A light, soft wood, stiff, but not strong, of fine texture and a grayish-brown or red in color. The wood seasons rapidly, shrinks and checks but little, and is very durable. Used largely for posts, ties and sleepers, and in building construction for shingles.

There are four varieties of white cedar in the United States, the trees being generally scattered, and seldom forming forests. These trees are used principally for making posts, ties and shingles.

The Canoe Cedar ( Thuya gigantea) (red cedar of the West) grows to a very large tree in Oregon and Washington, and, besides furnish-ing great quantities of shingles, it is quite extensively used in the State of Washington for outside finishing.

It makes the best of siding and mouldings and other work that is to be painted. As an interior finish it is not so good, although it has been much used for this purpose. It has a well-marked grain and takes a good natural finish, but, being soft, it is easily marred, and grows dark with age. It is much used for making sash and doors. The latter are found to be equal to the best white pine stock doors and are sold at the same price.*

Florida or Alabama Red Cedar (Juniperous virginiana); a small tree found on dry, sterile, rough country. The color of the heart-wood is red, while that of the sapwood is white. The wood has a strong characteristic odor and a bitter taste, which preserves it from the attacks of insects, especially moths, and on this account it is used largely in fitting up linen chests and closets, drawers, etc. It is a very expensive wood, and is generally used in thin boards and veneers.

Redwood {Sequoia sempervirens). - This tree, which belongs to the cedar family, is found only in California and the Sierra Nevada Mountains, where it grows to an immense size.

The wood is very straight grained, soft, free from knots, and can be obtained in very wide pieces. The grain is very coarse and the color a light red, turning to brownish-red on exposure. It has a handsome appearance when polished, but is so soft that it mars very easily, and it is difficult to work without breaking the edges. On this account it is not likely to be popular for inside finish, although otherwise it is well adapted for such use.

Redwood possesses two very distinct peculiarities, which make it very valuable for certain purposes. The most important of these is its resistance to fire, which is very remarkable in a wood. It catches fire very slowly, and will not burn except under the most favorable conditions. Owing to this fact, and also to its abundance, about 95 per cent, of all the outside walls of all the ordinary buildings in San Francisco are covered with redwood siding and the roofs with shingles. The other peculiarity of this wood is that it shrinks or swells less than any other wood and seems to last longer in wet and damp places than other woods. In San Francisco it is used for the foundations of houses and for the basements and sub-basements of five and six-story wooden buildings, of which the city is largely composed.

* Mr. George W. Bullard, Proceedings American Institute of Architects, 1895, p. 99.

Outside of California redwood is used principally for shingles, for which it is probably the best material that we have, and for siding, ceiling and shelving, and to a limited extent for inside finish. Owing to the cost of transportation, it can hardly compete in the East with other and better woods, except for shingles.