Previous to about the year 1880 clapboards or siding appear to have been considered the only suitable covering for the walls of frame buildings of any pretensions, but with the advent of the modern country house shingles came rapidly into favor for covering the walls of dwellings, and even of public buildings, when of frame ; many dwellings being completely covered with shingles from sill to ridge.

122 Wall Shingling 200100

Fig. 158.

The choice of shingles or siding for wall covering is generally determined by the effect desired. As a rule, shingling a wall costs a trifle more than covering it with beveled siding or clapboards, but the difference is not usually a very big item. Shingles undoubtedly make a much warmer wall than clapboards, as where shingles are used there are usually three thicknesses at all points, while with siding there is practically but one thickness.

Probably the particular reason why shingles have been so much in favor for covering country and suburban buildings is that they are especially adapted to oil or creosote stains, by which an effect is produced that is not possible with siding or clapboards.

The shingles used for wall covering are of the same kind as those used on the roof (for description of shingles see Section 129), except that for the walls they are often cut to an ornamental pattern. For ornamental work it is best to use dimension shingles (shingles all of the same width), but for plain work this is not necessary, and even where the butts of the shingles are cut to a wave pattern random widths may be used. It is desirable, however, that wall shingles should not be wider than 8 inches nor narrower than 3 inches.

The manner of applying the shingles to a wall is the same as on a roof, but a greater exposure of the butt is permissible, wall shingles generally being laid from 5 to 6 inches to the weather.

In finishing external angles the shingles are usually lapped over each other alternately, as shown in Fig. 153. At the sides of the window frames the joint should be flashed with either sheathing paper, tin or zinc, as explained in Section 92.

123. Sheathing Paper.* - It is well known that frame buildings,

* The following, although necessarily restricted to a few lines, will give a general idea of the cost of different kinds and grades of sheathing papers, the price given being a fair average for the material applied to an outside wall or roof:

Price per 100 Square Feet.

Common Tarred Felts (15 lbs. per square)..........................

30

cents.

Red Rosin-Sized Sheathing, best grades.............................

35

"

Manahan's Parchment Sheathing, single-ply............................

26

"

" " " double-ply..................

40

"

" Ship-rigging Tar Sheathing, a-ply................

75

"

"Neponset" Black (Waterproof) Building Paper...............

45

"

" Red Rope Roofing Fabric................

$1.10

Sheathing Papers with Asphalt Centre................................

40 to 50

"

Johns' Asbestos Building Felt, 10 lbs. per square.................................

42

"

" " " " 14 lbs. per square......................

55

"

Cabot's Sheathing Quilt, single-ply.....................................

$1.05

" " " double-ply...........................

$1.85

Sawyer's Century Sheathing Quilt (Felt coated one side with a water and verminproof compound.............................................................................

$1.35

when merely sheathed and clapboarded or shingled on the outside, and simply lathed and plastered on the inside, are almost sure to be hot in summer and cold in winter, and as the wood shrinks, as it is quite sure to do, cracks are made through which the wind finds its way. For these reasons some extra provision should be made for keeping out the wind and the heat and cold, and it is generally admitted that there is no material that will do this at so small an expense as properly prepared paper. The papers made for this purpose are commonly known as sheathing paper or building paper. There are a great variety of sheathing papers manufactured, many of them of great excellence, and even the best are comparatively inexpensive (costing only about $1.00 per one hundred square feet), so that only the better qualities of paper should be specified.

The qualities which good sheathing paper should possess are toughness and impenetrability to air and water ; they should not be brittle nor have a strong odor, and for the convenience of the builder should be clean to handle. There are so many papers made that possess these qualities that it is deemed inexpedient to mention particular brands, but the architect should decide for himself from the samples with which he has probably been furnished as to what paper is best adapted to his particular conditions, and then specify that brand (giving also the manufacturer's name), rather than to leave it to the selection of the builder, who will be quite sure to be guided by the price rather than by the quality.

Tarred or saturated papers are not now considered desirable either for wall sheathing or for placing on a roof, as they soon become brittle, emit a strong odor and are very disagreeable to handle. There are some papers, however, like Manahan's Parchment Sheathing, which contain a very little tar, sufficient, it is claimed, to make them an antiseptic for all fungoid growth and dust germs, but not enough to give any undesirable qualities.

The old-fashioned rosin-sized sheathing is soft and spongy, and absorbs and holds steam and moisture, and hence is not desirable for outside sheathing.

Sheathing paper is usually applied just previous to putting on the siding or shingles. It is generally placed horizontally on the walls, and should lap about 2 inches and over the paper previously placed around the windows and doors.

If Cabot's Sheathing Quilt is to be placed under clapboards or siding, laths should be nailed vertically over the quilt opposite each stud and the siding nailed on the laths, otherwise it will be difficult to get them on evenly, owing to the thickness and the elastic quality of the "quilt." Shingles, however, may be applied directly over the quilt.

The sheathing paper and the putting of it on should be included in the carpenter's specifications.

124. Joining a Wooden to a Stone Walls - Suburban and country residences are often built with part of the walls of frame and part of stone, and as the young architect may be puzzled as to just how the walls should be joined we give an illustration (Fig. 159) of the method adopted in a house by Mr. Cass Gilbert, built some years ago.*

It should be noticed that the stud A forms an anchor to keep the wall in place, sideways, and that the sheathing paper on the wooden wall is extended around this stud, and the joint between the stone and the paper is filled with cement. The outer edge of this joint is concaved for the shingles to fit into. The stud A should also be anchored to the stone wall, so that in case of settlement the two will not separate.

122 Wall Shingling 200101

Fig. 159.