The States which produced marble in 1894 were California, Georgia, Idaho, Maryland, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and Vermont.
Vermont Marble. - This State is the greatest producer of marble of any State in the Union, the total product in 1889 amounting to $2,169,560, more than the combined value of all other marbles quarried in the country.
The largest quarries are at West Rutland and Sutherland Falls (Proctor).
In texture Vermont marble is, as a rule, fine grained, although some of it is coarse grained and friable. In color it varies from pure snowy white through all shades of bluish, and sometimes greenish, often beautifully mottled and veined, to deep blue-black; the bluish and dark varieties being, as a rule, the finest and most durable.
At Sutherland Falls the stone is very massive, and large blocks are taken out for general building purposes.
Tennessee. - Marble has been quarried in this State since 1838, the principal quarries being in the vicinity of Knoxville, in East Tennessee. The varieties of marble produced from these quarries embrace grays, light pinks, dark pinks, buffs, chocolate and drabs. Only the pinks and grays, however, are suitable for general building purposes, the darker colors being principally confined to furniture and interior work. The stone is 98 per cent, carbonate of lime. The pink and gray varieties are well adapted for building purposes, their density and resistance to crushing being equal to that of any other marble produced in the world.
They also offer great resistance to moisture, and are practically impervious to the staining or discoloring agencies of the atmosphere, except, perhaps, in large manufacturing centres. Under favorable conditions there appears to be no reason why these marbles should not last for ages on the exterior of buildings. The highly colored varieties are amongst the handsomest produced in this country.
Georgia. - This State contains extensive beds of marble, which, however, have only recently been quarried on a commercial scale. The quarries, which are situated in the northern part of the State, produce: 1st. A clear white marble, bright and sparkling with crystals. 2d. A dark mottled white ground, with dark blue motthings; also a light blue and gray ground, with dark mottlings. 3d. White, with dark blue spots and clouds, and a bluish-gray, with dark spots and clouds. 4th. Pink, rose tints and green in several shades. The appearance of the Georgia marbles is quite different from that of the marbles from the other States.
The stone is a pure carbonate of lime, entirely free from foreign or hurtful ingredients. It is remarkably non-absorbing, and absolutely impervious to liquids (even ink), atmospheric changes and decay, and not subject to discoloration. If soiled by dust or smoke it can be easily cleaned by washing with clean water only so as to look as bright as when first finished.
Previous to 1891 the use of Georgia marble was confined principally to monumental stock and interior finish of buildings, but since that date it has been used for the exterior of buildings, its use for that purpose increasing year by year. There are many buildings in Atlanta built in whole or in part of this stone. Georgia marble was also used for the trimmings of the Ames Building, Boston, Mass.
New York. - There are several quarries of gray, blue and white marble near New York City which furnish good building marble, but not quite good enough for decorative work. Much of it has been used for building purposes in New York City.
The best quality of black marble is quarried at Glens Falls, on the Hudson River. In Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, are several quarries of a granular white and mottled marble, which have furnished a great deal of marble for Philadelphia buildings.
Colorado and California also contain beautiful varieties of marble, which it is thought may in time take the place of much of the foreign marble now imported. At present only a very few quarries are worked, and these only to a slight extent.