30. Varieties of Doors, - In fig. 351 we give an illustration of that class of doors in which there are no " panels" employed, this class having four members, as follows: - "Ledged door," this is constructed with a series of vertical boards a a, from one inch to two inches thick, " tongued and grooved" into each other, or in bad work only laid edge to edge, these boards being held together by horizontal bars b 6, a vertical section is at a b" b'. A "ledged and braced door" is made up of vertical boards c c, horizontal bars d d, and diagonal braces e e. A " ledged and framed door " is made up of an outside frame f g h i, the spaces filled in with vertical boards j j. A " framed, braced, and ledged door " is made up of a frame k lm and n, with a horizontal bar o, braces p p, and ledged boards q q. The second class of doors is made up of a variety of forms, the two elements of which are a "framework," as r s t u v to, in fig. 351; and panels, as A, in fig. 1, Plate XLIV., which fill up the spaces, as x, in fig. 351, a six-panelled door is at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. The names of the doors vary according to the style - as a " four-panelled door," in fig. 1, Plate XLIV.; a "six-panelled door," in fig. 352; a "two-panelled door," as in fig. 353; a "folding door," as fig. 354, is made in two parts, hinged at each side, and opening in the centre; a "casement door," as in fig. 355, has the upper part framed with a window, the lower part only being panelled. The frame of a panelled door is made up of two vertical posts or pieces s t, fig. 351, B B fig. 1, Plate XLIV., these being called the "styles; "that style on which the hinges are fixed, as r in fig. 351, and B, fig 1, Plate XLIV., is called the "hanging style;" those to which the lock is fixed, as t in fig- 351, and C in fig. 1, Plate XLIV., is called the " lock style;" the top cross-piece, as u fig. 351, and D D fig. 1, Plate XLIV., is called the "top rail;" the bottom cross-piece, as s fig. 351, E fig. 1, Plate XLIV., the "bottom rail;" the centre cross-piece v, fig. 351, and F F fig. 1, Plate XLIV., the "lock rail;" the vertical pieces in the centre, as u u fig. 351, and G-G fig. 1, Plate XLIV., are called "muntins." The spaces, as x x, fig. 351, are filled in with panels, as A, fig. 1., Plate XLIV., the panels being grooved or tongued into the frame, as shown in fig. 4, Plate L., which is a section on the line a b in fig. 1, Plate XLIV.; fig. 5, Plate L., being an elevation of fig. 4 same plate, a a, fig. 4, is the "muntin" (GG, fig. 1, Plate LXIV.); gg the ' panel;" cc the "mouldings," stuck or fixed on to the "panel" or to the "muntin." The panelled work, as r s t u, in fig. 351, is hinged, or " hung," as the technical term is, to what is called the "door casing," this being a framing of three parts, one horizontal, as u in fig. 351, which is called the "head," and two side vertical pieces, as s and t, which are called the "jambs;" these pieces are secured to "wood bricks," or " grounds," built into the wall or partition. The framework of a door, as r s t u, fig. 351, is surrounded, in good work, by mouldings more or less elaborate, as H H H in fig. 1, Plate XLIV., these mouldings are known as the
"architrave" of a door, and the arrangement is shown in fig. 1, Plate XLV., in which a a is the "partition," b b the "jamb" "of "door casing," c part of the "hanging style," BB, fig. 1, Plate XLIV., d d part of the "ground," e e the "architrave/' with its mouldings, fig. 2 being the elevation of this. The "plaster," as a, fig. 8, Plate XLV., is either "keyed " into the edge of the ground b by a groove, as at c, or by a simple angular joint as c in fig. 7, Plate XLV. In fig. 1, Plate XLV, the casing b on the outside of the door c is lined with the " door lining " //, which is finished at the edges by a quirked moulding a a, fig. 6, Plate XLV. The outside may be finished off with the same or a double architrave, as shown at e e, fig. 1, fixed to grounds as shown at d d.
