These are now made almost entirely of either wrought or cast bronze, plain, and in the various ornamental finishes. They vary in size from 5 x1 to 7 x2 inches for inside doors, and almost indefinitely for outside doors. When ornamented they are usually made in sets to match the ornamentation of the knob.

The plain escutcheons for 3 or 4-inch locks are usually interchangeable for the same size of lock, and may be used with jet or porcelain knobs or any plain knob, although it is generally necessary to use a knob made by the same manufacturer, and different makes of locks and escutcheons are not usually interchangeable. The same escutcheon will not usually fit a 3 inch and a 4-inch lock on account of the position of the keyhole.

Outside escutcheon plates for tumbler locks are usually made with covers for the keyhole, as in Plate I. Various shapes of ornamental escutcheons are shown in Plates I to IV.

Aside from the shape and ornamentation, there is an important difference in escutcheon plates in the bearing which they afford for the knob shank. The common type of escutcheon plate has a very shallow socket for the shank of the knob to fit into, which brings the bearing near the surface of the door and permits of a slight tilting motion, as shown by the knobs at B, Fig. 396. The escutcheon plates, made by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., have a long bracket bearing, as shown in the section at A, which supports the knob near the end of the spindle, and prevents the tilting motion. 228. Hardware in Sets. - Mortise locks with their trimmings are now largely sold in "sets," a set for a knob lock, consisting of one lock, a pair of knobs and two escutcheons, and corresponding sets are made for front doors, sliding doors, communicating doors, etc. The sets are also made up for different grades of locks and for different styles and grades of trimmings. The convenience of this arrangement lies in being able to specify both the lock and its trimmings by one number. In selecting goods in sets, however, the architect should carefully read the descripfig.398.

Fig. 397 - Vulcan Wrought Metal Lock.

tion of the lock or examine the lock itself as cheap locks are often put up with very attractive trimmings. 229. Ornamental Trimmings. - Within the past ten years the efforts of the leading manufacturers of builders hardware appear [0 have been devoted principally to the production of artistic designs for the hardware trimmings of doors and windows, with the result that one can now readily obtain trimmings of high artistic value and of almost any school of ornament. In fact, the scope of the designs published by the leading manufacturers is so broad and every requirement of individual taste or preference while avoiding the ing from a restricted line or inferior designs.

The more highly ornamented patterns are made of cast brass or bronze, plated with gold, silver or copper or left with a natural sand finish. Many very ornamental patterns are also made in cast iron, treated by the Bower-Barff, or a corresponding process. Some very pretty hardware is also made of wrought metal by the "repousee" process. This line is much cheaper than the cast hardware, and lacks the delicacy of the latter, but may be used with good effect in cottages and moderate priced residences.

The various ornamentations are grouped by the manufacturer

Fig. 399. - Latch and Handle.

Fig. 400.

Marengo, 23.

Flcury,$1 55..

Grenoble, $1 27. Arcadian, .75. Castilian (steel), .30.

Ornamental Knohs and Escutcheon?.

Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. Cuts One-third Size.

PLATE II.

Ornamental Hardware.   Gothic Design.

Ornamental Hardware. - Gothic Design.

Russell & Erwin Manufacturing Co.

A. lnside Knob and Escutcheon.

B. outside Knob and Escutccheon.

C. Sliding Door Escutcheon.

D. Push Button.

E. flush Sash Lift. F. Bar Sash Lift.

PLATE III.

Flat Round Knob.

Octagon Knob.

Ball Knob. Ornamental Rim Lock. Cutt Glass Knobs, under an appropriate name or designated by letters, and each design usually includes the following trimmings: Front door knob, inside door knob, round or oval, escutcheon plates for front and vestibule doors, inside doors, communicating doors, chamber doors with thumb bolt, cup escutcheons for sliding doors, push plates, push buttons, door pulls, sash lifts, mortise flush bolts. Many sets also include store door handles and escutcheons, lever handles, drawer pulls, shutter knobs, door knocker, letter box plate and hinge plates, so that all of the hardware throughout the building, with the exception of the butts and locks, may have the same ornamentation. Lock fronts, butts and transom bars are usually left with a plain surface, finished to correspond with the finish of the trimmings, although butts of same the design can be obtained from some manufacturers. To give an adequate idea of the extent and artistic quality of the product of the different hardware manufacturers in a work of this character would be impracticable, even if desirable. The illustrations on pages 375-378 however, serve to show somewhat the character and artistic quality of the leading lines of such goods in the market. Plate I also serves to illustrate the various pieces included in each ornamentation. In Plate II, an attempt has been made to give some idea of the relative cost of the different designs shown, the figures under each cut giving the relative price as compared with the plain bronze knob and escutcheon as a base.

Made by the Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co.

In Plate IV is shown a suggestion for the artistic treatment of a rim lock. On thin doors, cupboard and cabinet doors, rim locks possess advantages over mortise locks, and there is no reason why they should not be more extensively used than at present, unless it be the difficulty of obtaining them in ornamental patterns.