A handy manual of reference on building construction, including structural design, masonry, bricklaying, carpentry, joinery, roofing, plastering, painting, plumbing, lighting, heating, and ventilation

Title | The Building Trades Pocketbook |

Author | International Correspondence Schools |

Publisher | International Textbook Company |

Year | 1905 |

Copyright | 1905, International Textbook Company |

Amazon | Building Trades Pocketbook: a Handy Manual of reference on Building Construction |

2d Edition, 113th Thousand, 11th Impression

Printed in the United States

- Preface
- This Pocketbook is intended for the use of all persons connected with The Building Trades, and contains many features not found in similar publications. In addition to tables giving the properties of ...

- Arithmetic. Signs Used In Calculation
- + Plus, indicates addition; thus, 10 + 5 is 15. - Minus, indicates subtraction; thus, 10 - 5 is 5. X Multiplied by, indicates multiplication; thus, 10 X 5 is 50. ÷ Divided by, indicates division; t...

- Fractions
- It is taken for granted that the reader knows how to perform the common operations of addition, subtraction, etc., where only whole numbers are used; but, when there are mixed or fractional numbers, a...

- Decimal Fractions
- In decimals, whole numbers are divided into tenths, hundredths, etc.; thus, 1/10 is written .1; .08 is read 8/100, the value the number being indicated by the position of the decimal point; that is, o...

- Duodecimals
- The duodecimal system of numerals is that in which the base is 12, instead of 10, as in the common decimal system. As a method of calculation it has fallen into almost entire disuse, and it is only in...

- Involution
- Involution is the process of multiplying a number by itself one or more times, the product obtained being called a certain power of the number. If the number is multiplied by itself, the result is cal...

- Involution And Evolution
- By means of the following table the square, cube, square root, cube root, and reciprocal of any number may be obtained correct always to five significant figures, and in the majority of cases correct ...

- Square Root
- First point off the given number into periods of two figures each, beginning with the decimal point and proceeding to the left and right. The following numbers are thus pointed off: 12703, 1'27'03; 12...

- Cube Root
- The cube root of a number is found in the same manner as the square root, except the given number is pointed off into periods of three figures each. The following numbers would be pointed off thus: 31...

- Squares And Cubes
- If the given number contains but three (or less) significant figures, the square or cube is found in the column headed n2 or n3, opposite the given number in the column headed n. If the given number c...

- Reciprocals
- The reciprocal of a number is 1 divided by the number. By using reciprocals, division is changed into multiplication, since a/b=a/b=ax1/b. The table gives the reciprocals of all numbers expressed with...

- Reciprocals. Continued
- Powers, Roots And Reciprocals n n2 n3 1/n 4.51 20.3401 91.7339 2.12368 6.71565 1.65219 3.55953 7.66...

- Decimal Equivalents Of 64ths
- The decimal fractions printed in large type give the exact value of the corresponding fraction to the fourth decimal place. A given decimal fraction is rarely exactly equal to any of these values, and...

- Weights And Measures
- Linear Measure 12 inches (in.)......................= 1 foot ......................... ft. 3 feet ...................................= 1 yard.......................

- Weights And Measures. Part 2
- Surveyor's Square Measure 625 square links (sq. li.) ..........= 1 square rod ...............sq.rd 16 square rods......................... = 1 square chain ......sq. ch. ...

- Weights And Measures. Part 3
- Long Ton Table 16 ounces................................= 1 pound.........................lb. 112 pounds................................ = 1 hundredweight ......cwt. ...

- Weights And Measures. Part 4
- Miscellaneous Table 12 articles = 1 dozen. 12 dozen = 1 gross. 12 gross = 1 great gross. 2 articles = 1 pair. 20 arti...

- The Metric System
- The metric system is based on the meter, which, according to the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Report of 1884, is equal to 39.370432 inches. The value commonly used is 39.37 inches, and is authorize...

- The Metric System. Continued
- Measures Of Volume Name. Cu. Met. Cu. In. Cu. Ft. Cu.Yd. Cu. centimeter (cm.3) = .000001 = .061025 Cu. decimeter (dm.5) = .001000 = ...

- Metric Weights
- The gram is the basis of metric weights, and is the weight of a cubic centimeter of distilled water at its maximum density, at sea level, Paris, barometer 29.922 inches. Name. Grams. ...

- Factors For Conversion
- For approximations, it may be useful to remember the following: 1 centimeter = .4 in. (nearly). 1 meter = 40 in. (roughly). 1 kilometer = 5/8 mile (nearly). ...

- Specific Gravities And Weights
- The specific gravity of a solid or liquid body is the ratio between its weight and that of a like volume of distilled water. If the solid is of irregular shape, its specific gravity may be found by we...

- Specific Gravities And Weights. Part 2
- Building Materials, Etc Name of Material. Weight perCu. Ft. Pounds. Specific Gravity. Bluestone .......................................... 160 2.56 Brick,...

- Specific Gravities And Weights. Part 3
- Woods (Dry) Name of Material. Weight per Foot. B. M. Weight per Cu. Ft. Pounds. Specific Gravity. Ash ............................... 3.9 47.0 .752 ...

- Formulas
- Formulas are simply short methods of indicating operations otherwise expressed by rules, by using letters and signs in place of words. The letters are usually those of the English alphabet, and the si...

- Mensuration
- Lines And Plane Surfaces Triangle Right Triangle. Oblique Triangle. If altitude or height h and base 6 are known: Area = 1/2 b h. If the three sides are known: Let s = 1/2(a + b + c). ...

- Mensuration. Part 2
- Circle A m area, {pi) = 3.1416. /4= .7854 p = perimeter or circumference. p = d = 3.1416 d. p = 3 1/7 d (approximately). p = 2r = 6.2832r. d = P/ = p/3.1416 ...

- Mensuration. Part 3
- Solids And Curved Surfaces C = convex surface; S = whole surface; = C + area of end or ends; A = area larger base or end; a = area smaller base or end; P = perimeter of larger base; p = perimeter of...

