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A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol4: Plumbing And Gas-Fitting, Heating And Ventilation, Painting And Decorating, Estimating And Calculating Quantities



The duty of a plumber. is to provide dwellings and other buildings with systems of piping, the several objects of which are: 1. To supply and distribute water to convenient points. 2. To receive and conduct away all dirty and refuse water. 3. To conduct away and dispose of all filth, excreta, and other sewage matter, and to remove all noxious odors arising therefrom. He also provides apparatus for heating water, and for pumping, storing, and measuring cold water, also lavatories and baths, laundry tubs and sinks, water closets and urinals, cesspools, drains, etc.

TitleA Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol4: Plumbing And Gas-Fitting, Heating And Ventilation, Painting And Decorating, Estimating And Calculating Quantities
AuthorThe Colliery Engineer Co.
PublisherThe Colliery Engineer Co.
Year1899
Copyright1899, The Colliery Engineer Co.
AmazonA Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction

Prepared for Students of The International Correspondence Schools Scranton, Pa

Volume IV

Plumbing And Gas-Fitting, Heating And Ventilation, Painting And Decorating, Estimating And Calculating Quantities

With Practical Questions And Examples

-Plumbing And Gas-Fitting. Plumbing. Introduction
1. The duty of a plumber. is to provide dwellings and other buildings with systems of piping, the several objects of which are: 1. To supply and distribute water to convenient points. 2. To receive ...
-Plumbing Fixtures. Sinks
4. Sinks are of several varieties; viz., kitchen sinks, butlers' pantry sinks, and slop sinks. They are made of wood, cast iron, steel, enameled iron, brown glazed earthenware, porcelain, soapstone, ...
-Wash Basins
10. Wash basins are either round or oval in shape. The ova/ basin affords more room for the free use of the arms than a round one of the same capacity, and is, therefore, preferred. Basins are measur...
-Baths
13. The sloping end of a bath tub is called the head, and the vertical end is the foot. Tubs are made in three general styles, the ordinary, French, and Roman, the difference being in the shape. The ...
-Baths. Continued
22. Shower Bath Shower Bath. The apparatus for a shower bath consists mainly of a large sprinkler, which delivers the water downwards in fine streams like a shower of rain. The chief objection to pl...
-Laundry Tubs
2 7. Wash tubs are made of various materials. The cheapest varieties are made of wood, the ends and partitions being rabbeted into the sides and bottom. The joints should be well painted with white le...
-Water Closets
32. The duty of water closets is to thoroughly remove all filth that may be deposited in them. They must be free from all odors and must prevent the escape of odors from the soil pipe back into the dw...
-Flushing Apparatus
39. The purpose of a flushing apparatus is to thoroughly detach and remove all excreta, etc., from a water-closet bowl and drive it through and beyond the trap. If the excreta can be driven out of the...
-Latrines
46. latrines are a series of strong stoneware or cast-iron pans or closet bowls, usually porcelain lined, connected at their bottom by a large pipe which forms part of them and which has a gentle fall...
-Urinals
48. Urinals are made of two styles, round and lipped. The latter are to be preferred, because they catch drippings betterthandothe round ones. Urinal waste pipes are likely to become choked from orga...
-Kitchen Ranges
50. There are so many different kinds of kitchen ranges on the market at present, that we will not attempt to describe them, except in a general way. Portable ranges, or kitchen stoves, as they are o...
-Waterbacks Or Water Heaters
53. Hot water for domestic purposes is commonly heated in the cooking range by means of a waterback, or by a coil of pipe which extends around the top edge of the firebox. A waterback is a cast-iron b...
-Hot-Water Boilers
55. Boilers for domestic use are made either of copper, thoroughly tinned upon the inside, or of galvanized iron. They are usually set in a vertical position, but when circumstances require it, they c...
-Hot-Water Boilers. Continued
58. Horizontal Boilers Horizontal Boilers. These are employed where there is no room to stand a vertical boiler. The manner of connecting them is shown in Fig. 29. A is the hot-water supply pipe; B i...
-Storage Tanks For Water
61. Tanks to store water for supplying plumbing fixtures must be set at least 6 feet above the level of the highest point to which water is to be supplied by them. The choice of material to be used i...
-Locating Fixtures
72. Fixtures should be so located in a building that the pipes necessary to supply them with water, and carry off the discharges from them, shall not be run in exposed walls; although in many cases it...
-Materials. Pipes
13. Pipes for the use of plumbers are made of many materials, including lead, lead with tin lining, block tin, brass, copper, wrought iron, wrought iron with lead lining, cast iron, fireclay, terra co...
-Materials. Pipes. Part 2
Table 2. Lead Tubing 1 in.......... 3/4 oz. per ft 1/8 in..... 1 1/4 oz. per ft. 5/32 in . . ....2 1/4 oz. ...
-Materials. Pipes. Part 3
Table 5. Standard Dimensions Of Wrought-Iron Pipe Nominal Internal Diameter. Inches. Actual Internal Diameter. Inches. Actual External Diameter. Inches. Thickness of Meta...
-Choice Of Materials
80. Globe valves and globe checks retard the flow of water too much, and, therefore, should not be used for low-pressure work, nor where a loss of pressure would be objectionable. Gate valves, or plug...
-Inspection Of Materials
92. All materials should be inspected when received and before accepting them. Black sheet iron should be examined for flaws or holes on its surface, for equality of thickness, and as to its liabilit...
-House Drainage. Sewage And Sewer Gas
107. Sewage is composed of water mixed with kitchen slops, grease, soap, urine, washings from stables and slaughterhouses, rags, leaves, paper, human excreta, etc. The animal and vegetable matters in ...
-Traps
108. A trap is a device which allows the free passage through it of liquids and such solid matter as the liquid may carry with it, but which prevents the passage of air or gas in either direction. Th...
-Traps. Continued
114. General Remarks General Remarks. The requirements of a good trap are: (1) that it shall entirely and effectually prevent the passage of any air or gas from the waste pipe backwards into the hous...
-Grease Intercepters And Traps
118. Grease is very troublesome, because it is liquid and runs out of the sink readily while accompanied by hot water; but as soon as it encounters the cold surface of the waste or drain pipe, it soli...
-Vents And Siphonage
120. The water which seals a trap is very likely to be drawn out by the suction of the water which passes down the waste pipe, unless some means be used to destroy the suction. The waste water should ...
-Waste Pipes
122. Waste pipes are those pipes which convey waste water from any or all of the fixtures in a building except the water closets. If their length exceeds 4 or 5 feet, they are usually made of cast iro...
-Soil, And Vent Pipes
125. Soil and vent pipes should run vertically if practicable, and if they must be run otherwise, they should be inclined not less than 1 foot in 40 feet. All bends and curves should be made of large ...
-Drains
130. Drains should have a uniform pitch or fall throughout their length. The line of pipe must not have any part of it run on a level, nor should it be allowed to have any part of it sag below the gen...
-Main Disconnecting Traps
139. The main disconnecting trap, or main drain trap, as it is sometimes called, is a very important detail in a house-drain age system. Its office is to prevent gases in the city sewers or cesspools ...
-Fresh-Air Circulation
142. All of the drains, soil pipes, and waste pipes which are wholly or partly inside of a dwelling or public building should be kept free from accumulation of foul gases or odors, and should be so fr...
-Testing Drains, Etc
147. Earthen drains should be carefully tested for leakage before the trenches are filled. The low end of the line of pipe should be plugged, and all branches should be stopped temporarily. The drain ...
