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Building Construction | by R. Scott Burn



Showing The Employment Of Timber, Lead, And Iron Work, In The Peactical Construction Of Buildings

TitleBuilding Construction
AuthorR. Scott Burn
PublisherWilliam Collins, Sons & Company
Year1877
Copyright1877, William Collins, Sons & Company
AmazonBuilding Construction

By R. Scott Burn, Author of " The Hand-Book of the Mechanical Arts," and Editor of "The New Practical Guide to Masonry, Bricklaying, and Plastering," etc.

Vol. I. - Text.

-Preface
As the first volume of the Advanced Series embraced a higher range of topics on Brickwork and Masonry than that of the volume of the Elementary Series, of which it formed the natural and necessary seq...
-Part I. - Carpentry. Chapter I. Drawing Appliances. Board And T-Square
Mechanical and Free-Hand Drawing - Drawing Instruments - Drawing Scales - Plans - Elevations and Sections - Working Drawings of a Building - Free-Hand Sketches of Details. Drawing Appliances - Board ...
-2. Drawing Instruments
Drawing Instruments. A complete set of drawing instruments comprises a very considerable number of pieces, - several, however, being duplicates, so far as the principle of their construction and the m...
-3. Drawing Paper And Pencils
Drawing Paper And Pencils. For the purposes of the beginner good cartridge paper will do well enough; for superior drawings the regular drawing papers should be used; they are made in sheets of differ...
-4. Scales Used In Drawings
Scales Used In Drawings. The scale to which drawings are constructed are conventional arrangements by which the proportion is maintained between the measurement which the drawing gives, and the actual...
-5. Practical Use Of The Scales In Drawing Plans, Etc
Practical Use Of The Scales In Drawing Plans, Etc. To take measurements from scales is a simple matter. Suppose the drawing, of which the dimensions of various parte are required to be taken, is drawn...
-6. Scales For Detail Or Enlarged Drawings
Scales For Detail Or Enlarged Drawings. These are constructed on the principle already explained for scales for general plans, but are designed to give facilities for measuring fractions of the inch, ...
-7. Plans, Elevations, And Sections
Plans, Elevations, And Sections. The various structures, and parts of structures, met with in building construction, are solids, having length, breadth, and thickness, and sides more or less numerous,...
-Chapter II. Floors. 10. Single Floors
Single Floors. This species of floor consists of a series of timbers termed joists, or flooring joists aa, as fig. 194, the ends of which rest on the walls b b, and run in a direction at right an...
-11. Framed And Double Floors
Framed And Double Floors. In this kind of floor there is an additional member called a binder, or binding joist, as 6 6 in fig. 197, a a being the flooring joists, c the ceiling joists, and ...
-13. Varieties Of Floors
Varieties Of Floors. The most striking, and indeed the only variety of floor which comes under our notice here, is what is known as the fire-proof floor, of which there are several kinds now to be b...
-13. Varieties Of Floors. Continued
Fig. 216. In figs. 217 and 218 Cooper's system is illustrated, in which the concrete is carried upon plates of corrugated iron a a, these being supported by the wrought-iron beams b b, c c being the ...
-15. Skirting Boards
Skirting Boards. In order to conceal the joints where the flooring boards butt up against, or approach to the wall, and otherwise to add to the finish of the room, boards more or less ornamented with ...
-Chapter III. Partitions. 16. Partitions Of Timber
Partitions Of Timber. When the spaces between the various timbers forming the partition are filled up with bricks, see a, fig. 228, it is termed brick-nogged; if the spaces are not so filled up, but l...
-Chapter IV. Roofs. 17. Roofs
Roofs. Roofs are of various kinds or classes, as lean-to or shed roof, span or couple roof, collar-beam roof, king-post roof, queen-post roof, mansard or curb roof, the conical ro...
-Roofs. 17. Roofs. Continued
Fig. 237. Fig. 238. Fig. 239. Fig. 240. Fig. 241. Fig. 242. Fig 243. Fig. 244. fig. 245 we illustrate what is known as the curb roof, or, from the name of its designer, the m...
-Chapter V. Miscellaneous Timber Structure
Centres - Bridges - Gates - Storing up Timber Work - Scaffolding-Timber sheds - Houses - Hoists and Havellers. 18. Centres, which are certain arrangements of timber framing, used to support the brick...
-19. Gate
Gate. A gate consists of framework, as in a b c d, hinged or hung to a gate-post e, firmly secured to the ground, and catching on a latch attached to another gate-post at the opposite side of the open...
-20. Scaffolding
Scaffolding. The scaffolding used by bricklayers is thus described by Col. Pasley: - Consists of - 1. Poles which are usually 20 or 30 ft. long, or even more, and from 6 to 9 inches in extreme diamet...
-21. Hoists And Travellers
Hoists And Travellers. A simple form of hoist is shown to the left in fig. 296. The stone to be lifted is secured to the chain by a contrivance called a lewis, and the stone is hauled up by a crab o...
-22. Timber Houses
Timber Houses. In describing the method of building in concrete (see Vol. on Brickwork and Masonry, Advanced Series), we gave an illustration of a method of erecting the framework of a timber house...
