed of wood. 2. The province of carpentry is a most ext...
-Timber. Properties Of Timber
6. A general knowledge of the properties and kinds of timber, the laws of growth and development, the characteristics of good timber, its natural defects, its conversion into building material, its sh...
-Timber. Properties Of Timber. Part 2
15. In the stem of several trees, especially the oak and the locust, we observe lines which radiate from the center of the tree; these are called medullary rays. When they connect the pith to the bark...
-Timber. Properties Of Timber. Part 3
23. The soil in which timber is grown exercises an important influence upon its quality; where damp and marshy, the fiber is of a light, spongy character, the excess of water preventing the healthy ac...
-Timber. Properties Of Timber. Part 4
28. Timber should be piled in high and dry locations only, and should be kept well up from the ground on staging and strips placed between the beams or boards, so as to allow of a thorough circulation...
-Methods Of Sawing
36. In order to obtain as many boards as possible from the tree, which possess the many merits arising from this disposition of the rings on the end section, a method of first cutting the logs into qu...
-Seasoning
37. The process of evaporating the sap, or the drying out of lumber, is effected after it has been sawed into planks, joists, studs, etc., and two methods known respectively as seasoning and kiln-dryi...
-Properties Of Different Kinds Of Wood
40. Wood, as a building material, is divided into three general groups, namely, the evergreen class, the tropical class, and the hardwoods. In the first of these are classed the pine, spruce, hemlo...
-The Evergreen Class
41. White pine, commonly known as pine, or sometimes referred to as northern pine, to distinguish it from the species described below, is a tree common in the northern part of the United States and in...
-The Hardwood Class
50. The hardwood group is headed by the oak as typical of its class, nearly all others being compared with it in regard to hardness, durability, and strength. 51. White oak is the hardest of the se...
-The Hardwood Class. Continued
56. Cherry Cherry. The wood of the wild-cherry tree is a moderately heavy wood, hard, and very durable. The annual rings are wide and even in their structure, while the medullary rings are fine, nu...
-Classes Of Framed Structures
71. Carpentry, as applied to house building, relates to the construction of the rough timber framework of the building in all its parts, from the foundation to the roof. In buildings which are partly ...
-Joint Types
75. The simplest joint between two pieces of wood is the square butt joint shown at (a), Fig. 10, where the timber b effects a butt joint with the timber a on the line kcd. This joint, called a barefo...
-Joints
80. Tusk Tenons Tusk Tenons. In Fig. 13 (a) is shown the tenon b on the tail-beam y let into the header w at its center, and to secure additional strength a tusk c is cut on the tail-beam, to rest ...
-Joints. Part 2
87. Fishing Fishing. A stud or post may be lengthened, or fished, as it is called, by the addition of an extra piece of the required length, the ends being cut square and the pieces secured togethe...
-Joints. Part 3
93. Fig. 22 shows the simplest form of a scarf joint. The timber a is cut half through its depth, on the line c d, which is perpendicular to the adjoining face of the timber, as is also the line cg. T...
-Joints. Part 4
97. The joint shown in Fig. 24 is similar in construction to that in Fig. 23, except that the line dc is carried through the timber in a slanting direction instead of parallel to the top and bottom, a...
-Framing. Sills, Posts, And Studs
106. The carpenter's work in a frame building usually commences when the foundation is completed. First, a timber, called the sill (see a, Fig. 12), is laid upon the top of the foundation wall to rece...
-Floors
108. Floorbeams are sized or notched on the sill, as shown in Fig. 30, in order to bring their tops to an even line, any variation in the depth of the beams b being removed with the notch at e d, so t...
-Partitions
116. Partitions are constructed of pieces of timber from 2 in. X 4 in. to 3 in. X 6 in. in section, called studs, which are set vertically, with the depth of the stud in the direction of the thickness...
-Partitions. Continued
123. Plaster Grounds Plaster Grounds. Where any woodwork is to be applied against a plastered wall, such as a baseboard, chair rail, wainscot, picture molding, etc., it is always necessary to provi...
-The Framing Of Roofs
131. A roof may contribute much to the elegance and completeness of any building, as, by its fitness and appropriateness of outline, and its harmony with the structure, it crowns the whole. The angle ...
-The Framing Of Roofs. Part 2
To find the length of a jack-rafter im, draw mh from the foot of the rafter perpendicular to e o, and let it intersect cn, the roof slant, at h; then will ch be the length of the jack-rafter, and the ...
-The Framing Of Roofs. Part 3
The relative pitch of the top and side slopes of a Mansard roof may be determined in several ways, one of which, known as Belidor's method, is shown in Fig. 53. Upon the center h of a line af, repr...
-The Framing Of Roofs. Part 4
Fig. 57. If we now draw the lines y x, y t, yz, etc., where the points x, t, and z are the projections of the points x' in the plan, these lines will indicate the position of the tower rafter...