-Ventilation Of Water-Closet Apartments
151. When a water closet is being used, an offensive smell is usually given off. This is partly taken away by the local vent (if any), and part of it will contaminate the air in the apartment. To remo...
-Disposal Of Sewage
153. Sewage matter from buildings is disposed of in various ways, but chiefly by the following methods: 1. By a connection to the main or street sewer pipe or culvert. 2. By cesspools. 3. By direct...
-Stable Drainage
158. The waste water and urine from stables, etc. may be conducted away by gutters sunk in the floor. These gutters are usually made of cast iron and are covered by perforated plates, which can be rea...
-Water Supply. Methods Of Supplying Water
159. In the case of isolated buildings, such as country residences, the architect is frequently required, not only to specify fixtures and piping, but also means for procuring water. A slight knowledg...
-Water Meters
166. Water meters are used to measure the quantity of water which passes through the service pipe to the building. Meters should always be set level to secure proper operation of the working parts. T...
-Size Of Water Pipes
168. The proper diameter of pipes which are to supply hot or cold water, depends upon several considerations: 1. The number and size of faucets that are likely to be discharging water at the same tim...
-Purification Of Water
173. The impurities which occur in ordinary waters are of two kinds; namely, mechanical, or those held in suspension by the water; and physical, or those held in solution. The mechanical impurities ar...
-Filters
176. In all varieties of filters the velocity of the water passing through them should be low enough to permit the finest sediments to deposit themselves upon the surface of the beds of filtering mate...
-Supports For Pipes
179. Lead pipes 2 inches in diameter and less, which run against walls, etc., are usually supported by means of flanges, or pipe tacks, which are soldered on to the pipe at convenient intervals, and a...
-Supports For Pipes. Continued
Table 8 Size of Pipe. Inches. Vertical Pipe. Horizontal Pipe. Distance Apart. Inches. Distance Apart. Inches. Hot. Cold. Hot. Cold. ...
-Systems Of Plumbing And Drainage
188. The student having now become familiar with the principal details of plumbing and drainage systems, we will proceed to illustrate, by the following figures, or plans, how the several parts, when ...
-Plan No. 1: Outside House Drainage
189. Fig. 71 shows in plan and sectional elevation a system of drainage suitable for an isolated building. Water is assumed to be scarce, and the rain water falling upon the roof of the building is ...
-Plan No. 2: Inside House Drainage
191. Fig. 72 shows, in sectional elevation, a system of drains, soil, waste, and vent pipes for a city building. All of the sewage from the building is discharged into the street sewer a by a 6-inch ...
-Plan No. 3: Water Supply, Street Pressure
192. Fig. 73 represents the building and fixtures already shown in Plan No. 2, along with a system of piping for the supply and distribution of hot and cold water, the supply being taken from the ...
-Plan No. 4: Water Supply, Tank Pressure
193. In this plan, Fig. 74, the same building and the same fixtures as those in Plans Nos. 2 and 3 are shown. The fixtures are all supplied from a house tank a on the top floor. This tank is filled ...
-Plan No. 5: Water Supply, Double-Boiler System
194. Fig. 75 shows how the lower floors of a building may be supplied with hot and cold water from the city mains, while the upper floors are supplied from a tank, one waterback being employed to ...
-Laws And Regulations
195. The plumbing and drainage of buildings is regulated by law in many cities and towns. These regulations establish a standard of general excellence, to which all architects and plumbers must ...
-Gas And Gas-Fitting. Varieties Of Gas
196. Until-recent years only one kind of gas was used for illuminating and heating purposes, and that was obtained by the distillation of bituminous coal. The demand for gas for heating purposes, ...
-Gas And Gas-Fitting. Varieties Of Gas. Continued
It is composed mainly of a compound of carbon and hydrogen, called light carbureted hydrogen. This often amounts to 90 per cent or more of the total volume. Consequently, the gas will develop more hea...
-Gas Measurement
207. Gas is measured for pressure and for volume. The pressure of gas is usually measured by a water gauge, and the reading is taken in inches of water, which represents the vertical height of a ...
-Piping Buildings
211. The main supply pipes which are laid in the streets are called mains. They are made of cast iron. The branches which conduct gas from the mains to the house are called service pipes or services....
-Piping Buildings. Continued
Example What diameter of pipe should be used to supply three ordinary burners, the length being 00 feet? Solution The quantity consumed will be 3 X 5 = 15 cubic feet per hour. The table shows that ...
-Gas-Fitters Plans
218. The location of gas fixtures is generally indicated by a star, thus *, and the number of burners on each fixture, together with the height of the fixture above the floor, is usually stated in ...
-Testing A System Of Pipes
225. As soon as the pipes are all in place and are properly secured, the system should be tested to find whether it is perfectly gas-tight. The instruments required for making the test are a pump and ...
-Gas Burners For Lighting Purposes
226. The common fishtail, or union jet, burner is shown in Fig. 82. The gas issues from the orifices shown, in two round jets, which collide and spread out into a flat two-pointed flame, of the ...
-Bursters For Producing Heat
233. All burners which are designed to produce heat rather than light, are constructed to mingle the gas with more or less air before burning. They, therefore, belong to the class known as ...
-Fixtures
238. The term fixture is applied to the apparatus which supports the gas burners and serves to connect them to the supply pipes. They are divided into three general classes: brackets, or side lights, ...
-Details Of Fixtures
243. Igniters are devices for lighting gas burners, either singly or in groups, and are designed to save the time and labor which would be required to light them by hand. A self-lighting gas burner ...
-Details Of Fixtures. Continued
246. Globes Globes. The primary object of enclosing a gas burner within a globe is to protect the flame from interference by drafts of air. A globe, however, acts as a chimney and causes a strong ...
-Location Of Gas Fixtures
250. The chief considerations which govern the location of gas fixtures are: first, that they shall light the rooms to good advantage; and, second, that they shall cause no danger from fire. In ...
-Illumination
252. The ideal of artificial illumination is to have the light coming from overhead, and to have it so thoroughly diffused that no object in the room shall appear conspicuously brighter than any ...
-Amount Of Light Required
254. Rooms having dark-colored walls, or having much colored drapery, will require more light than they would if finished in white. The white walls reflect and disperse the light, thus aiding the ...
-Photometry
255. The capacity of the human eye for the perception of light is comparatively small. It is unable to perceive very faint lights, and it is dazzled and confused by lights of great brilliancy. ...
-Photometry. Continued
Table 11 1 50.00 2 41.42 3 36.61 4 33.33 5 30.90 6 28.98 7 27.43 8 26.12 9 2...
-Heat. The Nature Of Heat: Temperature
1. Composition Of Matter Composition Of Matter. Matter-that is, the substance of which bodies are composed-is made up of molecules. A molecule is defined as the smallest portion of matter that can ex...
-Heat Propagation
6. Heat may be transmitted by radiation, by conduction, and by- convection. 7. Radiation Radiation. The tendency of heat is to pass away from a warm body instantaneously, and with equal energy in al...
-Heat Propagation. Continued
Table 1. Reflecting Power All metals will conduct heat internally much faster than they can either absorb it at, or emit it from, their surfaces. It will be seen, therefore, that a knowledge of their...
-Expansion
15. If a body absorbs heat, its volume will be changed correspondingly. Nearly all bodies expand when heated; a few substances are known which contract, but these exceptions are of no practical import...
-Specific Heat
19. As stated in Art. 5, one B. T. U. will raise the temperature of a pound of water from 62 to 63. The question arises, Will 1 B. T. U. raise a pound of any other substance, say mercury or ...
