This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol4: Plumbing And Gas-Fitting, Heating And Ventilation, Painting And Decorating, Estimating And Calculating Quantities", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.

(1) (a) State the number of pounds and kind of nails required for laying 1,000 shingles, 1,000 square feet of beveled siding, and 1,000 square feet 1 1/8-inch finished flooring. (b) State the length and number per pound of 4d., 10d., and 20d. common nails.

(2) {a) How many square feet of roof will a box of 14" X 20" tin cover, if laid with flat lock-seams? (b) About how much does tin roofing cost per square foot?

(3) (a) Using regular coursed bluestone ashlar, what will be its cost per square foot, laid in the wall, including cost of dressed stone, hauling, and setting? (b) What is the cost per square foot of 3-inch flagstone for a 4-foot walk, including cost of setting?

(4) (a) About how many square yards of wood and brick will 1 pound of paint cover, first and second coats? (b) About how many square feet will 1 gallon of shingle stain cover if the shingles are rough-sawed?

(5) (a) What items does the estimate for "Carpentry" include? (b) Using either of the rules for board measure, how many board feet are there in a 3" X 8" piece, 18 1/2 feet long? Ans. (b) 37 ft. B. M.

(0) Mention some of the points to be considered in estimating on the water-supply system.

(7) Analyze the cost of 1 square yard of a concrete cellar floor.

(8) State the approximate cost of heating by hot air, by steam, and by hot water, expressed as percentages of the cost of the building.

(9) Analyze the cost of 1 square of slating.

(10) (a) At about what per cent. of the cost of the building may the cost of the gas-fitting be estimated? (b) What proportion of the cost of materials will be the cost of labor?

(11) Analyze the cost of 1,000 feet B. M. of hemlock framing.

(12) State the proportions of materials and amount of labor necessary to lay 1 perch of rubble masonry, using l-to-3 lime mortar.

(13) What are the materials generally used for roof covering?

(14) (a) Show how to find the exposed length of a shingle. (b) Explain the method of finding the number of shingles required per square.

(15) Show how the cost of finished floor per square foot may be determined.

(16) (a) How is excavation measured? (b) Mention some points requiring consideration in fixing the price of excavation.

(17) (a) In estimating brickwork by the cubic yard, how many bricks should be figured? (b) In computing footings, how many bricks, per lineal foot, should be allowed for an 18-inch wall?

(18) Give the analysis of cost of 100 square yards of 3-coat plastering.

(19) (a) State how many square feet of granite, blue-stone, and sandstone a stone cutter can cut in a day. (b) About how much should be allowed for waste in dressing stone?

(20) (a) State the method of figuring wooden cornices. (b) For general carpentry work, what per cent. of the cost of materials is the cost of labor?

(21) (a) Name some of the reasons why a successful estimator should have an extensive experience, (b) In making an estimate, what points should be kept in view?

(•22) (a) About what will be the cost per step of an ordinary 3-foot stairway? (b) What part of this cost will be for material, and what for labor?

(23) (a) About what per cent. of the cost of the building may be used as the approximate estimate for hardware? (b) About what per cent. of the cost of hardware will be the cost of labor of fitting, etc.?

(24) (a) How many square feet will 1,000 shingles, 6 inches wide and exposed 5 inches, lay? (b) How many, of the same size and exposure, will be required for 100 square feet of roofing?

(25) (a) What is the general proportion between the cost of labor and that of materials, in painting? (b) What in varnishing?

(26) State the approximate cost of both window frame and sash, per window of two lights, each 2$ inches square.

(27) (a) In making an estimate, into what three general subdivisions may the work be divided? (b) State the order in which the separate branches of work should be taken up.

(28) (a) How is molded work figured? {b) At what price may paneling be estimated?

(29) (a) What is meant by an approximate estimate? (b) Make an approximate estimate of cost of a small house 18 ft. X 28 ft. X 18 ft. high to eaves, with 7-foot cellar, and half-pitch roof, assuming the cost to be 8 cents per cubic foot. Ans. $1,189.44.

(30) (a) How many pieces of 8" X 12", and of 12"x 20" slate will be required per square? (b) About how much does slating cost per square foot?

(31) Give a general rule for estimating the number of studs (a) when set at 16-inch centers; (b) when set at 12-inch centers.

(32) (a) How should glass be measured? (b) What is single and double thick glass? (c) How many 12" X 18" panes does a box contain?

(33) (a) State the approximate cost of both frame and door for a 2' 8"x 6' 8" opening. (b) About how many ordinary doors can a man hang and trim in a day?

(34) (a) Show how to find the number of rolls of paper required for a room. • (b) About how much does paper hanging cost per roll?

(35) (a) What are the general sizes and thicknesses of sawed shingles? (b) About how many shingles can a man lay per day on straight work?

(36) (a) How is wainscoting measured? (b) How are stairways usually figured?

(37) Give the analysis of cost of 1 square foot of ashlar.

(38) (a) At what per cent. of cost of building may the cost of plumbing be approximately estimated? (b) What proportion of the cost of plumbing materials will be the cost of labor?

(39) Two men in a 9-hour day can put in place about how many feet of (a) studding? (b) matched sheathing, laid diagonally? (c) siding?

(40) (a) At what figure may bridging be estimated? (b) How may the number of board feet of sheathing, laid diagonally, be found?

(41) {a) Give the quantities of oil and drier required per 100 pounds of lead for the first, second, and third coats of paint, (b) For what reason is drier usually omitted in all coats after the first?

(42) (a) About how many square yards of 3-coat plastering- can be laid in a day by two plasterers and one laborer? (b) About how much per square yard will the labor on 2-coat plastering cost, exclusive of lathing?

(43) (a) Name the two classes into which stone is separated at the stone quarry, and describe each, (b) How is ashlar figured?

(44) (a) How much must the actual area be increased if 6-inch siding is to be used? (b) How much for 4-inch stuff? (c) In what case is it not necessary to figure base and corner boards separately?

(45) (a) What will be the cost of an ordinary 5-foot veranda, including balustrade, with 2-inch turned balusters? (b) Where the veranda is partly curved, how may the cost of such portion be estimated?

(46) (a) State the amount of material and labor required to lay 1,000 bricks, using l-to-3 Rosendale cement mortar. (b) What is the cost of common brickwork per 1,000 bricks, laid in a l-to-3 lime mortar? (c) If the work is measured without deducting openings, what per cent. less than the figures for kiln count should be used?

(47) What will be the cost of 16 feet of 1 1/8" (1 1/4") X 5" window jambs, according to the rule given for estimating molded work?

(48) Make a schedule of some of the items to be considered (a) in masonry; (b) in steam heating; (c) in gas-fitting.

(49) How is the exposed length of a slate determined?

(50) (a) What is the reason for increasing the actual area of the floor in computing finished flooring? (b) If l 1/8-inch floor is used, how much must the actual area be increased?

(51) (a) How is plastering usually measured? (b) What is the smallest opening that should be deducted in figuring plastering? (c) How are cornices measured?

(52) (a) How is brickwork usually estimated? (b) For each square foot of wall 3 bricks thick, how many bricks are allowed?

(53) (a) What is the most common error made in figuring roof areas? (b) Show how to find the length of a valley rafter.

(54) About what is the cost per thousand of putting on laths?

(55) What items are included in estimating joinery?

(56) (a) How is painting measured? (b) For what reason are balustrades, etc. counted solid?

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