- Calculating The Weight Of Castings, Etc
- The first step is to ascertain the number of cubic inches in the casting. To illustrate the method, consider the column shown in the figure to be divided into several parts, as given below. With irreg...

- Calculating The Weight Of Castings, Etc. Part 2
- Circumferences And Areas Of Circles From 1-64 To 100 Diam. Circum. Area. 1/64 .0491 .0002 1/32 .0862 .0008 1/16 .1963 .0031 ...

- Calculating The Weight Of Castings, Etc. Part 3
- Decimal Equivalents Of Parts Of One Inch 1-64 .015625 17-64 .265625 33-64 .515625 49-64 .765625 1-32 .031250 9-32 .281250 17-32 ...

- Geometrical Drawing
- To erect a perpendicular to the line b c at the point a. With a as a center, and any radius, as a 6, strike arcs cutting the line at b and c. From b and c as centers, and any radius greater than 6 a, ...

- Laying Out Angles
- By Two-Foot Rule To lay off any angle given in the table, open the rule at the middle until the distance between the inside corners at the knuckle joints (6-inches' mark) is equal to the distance giv...

- Structural Design. Loads On Structures
- Loads on buildings may be classed under three general divisions: dead loads, live loads, and snow and wind loads. Dead Loads The dead loads consist of the weight of the materials composing the str...

- Structural Design. Loads On Structures. Part 2
- Table II. Weight Of Floors, Partitions, And Roofs Material. Weight. Lb. per Sq. Ft. Floors, including weight of beams - Wooden, in dwellings.................................

- Structural Design. Loads On Structures. Part 3
- Table III. Approximate Weight Of Fireproof Floors. (Exclusive Of Partitions.) Depth of I Beams. Weight. Lb. per Sq.Ft. Including Beams. Brick Arch. Hollow Tile. 8 ...

- Live Loads
- The live load is variable, and consists of the weight of people, furniture, stocks of goods, machinery, etc. The amount of this load, which should be added to the dead load, depends upon the use to wh...

- Snow And Wind Loads
- Data in regard to snow and wind loads are necessary in connection with the design of roof trusses. Snow Load When the slope of a roof is over 12 in. rise per foot of horizontal run, a snow and acc...

- Strength Of Materials. Definitions Of Terms
- Stress This is the cohesive force by which the particles of a body resist the external load that tends to produce an alteration in the form of the body. Stress is always equal to the effective extern...

- Table VIII Strength Of Metals In Pounds Per Square Inch
- * Unit stress producing 10% reduction in original length. Material. Ultimate Tensile. Ultimate Compression. Ultimate Shearing. Modulus of Rupture. Modulus of Elastici...

- Table VIII Strength Of Metals In Pounds Per Square Inch. Part 2
- Table X. Average Ultimate Strength Of Masonry Materials Material. Compression. Lb. per Sq. In. Tension. Lb. per Sq. In. Modulus of Rupture. Building Stone. ...

- Table VIII Strength Of Metals In Pounds Per Square Inch. Part 3
- Table XI. Safe Bearing Loads Brick and Stone Masonry. Lb. per Sq. In. Brickwork. Bricks, hard, laid in lime mortar................... 100 Hard, laid in ...

- Properties Of Sections. Center Of Gravity
- The center of gravity of a figure or body is that point upon which the figure or body will balance in whatever position it may be placed, provided it is acted upon by no other force than gravity. If ...

- Neutral Axis
- When a simple beam is loaded, there is always compression in the topmost fibers and tension in the bottommost fibers. There must, therefore, be a certain position in the cross-section at which the fib...

- Moment Of Inertia
- When a beam is subjected to loading, as in Fig. 5, the fibers of the beam tend to resist the compression at the top and the tension at the bottom, each fiber exerting a force or moment directly propor...

- Moment Of Inertia. Continued
- Examfle The moment of inertia of the section shown in Fig. 4 may he found as follows, the figure being redrawn with the neutral axis located by the distance c, obtained from calculations on page 77, ...

- Radius Of Gyration
- This term, like moment of inertia, is the expression of a certain value of any section, and is one of the factors in the principal column formulas for determining the strength of cast-iron and steel c...

- Section Modulus, Or Resisting Inches
- The section modulus, or, as it is sometimes called, resisting inches, of a section is equal to the moment of inertia divided by the greatest distance of the neutral axis from the outside fibers of the...

- Section Modulus, Or Resisting Inches. Part 2
- Table XIII. Properties Of Steel Channels Neutral Axis Perpendicular to Web at Center. Neutral Axis Parallel to Back of Channel. Depth of Channel. Weigh...

- Section Modulus, Or Resisting Inches. Part 3
- Table XIV. Properties Of Steel Angles - Equal Legs Size of Angles. Thickness. Weight per Foot. Area of Section. Distance from Center of Gravity to Back of Flange. Momen...

- Section Modulus, Or Resisting Inches. Part 4
- Table XV. Properties Of Steel Angles - Unequal Legs Neutral Axis Parallel to Shorter Flange. Neutral Axis Parallel to Longer Flange. Size of Angle. Weight per F...

- Section Modulus, Or Resisting Inches. Part 5
- Table XVI. Properties Of Steel T Shapes - Equal Legs Distance of Center of Gravity From Flange.* Neutral Axis Parallel to Flange. Natural Axis Square to Flange and ...

- Section Modulus, Or Resisting Inches. Part 6
- Table XVII. Properties Of Steel T Shapes - Unequal Legs Size of T Flange by Stem. Distance of Center of Gravity From Flange. * Neutral Axis Parallel to Flange. Neutra...

- Section Modulus, Or Resisting Inches. Part 7
- Table XVIII. Properties Of Steel Z Bars Depth of Web. Width of Flange. Thickness. Weight per Foot. Area of Section. Neutral Axis Perpendicular to Web. Neutral Axi...