-22. Timber Houses. Continued
Fig 301 Fig. 302. The flooring boards b b, fig. 301, run at right angles to the joists, and are also nailed diagonally to the latter as shown. The next operation is the putting in of the joists...
-Chapter VI. Joints Used In The Construction Of Floors, Partitions, Roofs, And Heavy Timber Work. 23. Joints Used In Timber Framing
Joints Used In Timber Framing. In figs. 313, 314, we illustrate different methods of joining flooring boards together. For folding floors, the joints first on the left hand in fig. 313, and c in fig...
-24. Lengthening Of Beams
Lengthening Of Beams. Where beams are required of such lengths as prevent them being in one piece, two beams are lengthened by joining them in various ways. The simplest and the strongest mode of jo...
-25. Increasing The Depth Of Beam
Increasing The Depth Of Beam. Where beams are required to be of greater depth than can be conveniently obtained by a single beam, two beams are laid edge to edge, and secured in various ways. Fig. 327...
-26. Increasing The Thickness Of Beams
Increasing The Thickness Of Beams. When beams are required to be of great thickness, in place of employing one very thick beam, two beams, a and b, fig. 332, are used, laid face to face, and strengthe...
-28. Joints Used In The Construction Of Partitions
Joints Used In The Construction Of Partitions. In fig. 333 we illustrate the various forms of joints used for this purpose; a, b, and c illustrate one method of joining the foot of post a, with the...
-29. Joints Used In The Construction Of Floors
Joints Used In The Construction Of Floors. In fig. 334 is illustrated a simple method of joining tie beam a a to the wall plate b; a notch, as c, being cut in the lower edge of tie beam to admit of th...
-Part II. - Joinery. Chapter I. Doors - Panels - Mouldings
30. Varieties of Doors, - In fig. 351 we give an illustration of that class of doors in which there are no panels employed, this class having four members, as follows: - Ledged door, this is cons...
-32. Mouldings
Mouldings. Figs. 5 to 12, Plate L., show different kinds of mouldings for panels, or for architraves; the principal elements of which are the ovolo, as in fig. 12; the cavetto, as in fig. 8;...
-Chapter II. Windows. 33. Varieties Of Windows
Varieties Of Windows. Windows have their surfaces, as a general rule, flat, and more or less recessed from the surface of wall, in such cases they are known as sash windows, as in fig. 1, Plate XLV...
-34. Shutters To Windows
Shutters To Windows. These are generally provided to windows, and are of several kinds - folding, lifting, and rolling. Folding shutters are illustrated in fig. 4, Plate LII., which are those f...
-35. Casement Or French Window
Casement Or French Window. In Plate XLVI., fig. 1, scale half-inch to the foot, is the inside elevation of this; fig. 2, the vertical section; fig. 3, the plan. In the elevation the two upper panes, a...
-36. Sliding Horizontal Window
Sliding Horizontal Window. In fig. 5, Plate XLV I, we give an inside elevation of a window, placed horizontally, one half of which slides to the right, the other half to the left, recesses being forme...
-38. Fittings To Windows
Fittings To Windows. The sash bars which carry the glass are more or less numerous, according to the number of panes of glass in each sheet. Since the introduction of plate glass at a comparatively ch...
-39. Hinges
Hinges. Hinges to shutters and to doors are of various kinds and makes. In fig. 368 the usual method of hanging shutters is illustrated; in some cases the leaves of the hinge a b are sunk into the fla...
-Chapter III. Joints Used In Joinery. 40. Pieces Laid And Joined Parallel To One Another
Pieces Laid And Joined Parallel To One Another. As the width of a board is limited from 7 to 9 inches (planks are timbers, the thickness of which does not exceed four inches, and the width above...
-41. Pieces Joined At Right Angles To Each Other
Pieces Joined At Right Angles To Each Other. Fig. 376 illustrates one method, a slip feather or tongue, as a. Another method being shown in fig. 377. In fig. 378, a, b, c, and d illustrate other...
-42. Pieces Joined At Angles Other Than Right Angles
Pieces Joined At Angles Other Than Right Angles. In figs. 379 and 380 various methods are .llustrated. The joints here illustrated may be strengthened by adding what are called blockings, as a a, in...
-43. Brackets
Brackets. In fixing plaster on cornices, as at a a, fig. 386, the plaster is worked on the face of pieces of wood b b, so called as above, the outline of which roughly resembles the outline of finishe...
-Part III. Work In Iron, Lead, And Zinc. Chapter I. Work In Iron. 44. Iron Straps
Iron Straps. In the framing together of large timbers, in addition to the joints we have already illustrated, the parts are secured and kept together by means of iron straps, and by screw bolts and ...
-46. Iron Columns Or Pillars
Iron Columns Or Pillars. Iron columns are always made of cast-iron, never or rarely of wrought-iron, this latter not being calculated to resist the strains of compression in which columns are chiefly ...
-48. Junctions Of Iron Work
