G3. Most of the examples heretofore given have been of light work that could be made without heating the iron, but in Fig. 85 is shown a piece of a more substantial character. The main bars are 1 1/2 inches square, the cross bars are 3 in. x 1 1/2 in., wide enough for the uprights to pass through, and the scrollwork is of 1/4"X 1" material. When a bar is to be punched out, as in the horizontal members in this case, there should be ample metal left on each side of the hole punched to prevent the sides from spreading under the pressure of the punch and leaving the bar somewhat protruded at these points. The scrolls are alike in the lower part of the gate, and are secured to the upright bars by a narrow strap on one side and a countersunk screw on the other. The hinge or hanger should be arranged at the top and made as shown in Fig. 86. The frame of the gate, which is a square bar, is rounded where the hinge clasps it, as shown at (a). The jagged part of the hinge is embedded in the stone piers or wall to which the gate is to be hung, and fixed in place with molten lead; or, where circumstances will permit it, the bar is passed entirely through the wall and secured on the other side with a large washer and nut. The gate is held by the clasp, which is secured with two bolts passing through the hinge bar, as shown at (b).

Gates And Fences 195

Fig. 85.

In exceptionally high-grade work, the inside of the hinge is lined with a brass collar, as shown in Fig. 87, which prevents the two surfaces from rusting when they are in contact. Nearly all gates, and especially heavy gates, are pivoted at the bottom; and the pivot is usually formed at the lower part, or heel, of the gate itself, and fits in a socket under the gate. The objection to this method is that the socket is likely to fill with dirt, and the gate become difficult to move. A better way is to make the socket part of the gate, and have the pivot separate, as shown in Fig. 87 (c). An oil hole may then be bored through the socket in an oblique direction to the pivot, which may then be oiled; and, as the socket is in the gate, the dust and dirt cannot get in and clog it up.

Gates And Fences 196

Fig. 86.

Gates And Fences 197

(a)

Gates And Fences 198

(b)

Gates And Fences 199

(c)

Fig. 87.

64. The railing shown in Fig. 88 is a good example of forged work, and illustrates the application of leafwork without detracting from the lines of the fence. The main uprights and the horizontal rails are clearly defined, and, as they should be, much heavier than the bars and scrolls filling the panels formed by them. The fence is divided into large panels or sections, one a double gateway. The first two upright bars at each end of the panels are carried up, forming posts, and an increase in the size of these bars would be an improvement and further emphasize the post effect. The top of the post is finished with a finial ornament, and the gate as well as the side panels are finished with a cresting. The cresting of the gates is arranged to group them as one panel, and the main scrolls are decorated with leafwork. The top and bottom of both the gates and panels are well braced with an open rail having a scroll let in between. The scrolls filling the top and bottom of the panels are finished with a leaf-and-bud ornament, and the bars are braced by three rows of rings secured with straps and screws. The posts from which the gates are hung are braced with triangular foot braces, and these as well as the posts themselves are leaded into the stonework, while the post next the column is secured with expansion bolts. The gate shown at Fig. 80 is a vigorous, well balanced design, decidedly German in character, and including in the design of its transom the German national emblem. The side panels of the screen, as well as the outside of the transom, are open and less elaborate than the central panels, the contrast between them heightening the effect by separating the rich carving which existed on the stone architrave from the elaborate iron grille of the center. The transom bar is in four panels, each of which is filled between the border frame and lower rail with grille-work composed of crossed scrolls and decorated with leaves and rosettes. The continuation of the principal vertical lines from the screen to the transom bar is accomplished by a console bracket, the top of which clasps the transom-bar rail. A point in this design which might be improved is the manner in which the inner frame of the semicircular transom border is carried down past the top of the transom bar to the border frame, thus giving the ideathat the transom frame is supported there; the omission of this piece of frame would consider-ably heighten the border effect and remove this weak appearance.

Gates And Fences 200

Fig. 88.

Gates And Fences 201

Fig. 89.

65. At Fig. 90 is an example of a small garden gate in cast iron, and with the exception of the central shield and the ornament at the top, all the members are kept approximately the same general thickness, to avoid any danger of cracking during the cooling stage. The parts that appear heavier on the face are thinned out to preserve the balance of metal. Cast iron for small work of this kind is inferior to wrought, as the effect of contrasting heavy and delicate features is somewhat wanting, owing to the limitations of the material. The railing shown at Fig. 91 is a very massive one, and still the proper thought has been given to the different members. The posts or supports are made triangular in shape, as shown at (a), and would almost retain their position without the aid of the expansion bolts by which they are secured to the coping, as shown at (b). This railing tops a stepped coping, as shown at (c), and is joined by easy and graceful scrolls at the point of step b. The corners are arranged as at c in the plan (d), and the grille bent to the radius formed by the intersection of the supports at their bases. The hand rail is a wrought-iron pipe finished at the ends with a knob ornament, and the top has a bar studded with spikes to prevent lounging upon it.

Gates And Fences 202

Fig. 90.

Gates And Fences 203

Fig. 91.