To properly detail a case of drawers, cupboard doors, etc., the draughtsman must be familiar with the different methods of constructing them. Cupboard doors are made in essentially the same way as other doors, except that they are usually thinner and have narrower rails and stiles, with the panel mould worked on the solid. For a door 2 feet by 4 ½ feet or less, a thickness of 1 1/8 inches is ample, while the stiles and rails should be about 2 ½ or 3 inches wide, the lower rail being usually made 1 inch wider than the others. The panels should not be over 1 2 inches wide, and 8 or 10 inches are better widths. A door 2 feet wide and over 3 feet high should have four panels.
Fig.314. Details of Cupborad Doors and Frame.
When doors are used in pairs the meeting rails are usually rebated and beaded.
If the doors are arranged to slide, a slight space must be left between the doors - about 3/16 inch - and a stop bead nailed to the edges, as shown in Fig. 314, to keep out dust. The outer edges of the door should also fit into a groove in the frame for the same reason. When it is desired to make swinging doors dust proof, the edges of the doors should be fitted something as shown in Fig. 315, with the meeting stiles rebated and the joint covered with an astragal.
The ordinary method of hanging the doors, cases, cabinets, etc., is that shown at A, Fig. 316. On bookcases, or wherever it is desirable to utilize the full width of the opening, there is a serious defect in this method, in that when the door is open at right angles it reduces the opening by the width .V, or nearly the entire thickness of the door. To obviate this the door may be hung as shown at B or C. The last detail is intended to represent the jamb of a bookcase finished with pilasters at the angles, which are made a part of the doors instead of being fastened to the case, thus gaining the full length of the shelves when the door is open.
Very often, as on bookcases and fine cabinets, it is desirable that the hinge shall not be seen, and then the pivot or pin hinge is used.
ABC Fig. 317.
Bookcase doors are frequently pivoted, as shown at A, Fig. 317. In locating the pivot the distance D should be about 1/15 inch more than the distance B. For a bookcase, however, this method of pivoting the doors is decidedly objectionable for several reasons. First, it narrows the opening by the full width of the door; the shelves must be made narrower than with swinging doors and dust easily enters at the edge of the door. A much better arrangement is that shown at B, which leaves the full width and depth of the case available.
At C is shown what is probably the best method of hanging or pivoting the lid of a small desk or cabinet that opens down. By this arrangement the lid is made self supporting when open, without the aid of elbow braces or chains, and the pivot hinge can be made quite strong, while being at the same time concealed.