Attention has already been called to the use of materials for paths and roads which harmonize with the materials of the house. In a previous chapter, details were given on the construction of concrete paths and roads. Therefore other types will be considered here, such as brick, gravel, and stone.
The driveway to the garage ought to be about 10 feet wide and flare out to a 15-foot width at the house, where the car is driven up to the entrance, so that an incoming car can pass by any which is standing in front of the door. This roadway should widen out into a Y shape in front of the garage, as shown in the drawings, to permit of backing out and turning around. A round turning area in front of the garage may be substituted for this Y-shaped arrangement. Any curves made in the driveway should have a radius from centre of the curve to outside edge of the road of 30 feet 6 inches, although a Ford car can run on a road having a radius of only 14 feet.
If the driveway is to be of gravel and the subsoil is wet or clayey, drainage must be arranged for along the edges. Trenches 3 feet to 4 feet deep should be dug on either side and 3-inch diameter agricultural tile laid at the bottom with open joints covered with collars, then a layer of sod, and then 6 inches of field stone or gravel, and finally top-soil. Wherever there are pockets that would collect surface water, outlets should be constructed and covered with iron grating. All the subsoil tile should connect with one main tile and drain off at some low point.
For ordinary light traffic the road itself may be built with a foundation of stones to a depth of 2 feet. This should be covered with a layer of coarse gravel 2 1/2 inches thick, a top layer of finer gravel 4 inches thick, and rolled with a heavy roller after water or some bituminous binder has been sprinkled over it. A crown of 1/2 inch to the foot should be made, and any grades ought to be kept about 5 feet in 100 feet, and at the most 10 feet in 100 feet.
In the construction of gravel walks the grade should be kept to within 12 feet in 100 feet and be crowned 1/4 inch per foot.
The success of the brick walk depends upon the foundation used. A poor one will permit the bricks to settle unevenly, crack, and break away at the edges. The bricks themselves may be laid in any number of different and interesting patterns, such as the basket weave or the herring-bone. A row of bricks on edge along the outside of the walk makes an excellent finish.
The foundations of the brick walk may be built of sand, cinders, or concrete. The first two give a walk somewhat irregular, and grass can be made to grow in the joints. To begin the laying of a brick walk, the earth should be excavated to a depth of 4 inches, and either a bed of sand 2 inches thick, or a concrete of one part cement to eight parts sand 3 inches thick should be spread. When the bricks have been arranged on this bed, sand should be worked into the joints between them by leaving a layer on the walk for a few days and brushing it into the crevices.
TYPES OF STONE -PATHS.
TYPES OF BRICK WALKS.
Where concrete is used for the base, a more rigid walk will result, and in such types it is customary to use mortar to fill the joints. A thin 1.3 grout can be brushed into these joints and the little that is smeared over the surface can be washed off with scrubbing-brush, water, and 5-per-cent muriatic acid. A better method is to pour grout into the joints, wiping the brick clean before the mortar sets.
There are a number of different types of stone walks that can be used, depending upon the character of the stone in the neighborhood. Flat flagstone walks are usually rather uninteresting, and many prefer the picturesque effect which is produced by stepping stones. These ought to be placed about 22 inches apart to make walking easy on them. A very interesting and much-used walk is made by setting flat stones of different shapes together, like the pieces of a cut-out puzzle, but leaving a small space between each stone in which grass or moss can be grown.