Should be done as shown in Fig. 30. The tail beams should be framed into the header and spiked, and the tenons on the header should project beyond the trimmer, so that a wedge-shaped pin may be driven in, thus bringing the pieces tightly together.

48 Framing Around Stair Wells Chimneys Etc 20021

Fig. 30.

In the West the headers are generally built up of plank, the inner one being mortised to receive the tail beam, which is framed as at A, and the header securely spiked to it. Another plank is then spiked to the first, and often another to that Where large timbers are not readily obtained this answers very well for dwellings and light framing. For heavy framing all headers and tail beams should be hung in irons, as described under brick buildings. No floor joist should be permitted to enter the wall of any flue, but the joists should be framed around the chimney as in Fig. 35.

Fig. 31.

49. Porch Floors should be framed with the joists parallel with the walls of the house, so that the floor boards will be at right angles to the walls, and pitch outward an inch in 6 feet. It is also customary to drop the porch floor about 6 inches below the floor of the building. Fig 31, from an article on isometric drawing by Charles E. Illsley, architect, in the Inland Architect, gives a clear representation of the proper framing of a porch floor, although brick piers would be more durable than the wooden posts shown in the figure.

If the porch is over 6 feet wide or the supports are farther apart, the size of the cross timbers should be increased accordingly.