(1) (a) State a method of altering the stairway shown in Fig. 21. (b) Show how to lay out an easement curve for a stringer.

(2) (a) Define riser, tread, and step, (b) What is meant by flight and by landing? (c) What determines the nature of the landing?

(3) (a) What are balusters? (b) When are they fixed to the tread, and when to the stringer? (c) How many balusters are generally set on each tread?

(4) (a) What are curtail steps and bull-nose steps? (b) How are right and left hand stairways distinguished from each other?

(5) (a) What is a cylinder in a stairway? (b) What is a facia?

(6) Explain by diagram how to determine the exact height at which the eased rail will connect with the newel, following the method given in Fig. 34.

(7) Give a method of finding the distance between kerfs for bending wood to a required radius.

(8) (a) What advantage is possessed by the form of construction shown in Fig. 44? (b) What by that shown in Fig. 47?

(9) (a) How is the housing of a stringer made? (b) How are the steps supported between the stringers if the stairway is wide?

(10) (a) How should the finished work on a stairway be protected during the construction of the building? (b) To what are creaking noises in a stairway due?

(11) (a) How are the treads and risers attached to each other? (b) Describe the method of forming a bull-nose step.

(12) What are fliers and winders?

(13) (A) Why is the number of treads in each flight one less than the number of risers? (b) A riser has a height of 7 inches; determine the width of the tread by rules I and II.

(14) Make a sketch showing a method of describing the curves of a curtail step.

(15) (a) What is the proper height for a riser? (b) How is the exact height of a riser for a stairway determined?

(16) What advantage has the construction shown in Fig. 56?

(17) How should moldings be worked?

(18) Given a tread of 9 inches, determine the height of the riser by rule III.

(19) What are the advantages of arranging the hand rail as shown in Fig. 40?

(20) (a) How are portions of hallways adjoining the stairway sometimes finished? (b) Describe a method of fastening wainscoting so that no nails will be seen on the face.

(21) (a) What is meant by an open stringer? (b) What is a close stringer?

(22) (a) How are platforms supported in frame and brick walls? (b) Why should diagonal braces and outlooks be made of well seasoned wood?

(23) (a) What are the common lengths of pin balusters? (b) When two balusters are placed on one tread, how should they be arranged?

(24) Show by sketch and explanation how to find the center line of the rail shown in Fig. 33.

(25) (a) How is the front stringer formed in geometrical stairways? (b) In such stairways, how are the rails supported?

(26) Describe the method of scribing a wall stringer.

(27) Explain how to determine the headroom of the stairway shown in Fig. 20, without making use of the elevation.

(28) (a) What is a pitch board? (b) Where should the lower edge of the stringer be located relative to the intersection of the exposed faces of treads and risers?

(29) (a) What is a newel? (b) Where are starting and angle newels usually placed?

(30) Name the materials of which stairways are constructed, and state when each should be used.

(31) (a) What should be the least headroom for a stairway? (b) What arrangement is followed when there are winders at the bottom of the flight?

(32) (a) What is an open-newel stairway? (b) When is a stringer said to be wreathed?

(33) Make sketch of and describe the construction of a common factory stairway.

(34) What distance should exist between the center line of the rail of the flight and the facia of the landing?

(35) Show how to find the length of arc of a semicircular cylinder, following the method shown in (d), Fig. 23.

(36) (a) What is a dog-leg stairway? (b) What objection is there to its use?

(37) What is the primary conception of a stairway?

(38) (a) Name the principal points to be considered in designing a stairway. (b) Give the minimum widths of stairways in public and private buildings.

(39) (a) Mention some points to be considered in setting the hand rail. (b) What is a ramped hand rail, and what is its object? (c) When a continued hand rail is used, how may it be braced or stiffened?

(40) Show by sketch and explanation how to obtain the hand-rail easement shown in Fig. 30.

(41) (a) What disadvantage has the stairway shown in Fig. 49? (b) What is the reason for forming the risers as shown in Fig. 52?

(42) (a) Name two methods of construction of stairways, and state wherein they differ. (b) State the advantages of, and objections to, the system in which carriage timbers are cut to the angle of intersection between the treads and risers.