Shutters To Windows. These are generally provided to windows, and are of several kinds -" folding," " lifting," and "rolling." Folding shutters are illustrated in fig. 4, Plate LII., which are those for a superior room, as they fold into and are inclosed by what are called " shutter boxings." The boxing is made up of two side linings and a back lining. The side lining next the window is in fact the "inside lining" of the window casing, as a a in fig. 5, Plate LII., part of which is shown by the line a a, fig. 4, Plate LII. The other side of the shutter boxing is at b b, and the " back lining" is at c c. The side b b forms the "ground" to which the "architrave" d d is secured; e e, the plastering keyed into the side lining of boxing. In superior work the back lining is panelled at f, to show finished work when the folding shutters - called "flaps" - as g g, h h, ii, are pulled out in order to cover the window. The front of the shutters, as g g, is called the " front flap " or "first flap;" h h, the "second back flap;" i i, the "back flap." The "front flap" is generally panelled in front, so that - as in the day time - when the shutters are in their place in the boxing, the front or outside of g g may be ornamental. If the flap is very broad, it may be panelled in two, as shown at fig. 10, Plate LII. Fig. 4, Plate LII., is a cross section of the shutter and shutter boxing, showing the thickness of the pieces. In elevation the length of the shutters would show equal to the height of the window to be covered. The bottom of the shutters slide above, and rest a little above upper face of inner sill, as fig. 5, Plate LII. The arrangement shown in fig. 4, Plate LII., is of course repeated at the other side of the window, the shutter flaps being of such a width that they cover only half of the breadth of the window, the other half being covered by the flaps in the boxings at the other side. Fig. 5, Plate LII, shows the shutter boxings to bevil away from the window, of which the left-hand casing is shown at a a; b b the wall; c the plastering; d d the architrave; e e the front flap of shutter; f f the second back flap; g g the back flap.
In lifting shutters are those which descend into recesses formed in the wall, in front of the window, and may be made in two or more " lifts " or rises, generally for windows of ordinary height in two. The arraugement is shown in fig. 6, Plate LII, which is part plan, and in fig. 7, which is part section of a sash window with " lifting shutters. In fig. 6, a is the "pulley style" of the window casing; b "outside lining;" c "inside lining." This forms also the outside lining of the shutter box, or rather the shutter-weight box, of which d is the pulley style; e e the weights to counterbalance the weight of the shutters f and g. These are shown in section, fig. 7, Plate LII, at a and 6, in the grooves or recesses formed tor them in front of the wall e e; c and d show the grooves in which the shutters a and b slide at their outer edges. When not in use the recesses and the shutters are covered up with the flap e, which may be hinged or fitted, as shown in drawing, the flap being removed by being drawn forward out of the groove at back. When the shutters are pulled up the lowest shutter rests upon the top of flap which is closed. The shutters are panelled in front, as in fig. 10, Plate LII, Lifting shutters are sometimes reversed in position, being placed in recesses above the window, and then being pulled down when in use, in place of being lifted up.
Sliding, Rolling, or Running Shutters, are those which being placed horizontally, are made to slide in grooves into recesses made in the wall, right and left of the window, if the shutter is in two portions; or if in one, one recess only is made at the side of the window. This is illustrated in fig. 5, Plate XLVI, and described in a succeeding paragraph.
In fig. 8, Plate LII, a is the part of the window showing casing b; d d part of window, with casing e e, f being the stonework of window. In fig. 9, Plate LII, the plan of this window at the return is given with the shutter a a, and shutter boxing at b b, c being the casing corresponding to e e in fig. 8, Plate LII.