Painting is measured by the superficial yard, girting every part of the work that is covered with paint, and allowing additions to the actual surface to compensate for the difficulty of covering deep quirks of moldings, for carved and enriched surfaces, etc. Ordinary door and window openings are usually measured solid, on account of the extra time taken in working around them, "cutting in" the window sash, etc. Porch and stair balustrades, iron railings, and work having numerous thin strips are also figured solid, for a like reason. Allowance is frequently made for distance from ground that the work is to be done, as in cornices, balconies, dormers, etc., and also for the difficulty of access.

Charges are usually made for each coat of paint put on, at a certain price per superficial yard and per coat.

Graining and marbling (imitations of wood and stone) and varnishing are rated at different prices from plain work.

Capitals and columns and other ornamental work, which are difficult to measure, should be enumerated, and a clear description of the amount of work on them should be given.

Quantities

One pound of paint covers from 3 1/2 to 4 sq. yd. of wood first coat, and from 4 1/2 to 6 sq. yd. for each additional coat; on brickwork, it will cover about 3 and 4 sq. yd., respectively. Colored paint will cover about one-third more surface than white paint.

Using prepared or ready-mixed paint, 1 gal. will cover from 250 to 300 sq. ft. of wood surface, two coats; for covering metallic surfaces, 1 gal. will be sufficient for from 300 to 350 sq. ft., two coats. The weight per gallon of mixed paints varies considerably, but, on an average, may be taken at about 16 lb.

Prepared shingle stains will cover about 200 sq. ft. of surface, per gallon, if applied with a brush; or this quantity will be sufficient for dipping about 500 shingles. Rough-sawed shingles will require about 50 per cent, more stain than smooth ones.

One pound of cold-water paint will cover from 50 to 75 sq. ft. for first coat, on wood, according to surface condition, and about 40 sq. ft. of brick and stone.

One gallon of liquid pigment filler, hard oil finish or varnish, will generally cover from 350 to 450 sq. ft. of surface for first coat, according to the nature of wood and finish, and from 450 to 550 sq. ft. for the second and subsequent coats. Ten pounds of paste wood filler will cover about 400 sq. ft.

One gallon of varnish weighs from 8 to 9 lb.; turpentine, about 7 lb.; and boiled or raw linseed oil, about 7 3/4 lb.

For puttying, about 5 lb. will be sufficient for 100 sq. yd. of interior and exterior work.

For sizing, about 1/2 lb. of glue is used to 1 gal. of water.

For mixing paints, the following figures represent the average proportions of materials required per 100 lb. of lead:

Quantities Of Materials

Coat.

Lead. Lb.

Raw Oil. Gal.

Japan Drier.

Priming coat .......

100

7

3/4

Second coat..........

100

6

Third coat............

100

6 1/2-7

The drier is omitted in the second and succeeding coats, unless the work is to be dried very rapidly, as it is considered injurious to the durability of the paint.

On outside work, boiled oil is generally used in about the proportion of 3 gal. of boiled oil to 2 gal. of raw oil.

Cost

The cost of applying paint, on general interior and exterior work, will average about twice the cost of the materials; while for very plain work, done in one color, the cost may be taken at about 1 1/2 times that of the materials. For stippling, the cost will be about the same as for two coats of paint. For varnishing, the cost of labor will be about 1 1/2 times the price of the varnish. The class of work demanded, however, will regulate the actual cost, as the rubbing down of the successive coats requires the expenditure of much time.

The following figures represent fair average prices, for various classes of work, and have been adopted by the Builders' Exchange of a large Eastern City:

Interior Work.

Cost per Square Yard.

1 coat paint, 1 color.............................................

..............$0.12

1 coat paint, 2 colors ...........................................

................ .15

2 coats paint, 2,colors...........................................

.................... .20

3 coatspaint, 2 colors .....................................

......................... .25

2 coats paint, 3 colors...........................................

....................... .25

3 coats paint, 3 colors...........................................

........................ .32

1 coat shellac.........................................................

......................... .10

Walls, 1 coat size, 2 coats paint............................

........................ .20

Walls, 1 coat size, 3 coats paint, stipple............

......................... .30