Junctions Of Iron Work. Several forms of joints used in putting iron frame work together will be found illustrated in a succeeding paragraph, when describing Iron Roofs and Bridges. The present paragr...
-50. Iron Roofs
Iron Roofs. In the Elementary Volume on Timber and Iron, the student will find illustrations of forms of roofs, as the king-post roof, which may be considered as supplementary to what we now purpos...
-Chapter II. Work In Lead And Zinc
52. Lead, in building construction, is used in the form of sheets of varying thickness, and in specifications is stated as weighing so many pounds to the square foot, as five lbs. to the foot lead....
-Part IV. Miscellaneous Roof Coverings Of Slate And Tiles - Staircases-Strains Upon Material. Chapter I. Roof Coverings Of Slate And Tiles. 54. Slates
Slates. Slates are of various sizes (see division on Materials), and the various parts of a slate are designated as follows : - the upper part of a slate, or that part which is seen when the roof is f...
-55. Tiles
Tiles. Tiles, as generally used, are of two kinds, plain and pan. The plain is flat, rectangular in outline and in section, as in fig. 430. These tiles are secured to battens a a, fig. 431, nail...
-Chapter II. Staircases
56. The space enclosed by walls or partitions, as the space a b c d, fig. 440, in which the stairs are placed, is termed the staircase; when the stairs are external to the wall, that is, in the open...
-Chapter III. Strains On Building Materials
Strains To Which, Various Parts Of Building Structures Are Subjected -Modes Of Estimating Pressures Or Strains On Do Dimensions of various parts of Building Structures. The subjects briefly detailed ...
-Strains On Building Materials. Part 2
The first of the classes named above - the characteristics of the materials used in construction - having, in the volume of this Advanced Series, which embraces construction in stone and brick, been...
-Strains On Building Materials. Part 3
Fig. 458. The resistance of a horizontal beam to cross strain increases, as we have said, as the shortness of the distance between the supports or bearings, as a b, fig. 458; the horizontal positio...
-Strains On Building Materials. Part 4
Fig. 459. The application of these principles to the theory and practice of framework, will now be illustrated and described. The pressure or strain exerted by any given weight, acting upon or bein...
-Strains On Building Materials. Part 5
Fig. 465. We have already stated, while treating upon beams and the strains to which they are subjected, that ties are subjected to the strain of tension tending to draw their fibres asunder, whi...
-Strains On Building Materials. Part 6
Fig. 468. Fig. 469. Having thus detailed various points connected with the strains or pressures which weights exercise on beams, under various circumstances, we have now briefly to explain how t...
-Strains On Building Materials. Part 7
Coming now to the subject of the cross section of beams, the rectangular section, if applied in the form of timber, could be made of such dimensions, by the adoption of one or other of the methods we ...
-Strains On Building Materials. Part 8
62. Brickwork is measured by the square rod of 30 square yards, or in round numbers 272 feet; in the North it is measured by the square yard. What in England, where brickwork is carried out to a much...
-64. Proportions Of Elasticity Or Resiliency
Proportions Of Elasticity Or Resiliency. American oak, 64; beech, 138; ash, 160; elm, 86; sycamore, 111; larch, 134; chestnut, 118; cedar, 106; Riga fir, 64; Memel fir, 56; Scotch fir, 65; white Ameri...
-68. Specific Gravities Of Various Timbers
Specific Gravities Of Various Timbers. 1. Oaks - English, 829; Memel, 727; Dantzic, 720; Italian, 796; American white, 779; American red, 952; African live, 1160; 2. Firs - American white pine, 432; A...
-68. Specific Gravities Of Various Timbers. Part 2
To find the depth of a beam supported at both ends, to sustain a given weight, the length and thickness or breadth of which is given - The weight multiplied by the square of the length, and this by 'O...
-68. Specific Gravities Of Various Timbers. Part 3
Wrought-iron is chiefly used in construction for parts subjected to a tensile strain, or that calculated to tear the fibres asunder, as in the case of the tie rod of a roof. The following gives the re...
-68. Specific Gravities Of Various Timbers. Part 4
As the breaking weight of a beam at the centre is double that when distributed over its whole surface, and as we have in a special diagram illustrated how the pressure on. a beam decreases as the weig...
-68. Specific Gravities Of Various Timbers. Part 5
The above statement, as regards the relation of the breaking strain of the bottom flange to the constant, is shown by the following formula : - Thus, to find the sectional area of the bottom flange in...
-68. Specific Gravities Of Various Timbers. Part 6
Fig. 480. Fig. 481. As already stated, cast-iron is generally used in the construction of pillars or columns, this material being calculated to bear a high strain of compression, which tends, as...
-William Collins, Sons, & Co.'s Educational Works
Advanced Science Series Adapted to the requirements of the South Kensington Syllabus, for Students in Science and Art Classes, and Higher and Middle Class Schools. In Post 8vo, fully Illustrated, cl...









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