-Liquids
Water at 62.... 1.0000 Alcohol....... 0.7000 Mercury...... 0.0333 Benzine.... 0.4500 Glycerine...... 0.5550 Lead (m...
-Gases
Air.... 0.23751 Oxygen..... 0.21751 Nitrogen... 0.24380 Hydrogen.... 3.40900 Carbonic oxide... 0.2479 Carbonic acid.... ...
-Latent Heat
23. In changing a solid body to a liquid, either by melting or by dissolving it, or in changing a liquid to vapor or gas, a large amount of heat may be applied without changing the temperature. Thus, ...
-Thermometers
25. For measuring ordinary temperatures, the mercurial thermometer described in Art. 3 is used. For measuring low temperatures, alcohol is used in the thermometer tube instead of mercury. Mercury beco...
-Absolute Zero
27. It has been found by experiment that all perfect gases will expand 1/460 of their volume when heated from zero to 1 above. It is inferred, therefore, that the ultimate limit of contraction wo...
-Air And Gases. Composition Of The Atmosphere
28. The atmosphere is composed of several bodies of gas, which exist independently of one another. They are thoroughly mingled by diffusion, but they are not united or combined in any way. The princip...
-Heat Contained In Air
29. The following rule may be used to compute the quantity of heat which will be given off by a current of hot air of a given volume per minute, in cooling through any given number of degrees: Rule 3...
-Volume And Weight Of Air
31. The volume of air and its weight per cubic foot change with the temperature. The following rule may be used to compute the change in volume, the pressure remaining constant: Rule 4 Reduce both t...
-Humidity
33. The water vapor which pervades the atmosphere exists in the form of a gas independently of the oxygen and nitrogen, but, being a compound gas, its properties differ somewhat from those of a simple...
-Measurement Of Humidity
35. There are many substances which absorb moisture from the atmosphere and which swell in volume in consequence. Many attempts have been made to utilize this property, to construct instruments which ...
-Measurement Of Humidity. Part 2
Rule 5 Ascertain from Table 8 the weight of a cubic foot of vapor at that temperature; divide this by the weight of a cubic foot of vapor at the temperature of the atmosphere, and the quotient will b...
-Measurement Of Humidity. Part 3
Rule 6 Ascertain the weight of moisture in the air before it is heated, and compute the weight of moisture required to produce the desired degree of humidity in the same weight of air at the temperat...
-Evaporation And Drying
42. The process of evaporation is used in the arts for increasing the density of liquids by boiling down, for drying wet materials, and for cooling purposes. The vaporization of the liquid may be acc...
-Friction Of Air In Pipes And Flues
43. The resistance which is encountered by air and other fluids in moving through pipes, flues, and conduits is usually spoken of as friction, although the term, as thus used, is not strictly accurate...
-Conduits And Bends
48. Currents of fluid should always be guided in such a manner that they do not interfere or oppose one another's motion. The resistance offered by opposing currents in the common T connection, as sho...
-Splitting Air-Currents
51. Fig. 13 shows the proper manner of dividing a main current into three branches so as to supply independent air flues. If the partitions A and B were absent, the greater part of the current would c...
-Shape Of Air Pipes
53. The shape which should be given to an air pipe or conduit depends upon several considerations. 1. To carry a given volume of air, the circular form has the following advantages: (a) It requires l...
-Mechanical Effects Of Wind
54. The mechanical effects of the wind which are of interest in the heating and ventilation of buildings are: 1. The increase of the atmospheric pressure upon the windward side of buildings, and the ...
-Effects Of Wind Upon Chimneys
56. When the wind blows horizontally, as in Fig. 15, the air which is compressed at A flows up over the edge of the chimney and follows the path of the arrows a and b. This current deflects the wind s...
-Cowls
58. The term cowl is applied in a general way to all apparatuses or fixtures which are placed over the top of chimneys or ventilating flues, etc., to aid the draft. They serve to protect the ascending...
-Combustion And Fuels. Nature Of Combustion
62. Elements And Compounds Elements And Compounds. Every body, every mass of matter, is either an element, a compound, or a mixture. Iron, silver, sulphur, and oxygen are elements; water, wood, lime,...
-Fuel
06. In selecting a fuel for any certain service, the characteristics of each variety should be well considered. The value of a fuel depends primarily upon the amount of heat which it will give off dur...
-Chimneys
68. Apparently the area of a chimney may be found by dividing the volume of the chimney gases, in cubic feet per minute, by the theoretical velocity due to their temperature. But no reliable rule can ...
-Heating And Heating Apparatus. Heating Air
69. Air cannot be heated by radiation; it can only be heated by conduction-that is, by direct contact with heated surfaces; or by currents of hot air-that is, by convection. The number of heat units ...
-Forms Of Heating Surfaces
71. Heating surfaces which have no projections of any kind are classified as plain surfaces, while those having ribs, knobs, pins, or other projecting parts are called extended surfaces. The object s...
-Radiators. Construction Of Radiators
74. Radiators which are made of ordinary steam pipes and fittings, as shown in Figs. 27 and 28, are usually called colls. Coils are also made of continuous pipes, which are bent and curved to a great ...
-Emissive Capacity Of Radiators
85. The following general conclusions are deduced from the results of extensive experiments and tests of radiators: The various materials used for radiators do not show any considerable difference in ...
-Emissive Capacity Of Radiators. Part 2
Table 12. Flue Radiators-Natural. Draft Surfaces. Heat Emitted per Square Foot, per Hour, per Degree Difference. Total Heat Emitted per Hour, per Degree Difference. Extende...
-Emissive Capacity Of Radiators. Part 3
Table 14. Indirect Radiators-Plain Surfaces, Forced Draft Total Emission of Heat per Square Foot of Surface, per Hour, per Degree Difference in Temperature, Velocity of Air. Feet per Second. ...
-Amount Of Radiator Surface Required
90. The method of computing the amount of radiator surface required for any given surface, is as follows: Having ascertained the amount of heat to be supplied, in heat units per hour, the next thing t...
-Amount Of Radiator Surface Required. Continued
Example The loss of heat from a certain building, by conduction through the walls and windows, is 200,000 B. T. U. per hour. It is desired to heat the building by the indirect system with natural dra...
-Loss Of Heat From Buildings
95. Heat escapes from buildings in two ways: first, by conduction through the windows, walls, floor, and roof, and second, by ventilation or leakage of warm air. The loss from the latter cause will de...
-Volume And Temperature Of Hot-Air Supply
100. The loss of heat per hour by conduction through windows, walls, etc. being given, and also the temperature of the hot-air supply and the desired temperature of the room, the required volume per h...
-Preventing Loss Of Heat
102. No material is known which will totally obstruct the passage of heat by conduction. There is, however, a great difference in the conductivity of materials, and those which conduct heat very slowl...
-House Heating. Systems Of Heating
103. The methods of house heating now in vogue maybe divided into two classes, called direct and indirect. The distinction between them consists solely in the mode of supplying the heat. In the direct...
-Location Of Inlets And Outlets
105. The circulation of air, and consequent distribution of heat throughout a room, depends greatly upon the locations of the air inlet and outlet, and upon the location of the radiator or stove relat...
-Location Of Radiators And Registers
109. It is common practice to place radiators, hot-air registers, and stoves near the inner end or corner of a room. This proceeding is wrong in principle; the only advantage that can be gained by suc...
-Hot-Air Flues And Registers
110. The carrying capacity of a flue or duct is controlled by the temperature of the hot air and the height of the flue, in the same manner as a chimney. A flue which extends to the third story of a b...
-Regulation of Temperature
111. The method which may be used for controlling the temperature of the air within a building depends upon the system of heating which is employed, and also upon the heating agent, whether steam, hot...