-The Framing Of Roofs. Part 5
Fig. 59. 149. When two gables of different heights and spans intersect, the framing of the valley rafters is somewhat different from the case where both gables are the same height. Fig. 60 is...
-The Use Of The Steel, Square
152. One of the most useful tools in the carpenter's kit is the steel square, as with it may be solved a number of problems which would otherwise require extensive drawings, or tedious calculations. F...
-Construction Of Roofs
155. In building the roof on a house, the rafters are nearly always carried beyond the front of the plate from 10 to 24 inches, in order that the drip from the eaves may fall clear of the wall of the ...
-Construction Of Roofs. Continued
This form of gutter is generally invisible from the ground and permits an uninterrupted slope to the roof from the ridge to the eaves, so that accumulated snow may slide off without hindrance, and fre...
-Dormer-Windows
167. Dormer-windows, a term applied to windows projecting from the roof of a building, are framed out when the roof is constructed. The size and the shape of the openings left for them between the raf...
-Balloon-Frame Construction. General. Description
170. Balloon framing, as heretofore explained, is the term given to that system of construction in which the skeleton, or framework, of a building is spiked together with butt joints, and depends almo...
-Balloon-Frame Construction. General. Description. Continued
On this ledger board the floorbeams n of the second story are laid, each beam being slightly notched at i, on its under side, in order to bring the tops of the beams to an even alinement. The second-s...
-Various Details Of Construction. Plaster Grounds
185. Plaster grounds, as explained in Art. 123, are simply nailing strips secured to the studs for receiving the trim; they consist of strips of wood from 5/8 inch to 1 inch in thickness, according ...
-Siding
187. Siding is the term which is applied to the material with which the exterior-walls of a frame building are usually covered. There are two kinds, the beveled siding, and the novelty, or patent, ...
-Verandas
191. The details of the construction of the exterior features of a building require, on account of their exposed situations, especial consideration in order to insure the fulfilment of the purposes ...
-Centers For Arches: Domes
198. Centers Centers. Where any portion of the outer or inner walls of a building are of brick or stone, and the openings in these walls are circular headed, the carpenter will be called upon to ...
-Centers For Arches: Domes. Part 2
The curve of the dome is described from s' as a center with a radius s' c. This is also the curve of the outside of the rafter. The center of the plan s is the point from which the curved outline of ...
-Centers For Arches: Domes. Part 3
There will be four sets of these ribs, each set representing one-quarter of the dome. The rib be will have for its curve a quarter circle with a radius e b, as shown at of q r, where the points e and ...
-Centers For Arches: Domes. 212. Pendentives
Pendentives. Another method of finishing the roof or ceiling over the intersection of two passageways, is to construct over the crossing a hemispherical dome, when the passages are of the same width, ...
-Centers For Arches: Domes. 216. Niches
Niches. Vaulted, groined, and domed passages, such as those just described, seldom occur except in monumental work, and the side walls of such passages are often broken by niches for the reception of ...
-Slow-Burning Construction
217. When a wooden building is constructed of good, sound, well seasoned material, and the workmanship on that material is first class in every respect, there is no reason why the house should not ...
-Slow-Burning Construction. Part 2
224. Roofing Roofing. The roof of such a building as that shown in Fig. 90 should be as nearly flat as is consistent with a proper watershed, and built of 2-inch plank laid on roof beams ...
-Slow-Burning Construction. Part 3
231. Private Residences Private Residences. It is only very recently that slow-burning construction has been applied to the building of frame dwellings, but it has been found to lend itself so ...
-Joinery. Province Of Joinery
1. Joinery, as distinguished from carpentry, relates to that branch of the woodworking trades which deals with those internal and external fittings of a house that are put in place after the rough fra...
-Joints. Part 5
2, To insure durable and flush connections between the parts joined together, due consideration must be given to the form and character of the joints, so that the strains to which they are subjected m...
-Joints. Part 6
9. The shouldered-and-mitered joint, shown in Fig. 4, is a combination of the forms shown in Figs. 2 and 3. It presents the advantages of showing no end grain as does Fig. 8, and possesses the additio...
-Joints. Part 7
18. Keys And Keying Keys And Keying. When broad, plain surfaces, such as dados, window backs, table tops, etc., are required, the boards forming them are generally tongued-and-grooved together, or ...
-General Joinery. Provision For Expansion And Contraction
20. All joiners' work that is not framed or built up should be so fixed that it is free to expand and contract. In a broad surface, such as a plain wainscot, this is accomplished by securing one edg...
-Interior Trim
21. It is the work of the joiner to apply the door and window casings, baseboards or skirtings, wainscoting, chair rails, paneled jambs, etc., and to hang the doors, sashes, transoms, etc., which fit ...