- Section Modulus, Or Resisting Inches. Part 8
- Table XIX. Properties Of Steel I Beams Depth of Beam. Weight per Foot. An Thickness of Web. Width of Flange. Moment Of Inertia. Neutral Axis square to Web at Center ...

- Table XX. Radii Of Gyration For Two Angles Placed Back To Back
- Equal Legs. Radii of gyration given correspond to directions of the arrowheads. Size. Inches. Thickness. Inches. Radii of Gyration. ro. r1. r2. r3. ...

- Table XXI. Radii Of Gyration For Two Angles Placed Back To Back Long Leg Vertical
- Unequal Legs. Radii of gyration given correspond to directions of the arrowheads. Size Inches. Thickness. Inches. Radii of Gyration. r0. r1 r2 r3. ...

- Table XXII. Radii Of Gyration For Two Angles Placed Back To Back, Short Leg Vertical
- Unequal Legs. Radii of gyration given correspond to directions of the arrowheads. Size. Inches. Thickness. Inches. Radii of Gyration. r0. r1 r2. r3...

- Columns
- The columns used in building construction are usually of stone, wood, cast iron, or structural steel. Stone columns are more frequently met with as features of architectural treatment than as supporti...

- Wooden Columns
- The formula for determining the strength of wooden columns having flat or square ends was deduced from exhaustive tests of full-size specimens, made at the Water-town Arsenal, Mass., and may be expres...

- Table XXIII. Approximate Breaking Loads For Northern Yellow-Pine Columns, In Thousands Of Lb
- Calculated by the formula: S = U- (Ul/100d). U = 4,000 lb. Length. Feet. 6X6 7X7 8X8 9X9 10X10 11X11 12X12 13X13 14X14 16X1...

- Cast-Iron Columns
- A formula for obtaining the strength of cast-iron columns having flat or square ends is, S = in which S = breaking strength of column in lb. per sq. in. of section; l= length of column in inche...

- Cast-Iron Columns. Part 2
- Inspection Of Cast-Iron Columns All building castings, and especially columns, should be carefully inspected before being placed in the building. Air bubbles and blowholes are a common and dangerous ...

- Cast-Iron Columns. Part 3
- Table XXV. Breaking Loads For Round Cast-Iron Columns. In Thousand Pounds. U = 81,000 Diam. of Col. In. Thickness. In. Length of Column in Feet. ...

- Structural-Steel Columns
- The method of securing the ends of a column greatly influences its strength. While wooden and cast-iron columns usually occur in building construction with flat or square ends, structural-steel column...

- Structural-Steel Columns. Continued
- Design Of Structural-Steel Columns Structural-steel columns should be so designed that, where several lengths are connected end to end, the splice may he made in a rigid and secure manner; they shoul...

- Beams And Girders
- A body resting upon supports and liable to transverse strew is called a beam. Beams are designated by the number and location of the supports, and may be either simple, cantilever, fixed, or continuou...

- Theory Of Beams
- If a beam is loaded as at W W W, Fig. 13, the weights produce reactions at the supports. These forces, or reactions, R1, and R2, oppose the action of the weights and their combined action must equal t...

- Theory Of Beams. Part 2
- Shear The loads and reactions, besides causing bending or flexure, create shearing stresses in the beam by their opposing tendency; that is, as the reactions act upwards and the loads downwards, the ...

- Theory Of Beams. Part 3
- Then, 236,210 Ft lb. - 112,250 ft.-lb. = 123,960 ft.-lb., the maximum bending moment. The bending moment in inch-pounds is 123,960 ft.-lb. X 12 = 1,487,520 in.-lb If W= the load and L = the span, th...

- Theory Of Beams. Part 4
- Resisting Moment The moment of resistance of a beam is the sum of the moments about the neutral axis of all the stresses in the fibers composing the section. The safe resisting moment of any beam sec...

- Calculation Of Beams
- Wooden Beams These are principally used to support a uniformly distributed load, consequently a convenient formula for determining directly the safe strength of rectangular beams uniformly loaded is ...

- Calculation Of Beams. Continued
- 117,000 In lb. The modulus of rupture of yellow pine, 7.000 lb., divided by the factor of safety 4, gives a unit fiber stress of 1,750 lb. Then as the resisting moment of any beam section, M1 = Q S,...

- Design Of Riveted Girders
- For heavy loads and long spans, plate girders are substi-tuted for rolled beams. A plate girder consists of a web-plate, with stiffeners, if required, and of the upper and lower flanges, as shown in F...

- Design Of Riveted Girders. Part 2
- Stiffeners Web-plates, besides resisting direct vertical shear, must resist buckling. To avoid failure by buckling before the full shearing strength of the plate is realized, stiffeners, composed of ...

- Design Of Riveted Girders. Part 3
- Length Of Flange Plates The bending moment on a simple beam varies throughout the length; and, to design girders economically, the net flange area should vary with the bending moment. This condition ...

- Design Of Riveted Girders. Part 4
- Rivet Spacing Enough rivets must he placed in the end stiffeners of girders to transmit the shear to the web. For example, 100,000 lb. is the reaction on a girder constructed as in Fig. 22; the web i...

- Strength Of Rivets And Pins. Rivets
- In proportioning riveted joints, the friction between the plates caused by the clamping effect of the rivets is neglected. Hence, a riveted joint may fail in two ways, namely, by the shearing of the r...

- Table XXVIII. Allowable Shear And Bearing Values
- It is therefore important, in designing riveted joints, to determine whether the shearing strength of the rivets or the bearing values of the plates is the stronger, and to proportion the joint accord...

- Table XXVIII. Allowable Shear And Bearing Values. Continued
- Pitch Of Rivets The least distance from center to center of rivets, or the pitch, should not be less than 3 times the diameter of the rivet. If the members are in tension, the greatest pitch should n...

- Strength Of Pins
- In proportioning pin-connected joints, the shear of the pin and the bearing value of the connected plates should be considered in the same manner as was riveted joints. Pins, however, are subjected to...