-Regulation of Temperature. Continued
113. Automatic Temperature Regulators Automatic Temperature Regulators. Regulators that are commonly used to automatically control the operations of a heating apparatus are arranged either to operate...
-Methods Of Moving Air
114. The movement of air which is required for the purpose of heating and ventilation may be accomplished by means of natural draft or by forced draft. In both systems the power employed to move the ...
-Fans
115. The general construction of a centrifugal fan is shown in Figs. 43 and 44. It consists of a wheel a, which revolves swiftly within a circular casing c, which has a number of internal vanes, or bl...
-Steam Heating. Steam Generators. Requirements Of Steam Boilers
118. The process of making steam consists in transforming water from the liquid to the gaseous condition. This can be accomplished only by the application of heat. In order to perform this work effici...
-Description Of Boilers
122. Boilers containing tubes are divided into two chief classes. Those which have the hot gases passing through the tubes are called fire-tube boilers, while those which have water upon the inside of...
-Horsepower
128. Horsepower Of A Boiler Horsepower Of A Boiler. This phrase was originally intended to mean that a boiler having a certain stated horsepower would furnish all the steam which was required to deve...
-Heating Surface And Grate Area
129. The amount of heating surface required per horsepower varies greatly in different kinds of boilers. The following are the heating surfaces commonly allowed: Square Feet Cylind...
-Boiler Settings
131. The walls which constitute a boiler setting have several duties to perform: first, in many cases, to sustain the weight of the boiler and maintain it in position; second, to confine the fire and ...
-Boiler Fittings
132. The safety devices in common use consist of safety, or relief, valves, to relieve the boiler of excessive pressure, and thus prevent explosion; low-water alarms, to notify the engineer, by a whis...
-Fittings And Appliances Used In Steadi Heating. Traps For Steam And Air
135. A steam trap is a device for retaining the steam in a heating apparatus while permitting the Water of condensation to escape. 136. Fig. 52 shows a bucket trap in section. Water of condensation f...
-Air Tents
137. All air vents or traps on steam-heating systems are thermostatic in principle, and are controlled by a difference in temperature between the steam and the air which is to be expelled from the hea...
-Valves
138. Radiator valves, if possible, should all be globe-body compression-angle valves with wood wheel handles. They are usually nickel plated. A brass ground union connection should be made between the...
-Piping Systems
141. The principal systems of piping which are now in vogue for heating purposes are shown in Figs. 54 to 57. These diagrams are intended to illustrate only the general arrangement of the piping, and ...
-Designing A Pipe System
149. In planning any system of steam pipes, there are two things to be kept always in mind and which must be fully provided for; these are drainage, and the movement of the pipes by expansion. No heat...
-Designing A Pipe System. Continued
156. Radiator Connections Radiator Connections. The ordinary mode of connecting a radiator to the riser in a one-pipe system is shown in Fig. 61. The pipe a serves as a spring piece to allow the rise...
-Size Of Pipe Required
160. The proper size of pipe is one which will furnish a sufficient amount of steam without undue fall of pressure, and at the same time will not present an unnecessary amount of surface of condensati...
-Piping A Building
164. New buildings are piped while the work of construction proceeds, as soon as the walls are up, and the roof is on. On large jobs, the risers are usually put up first, then the horizontal branches ...
-Types Of Heating Systems
168. The various systems of steam heating now in vogue may be divided into four classes, according to the pressure of the steam and the manner in which it is used in them. The high-pressure system is...
-Hot-Water Heating. Heating Apparatus. Boilers
178. The boilers used in hot-water heating systems are similar in all respects to the best forms of steam boilers, except that the spaces commonly reserved for steam room may be dispensed with, or be ...
-Expansion Tanks
182. The purpose of an expansion tank is to keep the pipes and other apparatus constantly full of water. The water in the heating system expands when heated, and if it fills the apparatus when cold ...
-Hot-Water Radiators
189. Radiators for hot-water heating should be composed of vertical tubes, and these must be connected with ample waterways at both top and bottom. The continuous pipe coil which is so effective in ...
-Fittings, Valves, And Vents
192. The fittings commonly employed in steam piping are objectionable for hot-water heating apparatus, because of the great resistance which they offer to the flow of the water, due to the angles ...
-Hot-Water Piping
195. Water at ordinary temperatures, if exposed to the air, is always charged with a certain amount of air and other gases, which it seems to hold in solution. When water so charged is increased in ...
-Circulation
199. The primary cause of the circulation of water by the force of gravity, in a hot-water heating system, is that the liquid becomes denser as it cools off, and it therefore preponderates over the ...
-Open And Closed Circuits
205. In the plans shown in Figs. 73 and 74, the flow and return mains are connected only by the radiator branches, and there is no way of maintaining a flow of water through them when the radiators ...
-One-Pipe Or Single-Main System
207. This system is commonly called the one-pipe system, but the name is a misnomer. While it is practicable to operate a steam-heating system with a single main, and with single connections to the ...
-The Equalized System
208. It frequently happens that radiators which are located close to the risers and have a free return circulation will take more than their proper share of hot water. This not only diminishes the ...
-Proportiontng A Hot-Water System
209. The principal object to be sought in designing a system of hot-water piping is to adjust and equalize the resistance in each circuit and branch, so that the hot water will flow with equal ...
-Size Of Pipes
213. There are two methods of determining the proper sizes of hot-water piping, as follows: In the first method, the amount of heat to be emitted from the radiators per minute is ascertained and ...
-Size Of Pipes. Continued
Table 20. Diameter Of Radiator Connections Size of Pipe in Inches. 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 Area of Direct Heating Surface in Square Feet. 16 2...
-Heating Greenhouses
221, Greenhouses may be heated satisfactorily with either steam or hot water, but the latter is generally preferred, because of the simplicity of the apparatus, and its ability, when properly ...
-Furnace Heating. Hot-Air Furnaces. Description Of Furnaces
226. A hot-air furnace may be described as a device for heating a continuous current of air by means of a fire contained within the apparatus and without mingling the fresh air with the products of ...
-Combination Heaters
230. These heaters are the same in construction as ordinary hot-air furnaces, except that they are provided with extra parts, which serve to heat water in sufficient quantity to supply a small number ...
-Location Of A Fuenace
231. The location of a furnace is governed principally by the situation or exposure of the house and the location of the chimney. In all the rooms upon those sides of the house which are exposed to ...
-Foundations And Settings
232. A hot-air furnace should be set at the lowest practicable level, so that even the longest horizontal hot-air pipe may be given a sufficient upward inclination to make it operate well. In some ...
-Air Supply And Distribution. Cold-Air Supply
233. The furnace should be supplied with fresh air by means of a duct, which has an inlet at some point above ground upon the windy side of the house. This inlet, or cold-air box, as it is often ...
-Hot-Air Supply
236. All hot-air pipes which convey the warm air from the bonnet of the furnace to the several rooms, should be run as straight as possible, and must all pitch up toward their outlets, which are ...
-Hot-Air Supply. Continued
Rule 13 For rooms on the first floor, add together the total glass surface and 1/4 of the area of the exposed walls in square feet, and multiply the total by 1.5; the product is the proper area of th...
-Size Of Furnace Required
244. In order to estimate the proper size of a furnace for warming any given building, the first proceeding is to compute the probable loss of heat by radiation and conduction from the whole building,...
-Ventilation. Introductory
246. The primary object of ventilation is the removal of the vitiated air. This being done, natural air, presumably of better quality, will flow in from all directions to take its place. The ...
