In proportioning the Greek and Roman orders, a uniform standard of measurement was adopted, so that the several parts of the order might be arranged in perfect ratio. This standard consists of modules and parts. A module is the semi-diameter of the column, measured at the base, and each module is divided into 30 equal parts. Each diameter, therefore, is equal to 2 modules, or 60 parts.

The Greek Orders

In Fig. 1 5s shown a diagram of the Greek orders, after measured drawings by acknowledged authorities, drawn to a uniform altitude. .1 is an example of pure Doric, from the Portico of the Parthenon, at Athena B is the Ionic, and is taken from the North Porch of the Erechtheum, while C is the Corinthian, after the monument of Lysicrates, In each example a is the stylobate or base, b is the column, and c the entablature. The column of the Doric consists of a shaft and capital, the shaft resting directly on the stylobate, while the columns of the Ionic and Corinthian have a base, shaft, and capital. The entablature of each order has three divisions - the architrave, frieze, and cornice.

The Greek Orders 372

Fig. 1.

A comparative statement of the relative values of the divisions of each of the Greek orders is given in Table I, and is based on the module, or semi-diameter, as the unit of measurement; as previously explained, a part is 1/30 of this unit.

Table I. Greek Orders

Title.

Height of Column.

Height of Entablature.

Ratio of Entablature to Column.

Base. d

Shaft. e

Cap, f

Total.

Arch. 9

Frieze. h

Cornice. i

Total

m.

P

m.

P

m.

P.

m.

P

m.

p.

m.

P

m.

P

m.

P

Doric......................

0

0

10

2 3/4

0

27 1/4

11

0

1

12 2/3

1

12 3/5

*

23

3

18 4/15

.328

Ionic ...................

0

23 5/6

15

22 5/6

1

13 1/3

18

0

1

20 3/4

1

17 3/4

1

7 3/5

4

16 1/10

.252

Corinthian............

0

22 1/3

I6

12 1/6

2

25 1/2

20

0

1

22 1/2

1

14

1

18 1/2

4

25

.242

* Exclusive of the crowning member on the pediment, which is 9 parts high. The Doric was largely used by the Greeks,their most important buildings being erected in this order. The proportions vary largely in the dlfferent examples, proceeding from extreme sturdiness in the early examples to the great refinement of the Parthenon, from which the figures of the table were taken. The architrave overhangs the face of the shaft, which is always fluted. The Ionic Older was used with much delicacy by the Greeks. The distinctive capital has scrolls showing on two sides only, although examples of corner scrolls, adopted by the Romans, are also found. The Corinthian order was little used by the Greeks, but the few examples of this style, and especially the one here shown, are unsurpassed for elegance and beauty.