- Strength Of Pins. Continued
- Table XXX. Shearing And Bearing Values And Maximum Resisting Moments Of Pins Diameter of Pin. Inches. Maximum Resisting Moment. Bearing Values for 1 Inch Thickness of Plate. Shea...

- Bolts And Tension Bars
- The strength of bolts in resisting shear and bending may be analyzed similarly to rivets and pins. When bolts or round bars threaded at the end are subjected to tensile stress, they tend to break at t...

- Roof Trusses. Principles Of Stresses
- Parallelogram Of Forces In Fig. 34, forces a b of 50 lb. and c b of 100 lb. act at b in the directions shown. To find their combined action, draw c 6, to any scale, equal to 100 lb., and a b equal to...

- Stresses In Roof Trusses
- In designing roof trusses, two stress and two frame diagrams are generally drawn, one of each for the dead loads, which act vertically, and the others for wind loads, usually taken as normal to the sl...

- Stresses In Roof Trusses. Part 2
- Wind-Load Diagrams -To determine the wind stresses, the frame diagram should be redrawn. The wind loads, considered as acting at each panel point, may be determined from Table VII, page 68, and are s...

- Stresses In Roof Trusses. Part 3
- Analysis Of Stresses In A Fink Roof Truss This truss, shown in Fig. 43, is much used for pin-connected and structural-steel trusses. Vertical-Load Diagrams Obtain the forces acting at each pan...

- Detail Design Of Roof Trusses
- Trusses subjected to wind, acting perpendicular to the gable, should be braced with diagonal braces connecting the several trusses. If, however, the roof sheathing is of planking secured directly to t...

- Arches
- Principles Let P1 and P2, in Fig. 50 (a), represent the resultants of all the loads on the left and right halves of the arch, respectively, and let P1 be equal to P2, and located equally distant from...

- Methods Of Determining The Line Of Pressure
- Line Of Pressure If a cord, fastened at each end, supports a number of loads, it will take a position of equilibrium. depending on the amount and location of the loads, as in (a), Fig 51 In such a c...

- Methods Of Determining The Line Of Pressure. Continued
- Graphic Method Fig. 53 shows the wholly graphic method of finding the line of pressure. It is for a 6-rowlock brick segmental arch, 24 ft. span, 2 ft. 10 in. rise, and 26 ft. radius of intrados. Beg...

- Masonry. Materials Of Construction. Stone
- Granite is the most valuable stone where strength is required, its crushing strength averaging about 20,000 lb. per sq. in. Owing to its hardness, it is very costly to dress, and its use is limited to...

- Brick
- Brick should be sound, free from cracks or flaws, stones, or lumps. They should be of uniform size, with sharp edges and angles, and true and square surfaces. If two good brick are struck together, th...

- Lime
- When properly burned, quicklime should possess the following qualities: It should be in lumps, free from cinders. and with little or no dust; it should slake readily in water to a smooth, impalpable p...

- Cements
- The two kinds of hydraulic cements are termed Portland and natural (often called Rosendale, from a place in New York where much of it is made). The former is prepared by mixing together suitable propo...

- Mortar
- In mixing lime mortar, a bed of sand is first made in a mortar box, and the lime is distributed as evenly as possible over it, both lime and sand being previously measured. The lime should be slaked b...

- Concrete
- Concrete should be made by spreading the aggregate evenly over a layer of cement mortar (made as described under Mortar) in a box or on a platform, and mixing the materials thoroughly. The aggregate i...

- Concrete. Continued
- Quantities Of Materials Per Cubic Yard Of Cement Mortar Proportions. Materials. Cement. Sand. Barrels Cement (Packed). Sand. Cu. Yd. Portland or Eastern Ro...

- Footings And Foundations
- Before beginning a structure, the character of the soil should be investigated. For ordinary work, this can be done by boring - using a 2 auger - at short intervals, around the site. The auger will b...

- Proportioning Footings
- Footings should be designed for the load they are to carry, with the object of producing a uniform settlement in all parts of the building. They evidently should not be as wide under an opening as und...

- Proportioning Footings. Continued
- Spread Footings These are used on compressible soils to bring the load per square foot within the safe bearing power of the soil. They may be made of timber, in wet soils, alternate courses being lai...

- Piles
- When piles are driven closely to confine puddle in a coffer dam, or for preventing the fall of an earth bank, they are called sheet piles, and consist of planking from 2 to 6 in. thick, the bottoms be...

- Thickness Of Walls
- Stone foundation walls should be at least 8 in. thicker than the wall above, for a depth of 12 ft. below grade or curb level; for each additional 10 ft. or part thereof in depth, they should be 4 in. ...

- Masonry Construction. Notes On Stonework
- Stone being the stronger material, a wall should have as much stone and as little mortar as possible. Contact of the stones in bed joints is not advisable, as the shrinkage of the mortar may leave the...

- Classes Of Stone Masonry
- Rubb Masonry This is used for rough work, such as foundations, backing, etc., and although frequently consist-ing of common field stone, quarried stone should be used where possible, as better bondin...

- Stone Finishes
- Some of the tools used in making the finer finishes for stonework are shown in Fig. 9. The crandall (a) consists of a wrought-iron bar, flattened at one end, with a slot, 3/8 in. wide and 3 in. long, ...

- Bonds In Brickwork
- In Fig. 10 are shown the three principal bonds in brickwork. In (a) is shown English bond, consisting of alternate courses of stretchers and headers. The longitudinal bond is obtained by means of eith...

- Masonry Construction During Extremes Of Temperature
- Extremes of heat or cold are both unfavorable to the union of the building material and the mortar. Fig. ll. Extreme heat causes quick evaporation of the water in mortar, leaving the mortar in pr...

- Waterproofing Walls
- Damp cellar walls are due either to water soaking through from the outside, or to wet bottoms, from which water rises in the walls by capillary action. The decay of vegetable matter contained in dirty...

- Chimneys And Fireplaces
- Chimneys In planning chimneys, the points to be considered are the height, and the number, size, and arrangement of the flues. Attention must also be given to the location in respect to valleys, etc....