-The Vitiation Of Air
247. Air is rendered unfit for breathing by a great variety of causes, that of respiration being the most conspicuous. Each adult person breathes about 20 times per minute and inhales about 30 cubic ...
-The Vitiation Of Air. Continued
250. Organic Impurities Organic Impurities. The interior surfaces of the lungs, and the whole exterior surface of the body, exhale moisture continually, although at varying rates. Certain other ...
-Amount Of Air Required
255. There is only one way by which the fitness of air for respiration can be determined with any certainty, and that is by chemical examination. The sense of smell cannot be depended on for this ...
-Preparation Of Air
259. In many cases the air supplied to public halls and other large buildings requires to be treated in various ways, to render it wholesome and prepare it for personal use with comfort. In summer ...
-Moistening Air
260. The proper degree of humidity of a fresh-air supply varies in different countries. In the United States, the dew point of the air when delivered into rooms should be about 40 F. This gives ...
-Drying And Cooling Air
262. The process of drying air is just the reverse of that for drying cloth and other wet materials. In the ordinary process of drying, the materials are heated, in order to convert the moisture ...
-Filtering Air
264. The object of filtration is to arrest dust, smoke, etc., and prevent it from passing into the building. The apparatus employed is of two classes: wet and dry. A wet filter consists of a coarse ...
-Diffusion And Distribution Of Air
266. It may easily happen that the ventilation of a room will be very unsatisfactory, notwithstanding that a current of fresh air of sufficient quantity is constantly passing into and out of the ...
-Acoustic Effects Of Air-Currents
269. It is a matter of great importance in all public buildings, such as churches, theaters, lecture rooms, etc., that a person speaking from the stage or platform should be distinctly heard at any ...
-Ventilation Systems. Upward And Downward Ventilation
210. The comparative advantages of these opposing systems of ventilation may be briefly stated as follows: 1. The currents of warm air arising from human beings and containing the exhalations and ...
-The Exhaust And Pressure Systems
271. Air may be moved and distributed with equal facility by either of these systems, provided that the difference in pressure, above or below the atmosphere, is the same, and that the apparatus is ...
-The Aspiration System
272. In this system, all of the foul-air flues are brought together and connected into a single large chimney or shaft, so that there is practically only one outlet. There are three methods in vogue ...
-The Natural, Draft System
276. In this system, the air is permitted to circulate without any artificial force. In the better class of dwellings, special flues are provided, by which the foul air may pass out; but in the ...
-Forced Blast
277. The use of a fan to create an excess of air pressure, or plenum, in the interior of a building makes it practicable to secure perfect ventilation at all times, regardless of wind or weather. The ...
-Combined Systems
278. It is common practice to use the aspiration and natural draft systems together, and in many cases it would be difficult to fix the line of demarcation between them. One system naturally ...
-Mixing Valves, Flues, And Ducts
279. Mixing valves are indispensable to the success of any system of ventilation. They form the only practicable method of quickly regulating the temperature, and at the same time securing an ...
-Mixing Valves, Flues, And Ducts. Continued
282. Arrangement Of Flues Arrangement Of Flues. The general method to be adopted in arranging the main distributing flues (or ducts) and branches in the basement of a building depends upon the ...
-An Unsanitary Arrangement
284. The problem of disposing of the sewage matter from schoolhouses is sometimes a difficult one, especially where no water supply is available for water closets. A system designed to meet the wants ...
-Practical. Ventilation
286. The requirements for the successful ventilation of the various classes of buildings which are occupied by human beings are alike in principle in all cases, and have been fully considered in the ...
-Practical. Ventilation. Continued
297. Fireplaces Fireplaces. The open fireplace is an exceedingly inefficient form of heating apparatus. It passes so much air up the chimney that the heat radiated from the fire is quite ...
-Examples Of Ventilation And Heating
299. Fig. 90 shows a good arrangement of heating and ventilating apparatus in a small frame dwelling. This house represents a class which is very numerous in the country and suburban districts. It is ...
-Examples Of Ventilation And Heating. Continued
Fig. 93. The cold air enters through windows at d, e, and f, the last named being for the radiators in the rear. It then enters the casings of the indirect stacks on their under side, passes up be...
-Painting And Decorating. Introduction
1. The painter desirous of obtaining a correct knowledge of his trade should first acquaint himself with the nature and properties of the materials calling for his constant use, and the architect supe...
-Classification Of Paints. Composition Of Paints
2. All paint is composed of two general ingredients, namely, the pigment and the fluid medium. The former usually consists of a mineral oxide or precipitated vegetable dye, which very largely forms th...
-Pigments. White Pigments
6. White lead is a carbonate of lead produced by several methods, the best being obtained by the Dutch process, which consists in the taking of gratings of pure lead and exposing them to the fumes of ...
-Other White Pigments
13. The principal varieties and sources of other white pigments are the following: Antimony white, from antimonious oxide. Body white, from levigated flake white. Cadmium white, from cadmium carbon...
-Black Pigments
14. Black, the opposite extreme of white, is the last and lowest in the scale of colors. To be perfect, it must be neutral with respect to individual colors and absolutely transparent-that is, it must...
-Primary Colors. Blue Pigments
19. Of the three primary or fundamental colors-red, yellow, and blue, from combinations of which all other colors can be made-blue alone possesses in its entirety that quality technically known as col...
-Yellow Pigments
26. Yellow, bearing, as already stated, the same relation to light as blue does to shadow, is capable of reduction, through several shades, till it merges into a cream white, its color limit. 27. Nap...
-Red Pigments
31. Red is the second and intermediate of the primary colors, standing between yellow and blue, and in like intermediate relation, also, to white and black, or light and shade. It is also the second i...
-Red Pigments. Part 2
35. Venetian Red Or Scarlet Ocher Venetian Red Or Scarlet Ocher. True Venetian red is believed to be a native ocher, but the various pigments sold under this name are prepared from sulphate of iron. ...
-Red Pigments. Part 3
41. Yellow Lake Yellow Lake. There are several pigments of this denomination, varying in color and appearance, according to the coloring substances and the modes of preparation used. Usually in the f...
-Secondary Colors
43. The mixing of any two of the primary colors produces a secondary color, and as there are but three primaries, there can be but three secondaries. The three primary colors, red, yellow, and blue, w...
-Orange
44. Orange, the first in relation to light of the secondary colors, is composed of yellow and red. Such a compound of red and yellow as will, in an equal quantity of either surface or intensity, neutr...
-Greek
45. Green, which, in the general scale of colors and in relation to light and shade, occupies the middle station, is second among the secondary colors. Composed of the extreme primaries, yellow and bl...
-Purple
52. Purple, the third and last of the secondary colors, is, as already stated, composed of red and blue, in the proportion of five of the former to eight of the latter. This constitutes a perfect purp...
-Semineutral. Colors
53. As color descends according to the regular scale from white, and therefore properly terminates with olive, neutral black would here naturally end the series. Practically, however, every colored pi...
-Vehicles. Oils And Driers. Character And Purposes Of Oils
60. Oil is one of the fluid mediums in which a pigment is suspended to enable the painter to spread it properly and cause it to adhere when dry. It is termed the vehicle, because it serves to carry th...
-Linseed Oil
61. The oil most generally used by the house painter is obtained by the compression of flaxseed. This oil varies greatly in quality, as well with reference to the seed from which it is extracted, as i...
-Nut And Poppy Oil
63. Nut oil, an almost colorless, transparent oil, is expressed from the walnut. It dries more rapidly than linseed oil, and is, owing to its lack of color, used for white and other light paints. In t...