-Interior Trim. Continued
26. Dados And Wainscots Dados And Wainscots. In some rooms where there is likelihood of much changing of the position of the furniture, such as the dining room, kitchen, library, etc., as well as i...
-Door Making
35. A door is a simple piece of paneled work, but the great variety of form and arrangement of its panels, and the enrichment of its moldings, together with the conditions arising from its method of o...
-Door Making. Continued
40. The proportions of the panels, and the details of the design of the panels and moldings of doors, are subject to great variation. The lock-rail, however, should always be in a position not too low...
-Windows
45. In the construction of a building, openings are left in the walls which are subsequently to be provided with some form of window frame and sash. The particular form in each case will depend upon t...
-Windows. Part 2
50. At {d) is shown a section through the window head at the center of the opening. Here the stud a' is shown in its position at the top of the frame opening, while the window head g' is shown 2 inche...
-Windows. Part 3
Table Of Sizes And Number Of Panes In A Box Of Window Glass Size in Inches. Panes in Box. Size in Inches. Panes in Box. Size in Inches. ...
-Windows. Part 4
The portion r s then butts against the rib at v c, and the whole is secured in place by the pressure of the stiles of the sash against the outer ends of the horizontal bars. The mortising of the ho...
-Windows. Part 5
Fig. 29 shows the plan (a), elevation (b), and section (c) of a French window, together with the general details of its construction. In the plan (a) are seen the double studs b forming the sides of t...
-Windows. Part 6
64. Windows In Curved Walls Windows In Curved Walls. When the wall in which a window frame is to be built is not straight but curved, as would be the case in a circular tower or semicircular bay wi...
-Windows. Part 7
Fig. 32. The other pattern is required to trace this same curve on the concave side of the sash head. On the line w k, Fig. 33, are laid off the distances k o, or, etc. equal to c' f, etc., o...
-Windows. Part 8
Fig. 37. 72. To find the bevel for a butt joint on the square edge from a, Fig. 38, draw a f parallel to h j; from f, draw f g at right angles to h j; make i g equal to the thickness da; conn...
-Windows. Part 9
Fig. 42. 77. Window or door openings in a straight wall with splayed jambs and pointed soffits next demand attention. To unfold the length and shape of the soffit on the plan shown in Fig. 43...
-Windows. Part 10
To insure a better understanding- of this work, a perspective drawing- of the conelike solid, the surface of which corresponds to the contour of the inside of this arched opening, is shown in Fig. 47....
-Bending Wood
85. When it is required that a surface shall present a curved form, the wood may be bent around it by any one of five methods, namely, by saw kerfing, keying, backing a veneer, laminating, or steaming...
-Veneeeing
91. Hard woods, such as oak, ash, rosewood, etc., cannot be used in joiners' work, where the pieces are of any considerable dimensions, unlesss they are backed up with some lighter or more reliable wo...
-Blinds
98. In order to prevent the strong sunlight from streaming through the windows of a dwelling or other structure, these openings are usually provided with blinds, or shutters, which may be of several ...
-Hinges And Their Application
105. Butts, or hinges, are used in hanging doors, inside shutters, lids of chests, boxes, etc. The butt generally used in hanging doors is a loose pin butt; the pin being loose, it can be readily take...
-Interior Fittings
108. Though the location of the fixtures and the arrangement of the pipes in the bathroom are usually considered only in connection with the plumbers' work, the finish of these details and the general...
-Interior Fittings. Continued
110. Butler's Pantry Butler's Pantry. There is no part of a private residence where the joiner is called upon to do so much work in a small space as in the butler's pantry. The pantry must contain ...
-Exterior Joinsery
112. Store Front Store Front. In Fig. 72 (a) is shown the treatment usually given a store front, to provide a proper entrance to the store, adequate display windows for goods, and a private entranc...
-A Series Of Questions And Examples
Relating to the Subjects Treated of in this Volume. It will be noticed that the various Question Papers in this volume are numbered to correspond with the sections to which they refer, the section ...
-Masonry. (Arts. 1-285. Sec. 7.)
(1) (a) How is blasting performed ? (b) What is meant by wedging rock? (2) How is concrete made, and what are good proportions of its ingredients for foundations? (3) (a) When are inverted arche...
-Masonry. (Arts. 1-364. Sec. 8.)
(1) (a) State how changes of temperature affect the durability of stone, (b) Why is granite better than limestones and sandstones for damp situations? (c) Why should stone be laid on its natural, or q...
-Carpentry. (Arts. 1-234. Sec. 9.)
(1) How should the first course of shingles be laid on the roof? (2) When is it necessary to truss a partition? (3) What is the essential difference between the method of flashing hips and the m...
-Joinery. (Arts. 1-116. Sec. 10.)
(1) What method is generally adopted where several stiles and rails of a door are to be veneered at one time? (2) Describe in detail the method of veneering a small cylinder. (3) In bending wood...









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