- Cement Walks And Floors
- Where the curb is not already in place, stakes should be set to grade and to aline either edge of the walk, the other being obtained by leveling over, taking care to allow an outward pitch on the surf...

- Hangers, Caps, Anchors, Etc
- The use of joist and girder hangers, etc. simplifies greatly the work of framing both for house and mill construction. With these hangers a good bearing and firm support for the joists, girders, etc. ...

- Arch
- The general forms of arches are semicircular, segmental, pointed, elliptical, etc., the name being determined by the curve of the intra-dos, or inner curve of the arch. The outer curvr is termed the i...

- Retaining Walls
- A retaining wall is a wall built to rebut the pressure of earth, either wet or dry. In designing such a wall it is necessary to ascertain the character of the material to be retained. If the latter is...

- Carpentry And Joinery. Woods Used In Building
- White, or Northern, pine is a light, soft, straight-grained wood, and is used in building principally as a finishing material where a good but inexpensive job is required. Its power of holding glue re...

- Carpentry And Joinery. Woods Used In Building. Continued
- Cherry The wood of the wild cherry is moderately heavy, hard, very durable, and has a close, fine grain. It is susceptible of a high polish, and is much used for fine interior trim and cabinetwork. C...

- Relative Hardness Of American Woods
- If the hardness of shell-bark hickory is assumed to be 100, other woods will compare with it as follows: Shell-bark hickory....... 100 Pignut hickory .......... 96 W...

- Qualities Of Timber
- The best timber is obtained from mature trees, the fibers of which have become compact and firm, both by the drying up of the sap and by the compressive action of the bark. There is a great difference...

- Quarter And Bastard Sawing
- The term quarter sawed signifies that the log is cut into quarters before being reduced to boards, while the term bastard sawed denotes that all the saw cuts are parallel to the squared side of the lo...

- Carpentry Joints
- A bevel-shoulder joint (a), Fig. 5, is a mortise and tenon used to unite inclined to upright or horizontal pieces. It is made by cutting beveled shoulders on the inclined piece and a corresponding sin...

- Balloon Framing
- In this system of framing, timbers of small section are used to construct a light, skeleton frame, whose rigidity depends entirely on its thin, canvas-like covering. This is the distinguishing feature...

- Balloon Framing. Continued
- Sizes In Inches Of Framing In Buildings Member. Balloon-Frame Building. Braced-Frame Building. Slow-Burning Construction. Area, 1,500 Sq. Ft. or Less. 2 Stories High....

- Roof Framing. Lengths And Cuts Of Rafters
- The first step is to lay out a roof plan on a board or sheet of drawing paper, to a scale of, say, 1 1/2 in. to 1 ft. Fig. 7 (a) represents such a plan of a roof of uniform pitch, the wing being the s...

- A Plank Truss
- Fig. 12 shows a trussed rafter suitable for a flat pitch roof of from 30 to 40 ft. span, the rafters being set at from the tower, and at a point b draw c b and b d, each equal to one-half the diameter...

- Miscellaneous Notes. Siding A Circular Tower
- In covering a circular tower with beveled siding, as shown at (a), Fig. 13, it will be found, on bending the strip of siding around the cylinder, that the edges will creep upwards in the middle, as in...

- Proportions Of Rooms
- Church Dimensions In figuring the floor area it is usual to allow from 5 to 7 sq. ft. for each person. This includes space occupied by passages, pulpit, etc. Width between pews, back to back, from 30...

- Flagpoles
- For a flagpole extending from 30 to 60 ft. above the roof, the following proportions give satisfactory results: The diameter at the roof should be made 1/50 the height above the roof, and the top diam...

- Prevention Of Decay
- The destructive effect of water in causing rot of woodwork is well known, and precautions must be taken, in the construction of exposed surfaces, to lessen this result as much as possible. A few of th...

- Steel Square
- The standard steel square, shown in Fig 15, is the one known to the trade as No. 100, but catalogued by some dealers as No. 1,000. The square consists of two parts, the blade, generally 24 in. long an...

- Joinery. Joints In Joinery
- A beaded joint (a) Fig. 19, is one disguised by a quirked bead which is worked on one edge; this joint is used in matched lining, etc. Butt joints (b), (c), and (d), are used for returns, when one pi...

- Doors
- Proportions The ratio between the width and height of doors at main entrances and in public buildings is usually as 1 to 2; that is, the height is twice the width. For single doors in dwellings and ...

- Doors. Continued
- Fitting The width of the door should be about 3/16 in. less than the width between the jambs, allowing a clearance of about 3/32 in. on each side, and the opening edge should be slightly beveled. The...

- Windows
- Area The following proportions are given by different authorities for fixing the amount of window surface: (1) One-eighth of the wall surface should be windows. (2) The area of glass should equal at ...

- Notes On Stairways
- Proportioning Treads And Risers 1. Take the sum of two risers and subtract it from 24 inches; the result will be the width of the tread. This rule is based on the assumption that an average step is 2...

- Development Of A Raking Mold
- In Fig. 24 is shown a method for determining the cross-section of a raking mold to miter with a given eave mold. This method will apply equally well to any molding. The eave mold in this case is a cy...

- Hopper Bevels
- In making hoppers or boxes with inclined sides, it is necessary to obtain the face and edge bevels; when the sides are mitered, the edge bevel is called the miter bevel, and When they are butted, it i...

- Dimensions Of Furniture
- Chairs And Seats Height of the seat above the floor, 18 in.; depth of the seat, 19 in.; top of the back above the floor, 38 in. Chair arms are 9 in. above the seat. A lounge is 6 ft. long and 30 in. ...

- Roofing. Slating
- A good slate should present a bright, silk-like luster, and should emit a clear metallic ring when tapped; if it is soft, it will present a dull, lead-like surface, and emit a muffled sound. When cut,...

