355. - The following is offered as a guide when specifying heavy framing, although as buildings of this class vary so much in their construction, only the common features of construction will be mentioned. All special features should be carefully shown by scale drawings and details, and further described in the specifications.

The building hereinafter considered is a three-story brick building with the floors of mill construction, wooden posts and a trussed roof over third story. The roof has a pitch each side of 5 inches to the foot, and is to be covered with roll or standing seam steel roofing. At one corner of the building is an octagon tower, surmounted with an open belfry. All iron work is to be included in the carpenters' contract.

Specifications for the Carpenters' Work. - General Conditions. - [As in Section 273.]

Furnish all timbers, furring stock, iron plates, steel beams, hangers, joint bolts, truss rods and all iron work and hardware of every sort for the floors, roofs, trusses, belfry, and where necessary and required throughout the entire work, as shown or may be shown, by the working drawings and the specifications thereon written: frame, raise and fix in position the several parts of the work.

All iron beams to be painted one good coat of red lead and linseed oil ("Superior Graphite Paint"*) before they are set in position, all hangers, post caps, anchors, etc., to be dipped in the same.

356. - Timber. - Hard Pine

All posts, planks for girders, floor beams, truss timbers and purlines, and all special timbers marked H. P. on framing plans, to be of the best quality straight grained long-leaf Georgia pine, thoroughly seasoned, sawed full and square to dimensions (and surfaced four sides, the timbers when surfaced to be within 3/8-inch of the sizes marked on framing plans).

Spruce. - All other framing timber, including rafters, to be of the best quality, straight grained (Eastern) spruce, full and square to the dimensions marked on the drawings.

All timbers to be framed and put together in a skillful manner, according to the plans, sections and details and these specifications.

* Prepared by the Detroit Graphite Manufacturing Co.

The posts in first and second story to have 1x1-inch chamfer on the angles, stopped 12 inches above the floor and 4 inches below the iron cap. All other timbers to have square edges.

The basement posts to rest on cast iron base plates, made as per detail drawing and bedded in cement mortar by the stone mason. The carpenter is to see that they are set true and level.

Furnish cast iron caps (or Van Dorn steel post caps) for all posts, and bolt them to the posts and girders as shown. All second and third story posts to rest on the cap of the post below and not on the girder.

Furnish the steel beams for basement girders of the sizes and weights indicated, and fit 3x14-inch planks to the sides of the beams and secure by {-inch bolts, 20 inches on centres.

Girders supporting second and third floors to be of solid timbers.

The ends of all girders to rest in Van Dorn steel wall hangers (Duplex wall hangers or Goetz No. 4 box anchors) of the size and thickness shown.

All floor beams are to be framed flush on top with the girders, the wall end to be cut with 4-inch bevel and to' rest on 8x8x{-inch cast iron plates with lugs, as per detail drawing (Fig. 499). Inner ends to rest in Van Dorn steel joist hangers (Duplex joist hangers or Goetz joist hangers). If in Goetz or Van Dorn hangers, to be secured to the hangers by 6od. spikes driven into the bottom through the hanger. If in Duplex hangers, each pair of hangers to be bolted together through the girder.

Frame around staircase opening with headers and trimmers of the size shown, hung in (the same kind) of hangers. The tail beams to be secured as specified above; header to be secured to trimmers by {-inch round iron dogs, 16 inches long, turned down 2 inches into the wood. Frame 3-inch hard pine plank of same depth as beams between the floor beams against the side walls to receive the under floor; these pieces to be hung in 3-inch Duplex (Goetz) joist hangers.

Trusses. - Construct the roof trusses as shown by scale and detail drawings. All rods to be of medium steel, upset without welding, and to have head on one end and square nut on the other. Put in all bolts, nuts, plates and washers shown on the drawings, and fit the timbers to make tight joints with even bearings. Raise and fix them in position in the most careful manner to guard against accidents. Crown the trusses 1 -inch in the centre.

The trusses to rest on cast iron plates, made as per detail drawings and carefully bedded in cement on the brickwork. The trusses to be braced from the walls by wooden braces bolted to truss, and to 6x10-inch uprights against wall, resting on stone corbels. Bolt these uprights to the wall by three {-inch bolts 22 inches long, with 6x6x-inch plate washer on wall end.

Frame the purlines as shown on section and roof plan. The two outer rows to be supported from the trusses with 6x8-inch posts, with 6x8x3o-inch bolsters. The bolsters to be secured to top of posts by two x 12-inch square drift bolts, driven in {-inch round holes, and to be bolted to the purlines with one {-inch bolt in each end. Secure the bottom of posts and brace the posts from the trusses as shown; also brace the purlines from the posts by 6x6-inch braces, gained into posts and purline -inch and secured by {x8-inch lag screws.

The other purlines to be hung from the top chord of the trusses by 3x3/8-inch double stirrup irons and to be tied together by {-inch round iron dogs, 32 inches long turned down into the timber 1 inches.

Tie the ends of all purlines to the walls with {-inch iron anchors, passing through the wall with 5-inch star washer (ornamental wrought iron washer) and nut on the outer end, and flattened on inner end and spiked to side of purline by three 20d. spikes.

Bolt a wall plate on side walls of two 2x12-inch hard pine planks, laid so as to break joints and to form a continuous tie from end to end (or around the building, if a hip roof). The plate to be secured to wall by {-inch (7/8-inch) bolts, 20 inches long, with 4x4x-inch plate washer on lower end, and spaced (6 feet) apart. Bolt a 2x12-inch plank on top of gable walls with -inch bolts and 6-inch wash-ers, 8 feet apart on the rake. Top of plank to be on line with top of rafters.

Frame the rafters on plate and purlines as shown by section drawing, and secure by 40d. spikes. Ends of rafters where they lap to be spiked together. Outer ends of rafters to project (20 inches) beyond the plate and to be cut for cornice as shown.

357. - Frame the belfry as per framing plans and as herein indicated. Bolt a plate to the walls formed of two 2x12-inch hard pine planks, lapping at the angles and secured to the brickwork at each angle by -inch bolts, 5 feet long, and at the centre of each side by a -inch bolt, 30 inches long. Bolts to have 6x6x-inch washers on lower end.

Turn the belfry posts from 10x10-inch cypress (16 feet-long). The posts to rest on the wall plate and to be secured to it by 2 x3/8-inch angle straps, bolted to the plate and to each side of the posts by {-inch bolts. The bolt through post to be 12 inches above the plate.

Cut 4x10-inch timbers between the posts at the height shown, and secure to the posts by 40d. spikes and one x6-inch lag screw in each end of each stick. Brace from posts to plate and fill in between the plate and 4x10inch timber with 2x6-inch studding (20 inches) on centres.

Bolt a 4x10-inch plate, halved at the angles, to the top of posts by {-inch joint bolts, 16 inches long, one bolt in each post. Fill in between this plate and the roof plate with 6x6-inch corner posts, 2x6-inch studding and 2x6-inch braces, as shown. The roof plate to be tied to the posts and the posts to the lower plate by 1x-inch iron straps, 12 inches long, with two 6od. spikes in each end.

Frame the roof of belfry as shown by framing plans and sections, the hips to be cut against an 8-inch octagon pole at the centre, carried down and spiked to the ceiling joists. Form a level ceiling with 2x6-inch joists, 20 inches on centres, spiked to the plate and to the rafters.

Lookouts. - Furnish plank lookouts and have the mason build into gable walls 22 inches on centres, and set true in line for the cornice and belt.