In fig. 1, Plate XLVIIL, we illustrate the mouldings of the skirting board, being a section through the line e f in fig. 1, Plate XLIV., the mouldings, as in fig. 1, Plate XLVIII, surmounting the flat fascia board H H, fig. 1, Plate XLIV. In fig. 1, Plate XLVIII, A is the section, B the elevation of the mouldings. In fig. 1, Plate XLIV., g is the "door handle," h the "handle of bolt," i the "scutcheon," or "escutcheon," covering the key-hole of the lock, which is a "mortice lock;" that is, the lock is concealed within a mortice cut in the thickness of the " lock style " C 0 of door; j j the "finger plates."
In fig. 3, Plate LI., we give a view of the edge of the "lock style" C C, fig. 1, Plate XLIV., showing the brass plate i i secured to the door style j j by the " screw nails " k k, l the face of " lock bolt," m " small bolt," n " handle bolt." Fig 2 shows the corresponding plate fixed to the door casing o o by the screw nails p p, q the opening to the hole made in the door casing into which the bolt I, fig. 3, passes when the door is locked; the small bolt m and handle bolt n, fig. 2, both pass through the opening r r; to the brass plate a small spring s is cast, over which the handle bolt n, fig. 3, passes. We illustrate in figs. 2 and 3, Plate XLIV, and in figs. 3 and 4, Plate XLV, the lock rail and panel of a door fitted with a "rim lock," that is, a lock secured to the outside of the door. In fig. 3, Plate XLIV., we give part of the front or inside (towards the room) elevation of the door - for a bedroom - which is four-panelled, the panels being surrounded on the side next the room with mouldings c d, fig. 3, Plate XLIV., and shown in section in fig. 2, Plate XLIV.; but which are flat, as at a a in this figure, towards the passage or landing. In fig. 2, Plate XLIV., b b is the panel, c the moulding outside this, d d part of the lock style. In fig. 3, Plate XLIV., c d are the mouldings, e e part of " lock style," f f part of " lock rail," g the handle of door, h the brass "escutcheon " covering the keyhole of the lock. The manner of fitting on the lock is shown in edge view of lock style in fig. 3, Plate XLV., and in front view in fig. 4- In fig. 3, a a is part edge of " lock style," b b the ends of the "tenons" by which the " lock rail" a a, fig. 4, is secured to the style, c c parts of the panel mouldings corresponding to c, fig. 1, Plate XLIV., d d' the handles inside and outside the door, e "handle bolt," f" lock bolt," g small "bolt," "latch lock," or "snib," moved in and out by the plate h. In fig. 4, Plate XLV., a a is part of lock rail, b b part of "lock style," c handle of "rim lock," d escutcheon of keyhole of lock, e handle bolt, f f screw nails securing rim lock to door.
31. Panels are grooved into the rails and styles of a door. In general, the grooves to receive the edges of the panels are one-third of the thickness of the framing. This, however, does not regulate the thickness of the panel, but this thickness depends upon the kind of panel. The varieties of panels are as follows, as in fig. 26, Plate LIII, where the panel c c is "square" back, 6, and front, a; that is, where its surfaces do not come beyond the lines of groove in the framing d d; as in fig. 17, Plate LIII, where the panel a is called a "flush" panel, being two-thirds of the thickness of the framing b b, the face c being flush with the surfaces of the framing b b, the back d being "square." Fig. 19, Plate LIII, is a "raised" panel, the central part a being raised, its surface flush with the surfaces of the framing b b, the sides or margin c c sloping off as shown. Fig. 21, Plate LIII, shows another form of raised panel. When the centre of a raised panel is separated from the margin by a moulding, the panel is termed a "moulded raised panel," as at figs. 3 and 4, Plate LIII, at a and b. When the panel is " flush," and is provided with a moulding on its two edges running with the grain of the wood, as at a a, fig. 22, Plate LIII, in section at b b in fig. 23, and in fig. 20, larger scale, it is said to be "bead and butt" or " bead butt." When the moulding is carried round the panel, but struck on the edges of the styles a a, fig. 24, Plate LIII, and rails b b, the moulding mitreing at the corners, it is said to be " bead and flush" or " bead flush," this is shown in section at fig. 25, and in larger scale in fig. 16. When the panel is "flush," the moulding is stuck on the framing, as at fig. 18, Plate LIII, at a, on all sides of the panel. When the moulding is struck or run on the framing, it is said to be "stuck on," see fig. 2, Plate LIII ; when it is secured on the panel, it is said to be "laid on," fig. 1, Plate LIII