### Measurement

In measuring shingle roofing, it is necessary to know the exposed length of a shingle, which is found by deducting 3 inches - the usual cover of the upper shingle over the head of the third shingle below it - from the length; dividing the remainder by 3, the result will be the exposed length; multiplying this by the average width of a shingle, the product will be the exposed area. Dividing

14,400, the number of square inches in a square, by the exposed area of 1 shingle, will give the number required to cover 100 sq. ft. of roof. For example, it is required to compute the number of shingles, 18 in. X 4 in., necessary to cover 100 sq. ft. of roof. With a shingle of this length, the exposure will be (18-3) / 3 = 5 in.; then the exposed area of

1 shingle is 4 in. X 5 in., or 20 sq. in., and 1 square requires 14,400 / 20 = 720 shingles.

In estimating the number of shingles required, an allowance should always be made for waste.

The following table is arranged for shingles from 16 to 27 in. in length, 4 and 6 in. in width, and for various lengths of exposure.

## Table For Estimating Shingles

 Exposure toWeather.Inches. No. of Sq. Ft. of RoofCovered by 1,000Shingles. No. of Shingles Required for loo Sq. Ft. of Roof. 4 In. Wide. 6 In. Wide. 4 In. Wide. 6 In. Wide, 4 111 167 900 600 5 139 206 720 480 6 167 250 600 400 7 194 291 514 343 8 222 333 450 300

Shingles are classed as shared or breasted, and sawed shingles. The former vary from 18 to 30 in. in length, and are about 1/2 in. thick at the butt and 1/16 in. at the top: the latter are usually from 14 to 18 in. long, and of various thicknesses, five 18" shingles, placed together, measuring 2 1/4 in. at the butt, the thickness of each at the top being 1/16 in.

Strictly first-class shingles are generally given a brand of XXX, and those of a slightly poorer quality are termed

No. 2; but in some sections of the country, the brand A is general; thus, "choice A" or "standard A" are practically equivalent to the XXX shingles.

Shaved shingles are usually packed in bundles of 500, or 2 bundles per thousand. Sawed shingles are made up into bundles of 250, and are sold on a basis of 4 in. width for each shingle. If the wider ones are ordered, the cost per thousand is correspondingly increased. For example, if it requires 1,000 of 4" shingles to cover a roof area, and 6" ones were ordered, only two-thirds as many, or 667, would be needed and furnished, while the cost would be that of 1,000 standard-width shingles.

Shingles cost from \$3.00 to \$5.00 per thousand, according to material and grade. Dimension shingles - those cut to a uniform width - of prime cedar, shaved, 1/2 in. thick at the butt, and 1/16 in. at the top, will cost \$9.00 to \$10.00 per thousand, but such shingles are usually 6 in. wide and 24 in. long, so that a less number will be required per square than of ordinary shingles.

A fairly good workman will lay about 1,500 shingles per day of 9 hours, on straight, plain work; while, in working around hips and valleys, the average will be about 1,000 per day.

### Cost

The method of estimating the cost of shingle roofing is as follows:

## Cost Of 1,000 Shingles In Place. Exclusive Of Sheathing

 1,000 shingles XXX............................................................. \$5.00 Labor: 1 man can lay 1,500 shingles per day; wages being \$2.25, the cost per thousand is.......................................... 1.50 Nails, about.........................................................................(Flashing, about 10 cents per sq. ft.) ............................... .25 Cost per thousand, about............................................ \$6.75