- Tin Roofing
- There are two kinds of tin-roof coverings in common use, namely, flat seam and standing seam. In the former method the sheets of tin are locked into one another at the edges, and nailed to the roof-bo...

- Gravel Roofs
- The rafters should be spaced close enough to make the roof firm, when planked or boarded. For sheathing, tongued-and-grooved lumber is preferable; and in any case the plank or roof boards should be la...

- Gutters
- In Fig. 4 is shown a strong and durable box gutter, suitable for either a frame building or for a brick or stone structure, having a wooden cornice. A series of lookouts are nailed to the wall studs (...

- Plastering
- Plastering consists in the application of a plastic material, called mortar, to the walls and ceilings of a building. The plaster is either laid directly on the face of the wall, or it may be spread o...

- Lathing
- On brick or stone walls, lathing is usually attached to vertical furring strips, 1 in. thick by 2 in. wide, set at 12 or 16 centers. By this means there is a clear air space bet \ the plaster slabs ...

- Lathing. Part 2
- Materials The substances which enter into the composition of mortar depend upon the nature of the surface to be coated, the order in which the layers are applied, and the desired finish. For ordinary...

- Lathing. Part 3
- Application For 3-coat work, the process of applying and finishing the layers will be described in the order in which they are applied. The coarse stuff is taken in batches from the souring pile, tem...

- Plumbing. Sanitary Maxims
- 1. General water-closet accommodation should never be placed in cellar or basement, but should be located where plenty of daylight and ventilation can be obtained, and should open to the outer atmosph...

- Drainage System. Pipes And Fittings
- Cast-Iron Soil Pipes These should he uniform in thickness and homogeneous throughout. They should be tested with water pressure and then coated with asphaltum before being used. These pipes come in ...

- Drainage System
- Weight Of Brass Soil, Waste, And Vent Pipe Nominal Diameter. Inches. Thickness. Inches. Weight per Foot. Pounds. 1 1/2 .14 2.8 2 .15 3.8 ...

- Sizes And Grade Of Sewers
- Sizes Of Pipes House sewer and drain pipes must be at least 4 in. in diameter where water closets discharge into them. Where rain water discharges into them, the house sewer and the house drain up to...

- Disposal Of Sewage
- Sewage from buildings is disposed of chiefly by the following methods: (1) By a connection to the street sewer; (2) by cesspools; (3) by director indirect discharge to sea, or river, in close proximit...

- Inspection And Testing Of Drainage Systems
- Drainage systems in all well-regulated cities are inspected and tested twice before being passed by the authorities as perfectly sanitary. These tests are: (1) A test of the roughing in, which consist...

- Plumbing Fixtures. Baths
- The most common materials for baths are (a) porcelain, or earthenware lined with porcelain enamel; (b) cast iron, painted or lined with porcelain enamel; (c) tinned sheet-copper lining, inclosed by an...

- Plumbing Fixtures. Baths. Continued
- Dimensions Of Seat And Foot Baths Dimensions. Seat Bath. Foot Bath. Ft. In. Ft. In. Length.................................. 2 3 1 ...

- Wash Basins
- Wash basins are known as round and oval, and may be had with or without overflow attached. Sizes of round bowls are 10,12,13,14,15,16,17,18, and 20 in. in diameter, measured from the outside of the fl...

- Water Closets
- Pan And Plunger Closets These have been condemned by health boards and sanitary authorities for the past 20 years or more, and should never be used; any old on covered should be replaced by closets o...

- Water Closets. Continued
- Closet Ranges Closet ranges, used in schools, factories, etc., are merely large troughs with one outlet and a flushing arrangement. They should be simple and have no mechanical parts to get out of or...

- Urinals
- Urinal ranges are lipped troughs with partitions set 2 ft. apart. They are most satisfactory when flushed by an automatic-siphon tank which discharges through a large jet at the upper end and a spray ...

- Sinks
- Sinks are generally classified as kitchen, pantry, slop, and stable sinks, and are made of different materials and in numerous sizes and shapes. Kitchen sinks are generally rectangular in plan, and a...

- Laundry Tubs
- Laundry tubs, generally speaking, are made of slate, cement, soapstone, glazed earthenware, or solid porcelain. Wood, cast iron or sheet steel are not suitable materials for wash tubs. Tubs used in te...

- Water Supply And Distribution. Methods Of Supply
- The source of supply of water to a building will depend upon prevailing conditions and the location of the building. City buildings are usually supplied from city mains, while country buildings are su...

- Water Supply And Distribution. Methods Of Supply. Continued
- The Hydraulic Ram This machine is employed to raise water to a point higher than the source of supply; it is chiefly used where a large flow of water with a low fall is obtainable, and raises part of...

- Distribution
- Sizes of Water Pipes is Building. Supply Branches. Low Pressure. Inches. High Pressure. Inches. To bath cocks ................................... 3/4-l 1/2-3/4 ...

- Distribution. Continued
- Boiler Connections These are made in different ways, but the most common and reliable method is shown at (a) in Fig. 15. The cold supply pipe e has a branch f taken off, to supply the boiler. The ret...

- Plumbers' Tables
- Fluxes Flux. Used With. Metals to be Joined. Resin. Copper bit or blowpipe. Lead, tin. copper, brass, and tinned metals. Tallow, unsalted. Blowpipe or...

- Plumbers' Tables. Part 2
- Weight Per Foot Of Lead Pipe And Tin-Lined Lead Pipe Inside Diam. AAA Brooklyn A A Extra Strong. A Strong. B Medium. c Light. D Extra Light. In. ...

- Plumbers' Tables. Part 3
- Weight Of Sheet Zinc, Copper, And Lead Zinc. Copper. Lead. Thickness. Inches. Weight, perSq.Ft, Ounces. Thickness. Inches. Weight, perSq.Ft. Ounces. Thi...

- Plumbers' Tables. Part 4
- Weight Of Sheet Iron Number of Gauge. Thickness. Inches. Black Iron. Weight per Sq. Ft. Pounds. Number of Gauge. Thickness. Inches. Black Iron. Weight per Sq. Ft. Poun...