-Turpentine
65. Turpentine is the oleoresin exuding from any one of several coniferous trees; also the semifluid resin of the terebinth or turpentine tree-Pistacia Terebinthus. The principal varieties of turpent...
-Driers. Composition And Classification Of Driers
68. Driers are substances added to paint in order to cause the oil to thicken and solidify more rapidly. The drying of linseed oil is caused by the absorption of oxygen, and there is little doubt that...
-Varnishes
70. Varnish is a solution of certain gums or resins in alcohol, turpentine, linseed oil, or the like, and is applied to produce a hard, shining, transparent coat on the surface. The oil dries, but the...
-Varnishes. Continued
81. Furniture Varnishes Furniture Varnishes. One of the simplest of these varnishes may be prepared by dissolving 1 1/2 pounds of shellac in 1 gallon of naphtha, or dissolving 12 ounces of shellac an...
-Stains. Composition And Classification Of Various Wood Stains
86. Stains are liquid preparations of different tints, applied to the carefully prepared surface of the cheaper woods, such as poplar, pine, etc., in order to give them the appearance of the more rare...
-Creosote Stains. Wood Preservation
88. Creosote is the basis of several valuable preparations for preventing rot in wood, and is, in the form of stains, assuming importance in the builder's art, as a substitute for paint. The softer ki...
-Methods Employed In House Paintings Tools Used By Painters. Grinding Tools
92. The pigments described in the preceding pages are received from the manufacturer in the form of powder, and must be mixed or ground with oil to prepare them for use. This work is usually done in a...
-Brushes
97. Brushes are of various shapes and sizes according- to the different purposes for which each is used, and are made of different materials, adapted to suit the character of the work and vehicle to b...
-Tools Used In Graining And Decorating
101. Graining is that branch of the painter's art which consists of the imitation of the natural veining curl, etc. in the grain of various woods. It is accomplished, in part, with the same brushes us...
-Laying The Color. Application To Woodwork
104. New Work New Work. It is necessary, before entering on the process of painting, to clean off all glue spots, etc. In this operation, the painter uses the stopping knife (Fig. 4), care always bei...
-Laying The Color. Application To Woodwork. Continued
108. Intermediate Coats Intermediate Coats. For the second coat, the same paint used for the priming, or white lead thinned with oil and a little turpentine and driers, may be employed, the proportio...
-Painting Plaster
115. To paint plaster, the first coat should be of white lead, mixed with linseed oil and a small quantity of litharge, the paint being rather thinner than that used for general purposes, that it may ...
-Drying Properties Of Paints And Oils
117. Painting is done with one or two objects in view-either to change the natural color of the surface to which it is applied, or to preserve that surface from the deleterious effects of air, rain, d...
-Graining
119. Graining is, as already stated, the imitation of the natural veining and curl of woods, and is, in the first instance, done by laying an opaque ground in strong oil paint of the general color of ...
-Graining. Part 2
122. Gnarled Oak Gnarled Oak. The ground for this wood varies according to the exact tint required. It is usually composed of white lead and yellow ocher, or Venetian red and yellow ocher, and variou...
-Graining. Part 3
125. Walnut Walnut. The ground for walnut is mixed of Venetian red, yellow ocher, and a small quantity of burnt umber with white lead; the work is then to be cissed in with whiting and water. The gra...
-Graining. Part 4
128. Tew Tree Tew Tree. The ground color, in this case, is raw umber, mixed with white lead; the graining color, Vandyke brown and burnt sienna, in equal parts, all ground in beer, with a small quant...
-Marbling
130. Having, in the section on graining, recommended that the student procure, for special study, a collection of wood veneers, we have a like recommendation to make in respect to marble. The careful ...
-Marbling. Part 2
135. White Veined Marble White Veined Marble. The ground for this marble is white, laid very smooth; the first vein will, on inspection, be found very faint; it is the broad-vein mica, seen through a...
-Marbling. Part 3
137. Black And Gold Marble Black And Gold Marble. The ground being black, paint the large spots, from which the fibrous veins are to run, with yellow ocher and white, whose brightness must be heighte...
-Marbling. Part 4
139. Jasper Jasper. The ground is composed of Venetian red, red lead, and a small quantity of chrome yellow, mixed with oil and turpentine in equal parts; but additional brilliancy may be given the c...
-Stenciling
141. The study of decoration demands something more than an elementary knowledge of the art; it calls for attention to the masterpieces left by the artists of past ages. The decorator of today must be...
-Stencil Plates
143. A stencil plate is a perforated pattern, usually consisting of a sheet of paper or very thin metal, through which the design is cut as shown in Fig. 27, where a is the plate in which the pattern ...
-Stencil Plates. Part 2
146. Panels, Walls, Etc Panels, Walls, Etc. In Fig. 42 is shown a stencil design, executed with two patterns, one to draw the leaf-work, and the other to form the stems. and tendrils in the darker sh...
-Stencil Plates. Part 3
148. Stenciled Inlay Stenciled Inlay. Having prepared the stencil, thoroughly clean the panel by wiping it with wash leather to remove any grease, etc. from contact with the distemper now to be used....
-Media
149. Interior decoration may be executed in oil color water color, or tempera, commonly termed distemper the last named being a form of water color not ground' but simply stirred in water, and unlike ...
-Gilding
154. Assuming that the student has, by this time, acquired some knowledge of the painter's art and of the tools required by this form of work, demanding, as it does, attention, practice, patience, and...
-Gilding. Part 2
157. Parchment Size Parchment Size. To prevent blooming, the gilded surface should, on completion, be gone over with parchment size, which is made by melting parchment cuttings and diluting these wit...
-Gilding. Part 3
Haste, and the crowding together of two or three different sets of workmen in the same place and time in which gilding is under execution, are conducive to wastefulness and inefficiency. The skilled d...
-Paper Hanging
165. The art of paper hanging is easily acquired, but the tasteful choice of paper for various situations is a gift of no such easy acquisition. The walls of a room should be regarded as the mere fram...
-Paper Hanging. Continued
168. Repapering Repapering. In repapering walls, the old paper should be removed, the wall scraped, washed, stopped, and coated with size. If the old paper cannot be removed without injury to the wal...
-Glass. Plain Glass
170. Classification Of Glass Classification Of Glass. It is a part of the painter's province to be familiar with the different kinds and qualities of glass, as well as with the general methods of its...
-Glass. Plain Glass. Continued
175. Polishing Glass Polishing Glass. When the plates are withdrawn from the annealing oven, they are carefully examined for any defects, such as air bubbles, opaque spots, etc., and those plates whi...
-Ornamented Glass
178. Painted Glass Painted Glass. The manufacture of colored glass, the basis of the refined and interesting art of glass painting and staining, dates from times remote. The use of enamels to variega...
-Ornamented Glass. Continued
For painting on a single sheet it must be observed that a pure white glass, free from air specks or air bubbles, and hard of fusion, must be selected for the purpose. The artist's labor would be entir...
-Receipts For The Ingredients Of Colored Glass
Mixture for Rose-Colored Glass. PARTS. White sand...... 100 Potash........ 48 Slaked lime...... 8 Purple of Cassius... 6 Peroxid...
-Receipts For The Ingredients Of Colored Glass. Part 2
188. Mosaic Glass Painting Mosaic Glass Painting. Much that has been already said may apply to the forcing of designs with colored pieces of pot metal, or, in part of these, and in part of painted ...
-Receipts For The Ingredients Of Colored Glass. Part 3
194. Cutting The Glass Cutting The Glass. The cartoon having been placed upon a table, the glazier lays upon it a sheet of glass whose color is decided by the artist and by him outlined in white or ...
