189. Besides the standing finish there is usually in dwellings considerable work in the way of fixtures and fittings for pantries, closets, etc., to be provided, and also more or less work to be done in connection with the plumbing.

With modern plumbing, what little woodwork is required in connection with the fixtures is usually provided by the plumber, but it is well to specify that the carpenter shall put up all brackets and hang the water closet seats, etc., as a carpenter will usually do the work better than a plumber. The specifications should also provide for putting up finished cleats with moulded edges for all exposed plumbing pipes, and for fixing cleats under the marble slabs where they are set against wooden wainscoting.

Many architects also provide for a short hook strip in the bathroom, with about four solid bronze clothes hooks.

If the plumbing pipes are run in pockets in the wall they should be covered by a wide board or by panel work let flush into rebated strips and secured with iron or bronze buttons.

Kitchen Sink. - The specifications should also state how the kitchen sink is to be fitted up.

When slate or soapstone sinks are used there is usually no woodwork about them.

Ordinary iron sinks require a wooden frame to support them and a wooden cap to cover the edges. At one or both ends of the sink a drip board at least 18 inches long should be provided. The cap and drip board should be at least 1 1/8 inches thick, and the drip board should be slightly inclined and grooved on top. If the space under the sink is left open an apron 4 inches wide is required under the cap to cover the rough frame.

Closets. - All bedroom closets should be fitted with strips and clothes hooks and at least one shelf. Large closets are often provided with a case of drawers with three or four wide shelves above them.

Every large residence should be provided with a linen closet fitted with a case of deep drawers and as many shelves, 16 inches wide and about as many inches apart, as there may be room for. It is also desirable to enclose the shelves with paneled doors as a protection from dust.

Cedar Closet. - The most complete residences are also provided with a "cedar closet," for the reception of articles that may be injured by moths. To be effective the entire inside of the closet, floor, walls and ceiling, should be lined with cedar, using or 5/8-inch ceiling, and the inside of the door should also be ceiled or veneered with the same wood. The closet is usually fitted with one or more cases of wide and deep drawers, with wide shelves above, enclosed by doors. The shelves and doors should be of cedar, but where economy is necessary the drawers may be of pine lined with thin cedar. Drawers lined in this way are sometimes placed in an ordinary closet, but as it is the odor as well as the bitter taste of the cedar that keeps away the moths, it is desirable that the entire closet be protected with it.

The cedar which should be used for this purpose is the Florida or Alabama red cedar. (See Section 30.)

Besides the above there are often one or more special closets whose fittings should be fully described. Detail drawings are not usually necessary for the above fittings, as they may be described with sufficient accuracy in the specifications.