- Plumbers' Tables. Part 5
- Spacing Of Lead Pipe Tacks Size of Pipe. Inches. Vertical Pipe. Horizontal Pipe. Hot. Inches. Cold. Inches. Hot. Inches. Cold. Inches. 3/8 18 ...

- Heating And Ventilation. Steam Heating
- A steam-heating system, with steam having a pressure less than 10 lb. by the gauge, is called a low-pressure system. If the steam is at a higher pressure, the system is called high-pres~ sure system. ...

- Radiation
- To find the amount of direct radiating surface required to heat a room, basing calculations upon its cubic contents, allow 1 sq. ft. direct radiating surface to the number of cubic feet shown in the f...

- Piping
- Sizes Of Steam Pipes Radiating Surface. Sq. Ft. 1-Pipe Work. In. 2-Pipe Work. Steam In. Ret. In. 40- 50 1 3/4 3/4 100- 126 1 1/...

- Direct Radiators
- Heat units emitted per hour, per square foot of external surface, per degree of difference in temperature. Vertical Tubes, Prime Surface Radiators Difference in Temperature. F. Tu...

- Indirect Radiators
- Heat units emitted per square foot of actual surface per hour, per degree of difference in temperature. Natural Draft, Extended Surfaces Height of Flue. Feet. Velocity of Air per Seco...

- Size Of Chimneys
- Chimneys are proportioned either to the amount of radiating surface in a building, or to the horsepower required for machinery, or to both combined. The draft pressure increases with the height of the...

- Size Of Boilers
- No hard-and-fast rules can be employed for determining the heating capacity of boilers or for ascertaining the sizes best adapted for different jobs. The following table is deduced from practical test...

- Size Of Boilers. Continued
- Hot-Water Heaters Radiating to heating surface 6.8 7.6 8.1 8 .4 9 9.3 10 10.4 10.5 10.5 18.5* 10.51 13.5* Radiating to ...

- Exhaust-Steam Heating
- Exhaust steam turned into a heating system creates a back pressure on the engine, which must be avoided as much as possible by using large steam-distributing pipes. A direct connection to the boilers ...

- Hot-Water Heating
- The circulation in a hot-water heating system is a movement of hot water from the boiler to the radiators, where it parts with some heat, and a consequent movement of colder water from the radiators t...

- Radiating Surface
- The sizes of pipes should be governed by the amount of radiating surface to be supplied, the height of the radiators above the boiler, and the number of changes in the direction of the several current...

- Ratio Of Hot-Water Radiating Surface To Volume Of Room
- Direct Radiation. Average Temperature in Radiators, 160 F. Name of Room. Ratio, 1 Sq. Ft. to Cu. Ft. Living rooms, one side exposed.......................... 30 ...

- Radiating Surface Supplied By Hot-Water Mains
- Direct Radiation. Fall of Temperature, 20. Height of from 10 to 15 feet. Diameter of Mains. Inches. Total Estimated Length of Circuit in Lineal Feet 100 Sq. Ft. 200 Sq....

- Radiating Surface Supplied By Hot-Water Mains. Continued
- Diameter Of Radiator Connections. Direct Radiation. Fall Of Temperature, 20 Size of pipe in inches................... 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 Area ...

- Furnace Heating
- It is assumed in the following rules and tables that the average temperature of the hot air in the flues is about 120, and that the air is moved solely by natural draft. A simple method for prop...

- Furnace Heating. Continued
- Area Of Rectangular Registers Size of Opening. In. Net Area. Sq. In. 6X 10 40 8X 10 53 8X 12 64 8X 15 80 9 X 12 72 ...

- Ventilation
- Ventilation is a process of moving foul air from any space and replacing it with fresh air. A positive displacement, however, does not take place; the incoming fresh air chiefly dilutes the foul air t...

- Natural Ventilation
- In natural ventilation systems, the drafts in the flues or ducts are caused by the difference in density between the air in the ducts and the outer atmosphere. The higher the temperature in the ducts,...

- Forced Ventilation
- There are two classes of forced ventilation: (1) The plenum system, In which the air pressure in the building is slightly greater than that of the outer atmosphere; in other words, that system by whic...

- Gas And Gas-Fitting. Gas. Kinds Of Gas
- Coal gas is made by heating bituminous coal in air-tight boxes or retorts. The heat breaks up the combinations of hydrogen and carbon in the coal, transforming them into other compounds, most of which...

- Pressure Of Gas
- If a gas is lighter than air, at the same temperature, the pressure will be greatest at the top of the chamber containing the gas; if heavier, the greatest pressure will be at the bottom of the chambe...

- Measurement Of Pressure And Flow
- Pressure The pressure of gas is measured by the common water gauge, which is shown in Fig. 16. The tubes 6 and c are glass, and are filled with water up to the zero of the scale, which is graduated i...

- Gas Meters And Pressure Regulators
- Meters For ordinary purposes, the volume of gas passing through a pipe is measured by an apparatus called a gas meter. A gas meter measures the volume only, and its indications are not affected by an...

- Gas-Fitting. Illumination Required
- The number of gas lights required to properly illuminate a room depends on its size, condition of wall surfaces, etc. The reflection from the walls in small rooms is proportionately greater than in la...

- Size Of Pipes
- Each pipe must have enough capacity to supply all its burners when they are in full operation. Allowance must also be made for all heating and cooking apparatus likely to be required. The quantity req...

- Installation And Testing
- The pipes used for the distribution of gas in buildings are standard plain wrought-iron or steel pipe. If the location of the pipes is not shown by the architect, then the gas-fitter must use his own...

- Estimating. Approximate Estimates
- The following table shows the approximate cost per cubic foot of various kinds of structures. In computing the contents of a building there is no uniformity in practice, but no great error will be mad...

- Stonework
- Stone masonry is usually measured by the perch; in some sections of the country, however, measurement by the cord is preferred, but the best method (as being invariable) is by the cubic yard. In estim...

