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Fig 301

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Fig. 302.

The flooring boards b b, fig. 301, run at right angles to the joists, and are also nailed diagonally to the latter as shown.

The next operation is the putting in of the joists of the second floor, supposing the cottage to be of two storeys, this is shown at fig. 304. Take the intended height or distance from the upper surface of flooring boards b b, fig. 301, to the lower edge of joists of second floor, as a a, fig. 304, and mark it off with a saw draught upon the edge of a straight-edge, or wooden rod. With this mark off upon all the vertical studs the height of line of ceiling a a, fig. 304, a b, fig. 305, and at this line a b, fig. 305, cut on each inner side a notch four inches wide from b to c, and one inch deep from c to d; into these notches a bearer b b, fig. 304, is placed, and nailed diagonally to the stud c c. The floor joists a d, ad rest at their ends upon the bearer, and have their outer ends flush with the outside face of the stud c c, the two being secured by diagonally driven nails; one nail being driven into the stud, the other into the edge of the bearer. Simple as this arrangement is, it is so strong that the "joists will break in the centre before the bearing gives way - no tenoned joist in the old style of frame will hold half the weight." This bearing gives a perfectly flush surface to the whole inside ready for lathing and plastering; but if the inside is to receive a boarded lining, the bearer, as b b, fig. 304, may simply be nailed to the inside edge of the stud as shown at fig. 306, the joists being carried the same way as in fig. 304. If thought necessary a small block may be nailed, as at a, fig. 306, below the bearer and to the stud, this will dispense with the notch a b c in fig. 304.

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Fig. 303.

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Fig. 304.

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Fig. 305.

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Fig. 307.

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Fig. 306.

We now come to the fixing of the roof - before which operation is gone through it may be found necessary to lengthen the studs, some of which may be found to be too short; this lengthening being effected, as in figs. 306 and 307, by simply squaring off the ends of the studs and placing these ends together, and securing them by outside pieces one inch thick a a, diagonally nailed as shown. The proper height at which the studs should be cut to receive the roof should be marked on each by means of a rod, as already explained in fixing the floor joists of the second floor; and then all the studs are sawn square off. A wall plate, as a a, fig. 308, the dimensions of which are four inches by one inch, is nailed to the upper face of the studs b b in the manner shown in the drawing. This wall plate receives the lower ends of the rafters,as a a , fig. 309, which are notched in their lower edge so as to embrace the wall plate c; it will be noted that each rafter is placed exactly above the stud b, and as the studs are spaced to be 16 inches from centre to centre, this will be the spacing between the rafters a a, fig. 309. The notch in fig. 309 may be dispensed with by placing a wedgespiked piece below the rafter resting in the wall plate, the angle of the wedge being that of the slope of the roof. The dimensions of the rafters are 6 inches by 3 inches. The roof for the majority of cottage spans will be strong enough if made " collar beam style, the dimensions of this being 4 inches, by 1 inch. If the cottage is lined inside, the strength of the structure will be greatly added to if the boarding constituting the lining be put in diagonally, and at a and b, fig. 310, one set of boards inclining, as at a, the other as at b. If these diagonal boards are only used at intervals by way of braces, " collar beam style, the dimensions of this being 4 inches, by 1 inch. If the cottage is lined inside, the strength of the structure will be greatly added to if the boarding constituting the lining be put in diagonally, and at a and b, fig. 310, one set of boards inclining, as at a, the other as at b. If these diagonal boards are only used at intervals by way of braces, the strength of the arrangement will be much increased by placing one, as c, inside, the other, as d, outside, the inclination of these being in opposite directions; or diagonal braces may be put in here and there as at e. But braces of this latter kind may easily be dispensed with, as indeed may the bracing afforded by the diagonal boarding a a,b b; it is only when the inside of the building is lined with boarding that advantage may be taken of the method of so placing this diagonally, as that, while it serves the purpose for which it is primarily intended, it shall also serve the secondary purpose of greatly strengthening the structure. The outside will be "clap-boarded," either with horizontal or with vertical clapboards, the latter being the best of the two; or in place of clap-boards, boarding with "rolls" or "feathers" may be used, this style of outside covering looking better than the clap-board system. In figs. 311, 312, we illustrate what is called the half-timbered style, and in figs. 2 and 4, Plate XLIL, and fig. 1, Plate XLIIL, we illustrate constructions in connection with timber sheds; fig. 2, Plate XLIL, being a double folding gate; fig. 3, part section of roof; fig. 4, the finial of gable end; fig. 1, Plate XLIII, being a window with part underneath sill.

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Fig. 308.

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Fig. 309.

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Fig. 310,

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Fig. 311.

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Fig. 312.