-Estimating And Calculating Quantities. Introduction
1. Scope Of Subject Scope Of Subject. The art of estimating is very important both to the architect and to the builder; to the latter, in that he must employ some systematic method of estimating in o...
-Principles Of Estimating. Outline Of The Work
4. Schedule Schedule. The drawings and specifications for a structure are the guides which the estimator must follow in making his computations. . All measurements necessary for calculating the quant...
-Approximate Estimating
5. Preliminary Estimate Preliminary Estimate. In order to make a preliminary estimate, before the plans of a structure are drawn, but after the general dimensions of the proposed building have been d...
-Estimating Schedule
6. Accurate Estimate Accurate Estimate. There are so many items to be considered in a careful estimate, that the estimator should have a list of those coming under each of the main headings enumerate...
-Cost Of Buildings Per Cubic Foot
Excavation Cellar Areas Piers Privy vaults Footings Cesspool Catch basins Pipe trenches Grading Filling-Labor Stonework Lime Cement Sand Mortar Concrete Foundation walls Partition walls...
-Cost Of Buildings Per Cubic Foot. Continued
Plumbing And Gas-Fitting Plumbing Fixtures. Kitchen range, with water-back Plunge baths Shower baths Foot baths Sitz baths Wash basins Water closets Urinals Kitchen sinks Pantry sinks Slop sinks ...
-Excavation
7. Matters To Be Considered Matters To Be Considered. Excavation is generally measured by the cubic yard, although, in a few localities, measurement by the perch is still in use. If the latter method...
-Calculation Of Excavation
8. Volume Volume. The ordinary rules of mensuration are all that are needed to compute the volume of any excavation. The work is very simple when the area to be removed is regular; but when the outli...
-Masonry
9. Stone Masonry Stone Masonry. This is generally measured by the perch; in some sections of the country, however, measurement by the cord is preferred, but the best method (as being invariable) is b...
-Data On Rubble Masonry
10. The following proportions and cost of materials, and amount of labor required to lay 1 perch of rubble masonry, are reasonably accurate, and will serve to give an idea of how to estimate such work...
-Data On Ashlar And Cut Stone
11. Cost Cost. Th,e following figures are average prices of stone when the transportation charges are not excessive, and are not given as fixed values, but more to show the relative costs. They are b...
-Brickwork
13. Brickwork is generally estimated by the thousand bricks laid in the wall, but measurements by the cubic yard and the perch are also used. The following data will be useful in calculating the numbe...
-Data On Brickwork
14. The following estimates on the cost of brickwork are very carefully compiled, and will be found trustworthy. It is to be understood that the prices will vary with the cost of materials and labor; ...
-Carpentry
15. Carpentry should include general framing-, roofs, floor joists, partitions, sheathing, flooring, furring, and plastering grounds. 16. Board Measure Board Measure. The rough lumber used in framin...
-Carpentry. Part 2
18. Sheathing Sheathing. To calculate sheathing or rough flooring (which is not matched), find the number of feet B. M. required to cover the surface, making no deductions for door or window openings...
-Carpentry. Part 3
Quantities Of Material, Put In Place Per Day Class of Material. No. of Feet B.M.,or No. Remarks. Studding, 2 X 4, or 2 X 6 . 600-800 Wall or partition. ...
-Carpentry. Part 4
24. Nails Nails. To calculate the quantity of nails required in executing any portion of the work, the following table, based on the use of cut nails, will be found useful: Table For Estimating The ...
-Roofing
25. Kinds Of Roof Covering Kinds Of Roof Covering. The roof coverings most generally used are shingles, slate, tin, tile, and tarred paper and gravel (known as gravel roofing). While there are slight...
-Roofing. Continued
27. Slating Slating. In measuring slating, the method of determining the number of slates required per square is similar to that given for shingling; but in slating, each course overlaps but two of t...
-Number Of Slates Per Square
Size. Inches. Number of Pieces. Size. Inches. Number of Pieces. Size. Inches. Number of Pieces. 6X12 533 9X16 246 14 X 20 121 ...
-Roof Mensuration
31. While the ordinary principles of mensuration are all that are necessary to calculate any roof area, yet the modern house, with its numerous gables and irregular surfaces, introduces complications ...
-Plastering
36. Plastering on plain surfaces, such as walls and ceilings, is always measured by the square yard; but there are considerable variations in detail in the methods of measurement in different sections...
-Lathing
39. Lathing is measured by the superficial yard, no openings under 7 superficial yards being deducted. Plastering laths are about 1 1/2 inches wide, 1/4 inch thick, and usually 4 feet long, the studd...
-Joinery
40. Joinery Details Joinery Details. Joinery includes all the interior and exterior finish put in place after the framing and covering are completed; as, for example, door and window frames, doors, b...
-Data And Examples Of Estimating Costs
41. In any molded work which goes through the mill, the usual charge is 1 cent per square inch of section per lineal foot, as a base, from which is deducted a percentage, generally from 40 to 60 per c...
-Data And Examples Of Estimating Costs. Part 2
44. Window Frame Window Frame. The following is approximately the cost of a window frame of the size mentioned: Cost of Window Frame in Place. Size, 2 lights, 28 X 28. Jambs, 12'; head jam...
-Data And Examples Of Estimating Costs. Part 3
46. Stairs Stairs. The cost per step for an ordinary stairway, constructed according to the following specifications, is about $3.00. For a better class of work, add about one-quarter to this price. ...
-Hardware
48. Hardware is best estimated by noting the quantities required for each portion of the work as it is being measured, afterwards making these items into a separate hardware bill. Many of the articles...
-Heating And Ventilating System
49. Heating and ventilating work should be estimated as indicated in the following paragraphs. Estimate all pipes and fittings same as for plumbing. Sum up all standard radiators, and the price by sq...
-Plumbing And Gas-Fitting
50. Plumbing and gas-fitting work should be estimated as outlined in the following paragraphs: ...
-Plumbing
51. An approximate figure for cost of plumbing is 10 per cent. of the cost of the building. This figure is for good materials and labor, and, of course, is subject to considerable variation. The cost ...
-Gas-Fitting
56. Cost Cost. The cost of the gas-fitting may be approximately figured as about 3 per cent. of the cost of the building. The cost of labor alone varies from about one-fourth to one-seventh of the co...
-Painting And Papering. Painting
58. Painting is measured by the superficial yard, girting every part of the work that is covered by paint, and allowing additions to the actual surface to compensate for the difficulty of covering dee...
-Data On Painting
59. Quantities Quantities. One pound of paint will cover from 3 1/2 to 4 square yards of wood for the first coat, and from 4 1/2 to 6 square yards for each additional coat; on brickwork, it will cove...
-Data On Painting. Continued
Exterior Painting Woodwork. 1 Coat, new work......... 10 cents 2 coats, new work, 2 colors........... 18 cents 2 coats, new work, 3 colors...........
-Papering
61. Papering is usually figured per roll, put on the wall. The paper is generally 18 inches wide, and is in 1 (5-yard rolls. On account of waste in matching, etc., it is difficult to estimate very clo...
-Glazing
62. Formerly glazing was included in the painter's contract, but as it is now usual and more convenient to glaze the sash at the mill when they are made, the glazing is included in the joinery specifi...
-Example In Estimating
63. Following the rules and suggestions already given in this section, the estimate for a house will be made as a practical example, the drawings on which it is based being shown in the accompanying p...
-Estimating the Excavation Work
64. In calculating the number of cubic yards of earth to be excavated for the cellar, all the measurements are taken from the foundation plan and the sections. The method pursued in making calculation...
