This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol3: Stair Building, Ornamental Ironwork, Roofing, Sheet-Metal Work, Electric-Light Wiring And Bellwork", by The Colliery Engineer Co.. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
Expanding pipes should be used to overcome the trouble from frost. A common form, shown in Fig. 44, is simply a corrugated round pipe. The corrugations allow the pipe to increase enough in diameter to compensate for the formation of ice inside, without bursting the pipe. If the pipe is frozen repeatedly it will ultimately burst, because it takes a permanent set every time it is thus expanded. These pipes are usually made of galvanized iron or cold-rolled copper, in 8 or 10 foot lengths.