- Methods Of Estimating Masonry
- The following proportions and cost of materials, and amount of labor required for the classes of work below specified, are reasonably accurate, and will serve to give a good idea of how to estimate su...

- Data On Ashlar And Cut Stone
- Cost The following figures are average prices of stone when the transportation charges are not excessive; the figures are not given as fixed values, but to show the relative costs. They are based on ...

- Brickwork
- Brickwork is generally estimated by the thousand brick laid in the wall, but measurements by the cubic yard and by the perch are also used. The following data will be useful in calculating the number ...

- Data On Brickwork
- The following estimates on the cost of brickwork are very carefully compiled, and will be found trustworthy. It is to be understood that the prices will vary with the cost of materials and labor; but ...

- Carpentry. Estimating Quantities
- Board Measure The rough lumber used in framing is measured by the board foot, which means a piece 12 in. square and 1 in. thick. Lumber is always sold on a basis of 1,000 feet board measure; the cust...

- Carpentry. Estimating Quantities. Part 2
- Flooring In estimating matched flooring, a square foot of 7/8 stuff is considered to be 1 ft. B. M. If the flooring is 3 in. or more in width, add one-quarter to the actual number of board feet, to...

- Carpentry. Estimating Quantities. Part 3
- Nails To calculate the quantity of nails required in executing any portion of the work, the following table, based on the use of cut nails, will be found useful: Table For Estimating Quantity Of N...

- Estimating Costs
- The character of the work, which must be determined by the spirit and letter of the specifications, will be the controlling factor in fixing costs. In the case of material, where the requirements are ...

- Estimating Costs. Continued
- Cost Per Thousand Feet The following analysis shows the general method of estimating rough carpenter work: Cost Of 1,000 Ft. B. M. Of Hemlock. Including Framing 1,000 ft. of hemlock...........

- Joinery
- Joinery includes all the interior and exterior finish put in place after the framing and the covering are completed; as, for example, door and window frames, doors, baseboard, paneling, wainscoting, s...

- Data And Examples Of Estimating Joi N E Ry Work
- For any molded work which goes through the mill, the usual charge is 1 cent per square inch of section per lineal foot of the stuff from which the molding is made, as a base, from which is deducted a ...

- Data And Examples Of Estimating Joi N E Ry Work. Part 2
- Cost Of Door In Place. Size, 2 Ft. 8 In. X 6 Ft. 8 In l 3/8 in. thick, 5-panel, double face, flat-paneled, and stuck- or solid-molded door, delivered......................... $2. .00 ...

- Data And Examples Of Estimating Joi N E Ry Work. Part 3
- Windows The cost of an ordinary window may be estimated as follows: Cost Of Sash In Place. Size, 2 Lights, 28 In. X 28 In Cost of 2 sashes 1 3/4 in. thick, at mill.............................

- Roofing. Roof Mensuration
- While the ordinary principles of mensuration are all that are necessary to calculate any roof area, yet the modern house, with its numerous gables and irregular surfaces introduces complications which...

- Shingles
- Measurement In measuring shingle roofing, it is necessary to know the exposed length of a shingle, which is found by deducting 3 inches - the usual cover of the upper shingle over the head of the thi...

- Slating
- Measurement In measuring slating, the method of determining the number of slates required per square is similar to that given for shingling; but, in slating, each course overlaps only two of the cour...

- Tin Roofs
- In estimating tin (and also other metal) roofs, hips and valleys are measured extra their entire length by 1 ft. in width, to compensate for increased labor and waste of material in cutting and laying...

- Plastering On Plain Surfaces
- Plastering on plain surfaces, such as walls and ceilings, is always measured by the square yard; but there are consid-erable variations in detail in the methods of measurement in different sections of...

- Estimates Of Quantities And Costs
- Plastering Two plasterers ana one laborer should average from GO to 70 sq. yd. per day. The cost of labor on 3-coat work, costing about 25 cents per sq. yd., will be about 12 cents. For 2-coat work, ...

- Painting And Papering. Painting
- Painting is measured by the superficial yard, girting every part of the work that is covered with paint, and allowing additions to the actual surface to compensate for the difficulty of covering deep ...

- Painting And Papering. Painting. Continued
- Hardwood Finish 1 coat paste filler, 1 coat varnish........................................ $0.30 1 coat paste filler, 2 coats varnish...................................... ....

- Papering
- Papering is usually figured per roll, put on the wall. The paper is generally 18 in. wide, and is in either 8-yd. or 16-yd. rolls. On account of waste in matching, etc., it is difficult to estimate ve...

- Miscellaneous Notes
- Plumbing An approximate figure for cost of plumbing is 10 per cent, of the cost of the building. This figure is for good materials and labor, and of course is subject to considerable variation. For a...

- Elements Of Architectural Design. Proportions Of The Greek And Roman Orders
- In proportioning the Greek and Roman orders, a uniform standard of measurement was adopted, so that the several parts of the order might be arranged in perfect ratio. This standard consists of modules...

- The Roman Orders
- The Romans adopted the column and beam system of the Greeks, and joined to it the arch and vault. The union of the two elements of arch and beam is the keynote of the Roman style. In this style the or...

- Notes
- In connection with the Roman orders it is well to keep in mind that the pedestal is one-third, and the entablature one-fourth, the height of the column in all cases. To find the semi-diameter of the ...

- Drawing The Entasis Of A Column
- The shafts of classic columns have a curved outline called the entasis. In the Roman orders the lower third is straight and vertical, and the upper two-thirds is curved. The shaft of the column is dim...

- Moldings. Greek Moldings
- The outlines of the Greek moldings follow the curves of the conic sections - the parabola, hyperbola, and the ellipse - and but rarely the circle. The Roman moldings are nearly always formed of circul...

- Roman Moldings
- The Roman moldings are almost invariably profiled to the arc of a circle or of two tangent circles. While the Greeks relied for effect on the graceful contour of their moldings, the Romans counted mo...