-Estimating the Excavation Work. Continued
Cost The cost of excavation is based on the following analysis: Cost of 1 Cubic Yard of Excavation. Cents. One man can pick 15 cu. yd. per day; wages being $1.50, one yar...
-Estimating the Stonework
65. The foundation walls are built of rubble masonry to the sill at the grade line, and from this sill to the water-table they are built of ashlar with rubble backing, excepting those portions behind ...
-Estimating the Stonework. Continued
Ashlar The walls between base sill and water-table are faced with ashlar, which extends around main walls to porches, and all porch piers are built of ashlar. Quantities. Sq. Ft. ...
-Estimating the Brickwork
66. In estimating the brickwork, openings have been deducted, thus practically giving kiln count, so that the analyses of prices given heretofore will apply. If openings had not been deducted, the p...
-Estimating the Brickwork. Continued
Common Brick Quantities. No. Brick. Backing exterior pressed-brick walls, 8 1/2 thick, 5,882X2 - ................ 11,764 Interior cellar walls, 28'...
-Estimating the Carpentry and Framing Work
67. In estimating carpentry work, it is advisable to make a tabulated list of the various sizes of joists, rafters, etc., giving the number and dimensions of each set. Thus any error in calculation or...
-Estimating the Carpentry and Framing Work. Part 2
Sheathing And Shingles Quantities. Sheathing. Ft. B. M. Main roof, 2,200 sq. ft. X 1 in......... 2,200.00 Tower roof, 370 sq. ft. X 1 in.......... 370....
-Estimating the Carpentry and Framing Work. Part 3
Flooring Quantities. Sq. Ft. First floor, area (net)............... 1,312 Second floor, area ( net )........ 1,312 Attic floor, area ( net )......
-Estimating the Carpentry and Framing Work. Part 4
Miscellaneous Items. Quantities Yellow-Pine Lumber. Ft. B. M. Porch ceiling, same as porch flooring...... 654 No. 1 White-Pine Dressed Lumber. Corni...
-Estimating the Roofing Work. Framing And Sheathing
68. Roof framing and sheathing are included in the estimate for carpentry. Slating Quantities. Squares. Main and dormer roofs........... 22.0 Porch roof............ ...
-Estimating the Plastering Work
69. Plastering varies in price according to its position and quality. It is therefore necessary to make a separate schedule of each class of work, so that any increase or decrease in quantity may be e...
-Estimating the Joinery Work
70. As there are so many different sizes in the joinery work, no attempt has been made to make detailed estimates of the cost of each; but the general method of obtaining the costs is that given in th...
-Estimating the Joinery Work. Part 2
Doors The prices of doors do not include hardware or labor in hanging, both of which items will be found in the hardware bill. First Story. Solid chestnut, 6 and 7 raised panels, planted moldings: ...
-Estimating the Joinery Work. Part 3
Window Frames Cellar. No. 2 white pine, l 1/2x 7 rabbeted jambs and head, and 2 X 7 sill. Complete, set in place: 1 window, 3 lights, 13 X 10............ $1.09 2 windows, 1...
-Estimating the Joinery Work. Part 4
Window Sash Cellar. 1 1/2-inch white pine, glazed (price does not include hardware): 1 sash, 3 lights, 13 X 10............. $0.64 2 sashes, 1 light, 16 X 10, at $.27 each.......
-Estimating the Joinery Work. Part 5
Stairs Cellar Stairs. 52 ft. of hemlock, at $.014 per ft........ $0.73 46 ft. of planed white pine, at $. 03 per ft......... 1.38 Labor: 12 risers, at $.20 ...
-Estimating the Joinery Work. Part 6
Miscellaneous Interior Joinery First story: Baseboard. Chestnut, 7/8' X 6, with molding worked on face, tongued into surbase, 1 1/8 X 6, 139 ft., at $. 26 per lin.ft........... ...
-Estimating the Joinery Work. Part 7
Miscellaneous Exterior Work Moldings. 356 ft. crown molding, 1 1/8X4, at $.05..... $17.80 356 ft. bed molding, 1 X 3, at $.03....... 10.68 356 ft. bed m...
-Estimating the Hardware Work
71. The prices given in the following list are based on the use of the best quality of hardware in the market. Should inferior quality be used, these prices would probably be 50 per cent. less. The co...
-Estimating the Heating And Ventilating System
72. In taking off quantities for the heating and ventilating contract, attention should be given to the fact that the furnace and pipes, registers and borders, and the fireplace furniture are usually ...
-Estimating the Plumbing And Gas-Fitting
73. A complete list of the plumbing fixtures, together with the sizes, lengths, and materials of all pipes, should be tabulated so as to be easy of reference in case of alteration in the schedule. Pl...
-Estimating the Plumbing And Gas-Fitting. Continued
Gas-Fitting Quantities and Cost. Cellar: Fixtures. 2 brackets, 1 burner, each at $. 50..... First floor: $1.00 Parlor, 1 chandelier, 4 burners......... 30.00 ...
-Estimating the Painting Work
74. In taking off quantities for painting, it is usual to estimate the cost by assuming a price per square yard for each class of work, instead of estimating the material and labor separately. Quanti...
-Summary Of Cost Of Building
75. Having estimated the cost of work required of each trade, a summary of the whole will express the total estimated cost of the building. Excavation and filling........ $174.16 ...
-A Series Of Questions And Examples
Relating to the Subjects Treated of in this Volume. It will be noticed that the various Question Papers in this volume are numbered to correspond with the sections to which they refer, the section nu...
-Plumbing And Gas-Fitting. (Arts. 1-261. Sec. 16.)
(1) What are the principal disadvantages of the plunger closet? (2) Show, by sketch, the most common method of connecting up a vertical kitchen boiler 5 feet long and 15 inches in diameter. State the...
-Plumbing And Gas-Fitting. (Arts. 1-261. Sec. 16.). Part 2
Note You may tap the boiler at any point, but the waterback must remain the same. (23) Mention some of the most important matters to be considered in the inspection of the following materials: (a) c...
-Plumbing And Gas-Fitting. (Arts. 1-261. Sec. 16.). Part 3
(56) Distinguish between coal gas, producer gas, and water gas. (57) (a) Should gas pipes be run in places exposed to cold weather? Give your reasons, (b) If they must be run in such places, how shou...
-Heating And Ventilation Of Buildings. (Arts. 1-306. Sec. 17.)
(1) A hot-water boiler is consuming coal at the rate of 4 pounds per hour per square foot of grate surface. A low-pressure steam boiler is consuming coal at the rate of 8 pounds per hour per square fo...
-Heating And Ventilation Of Buildings. Part 2
(a) What is the trouble? (b) Show, by sketches, if necessary, how you would permanently remedy the defect in the most economical manner and without the use of mechanical contrivances. (28) The loss o...
-Heating And Ventilation Of Buildings. Part 3
(61) Distinguish between a dry return and a wet return on a steam-heating system. (65) Clearly explain the use of an expansion tank in a hot-water heating system. How should it be connected up? (66)...
-Painting And Decorating. (Arts. 1-196. Sec. 18.)
(1) What advantage has creosote stain over paint for exterior work? (2) What is (a) burnt umber? (b) raw sienna? (3) What is meant by flashed color in glass? (4) How may paint be ground on a small ...
-Estimating And Calculating Quantities. (Arts. 1-75. Sec. 19.)
(1) (a) State the number of pounds and kind of nails required for laying 1,000 shingles, 1,000 square feet of beveled siding, and 1,000 square feet 1 1/8-inch finished flooring. (b) State the length a...









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