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Building Construction And Superintendence | by F. E. Kidder



The primary object of the Author in preparing this volume has been to present to the Student, Architect and Builder a text book and guide to the materials used in Architectural Masonry and the most approved methods of doing the various kinds of work, and incidentally to point out some of the ways in which such work should not be done, and the too frequent methods of slighting the work. That there is a demand for such a work has been evidenced to the Author by numerous inquiries from Architects and instructors in our Architectural schools, and also by the fact that there exists no similar work describing American methods and materials.

TitleBuilding Construction And Superintendence
AuthorF. E. Kidder
PublisherWilliam T. Comstock
Year1906
Copyright1906, F. E. Kidder
AmazonBuilding Construction And Superintendence

By F. E. Kidder, C. E., Ph. D., Architect. Fellow American Institute of Architects. Author of "The Architects' and Builders' Pocket Book."

Part I. Masons' Work.

250 Illustrations.

1896.

Part II. Carpenters' Work.

525 Illustrations,

1899.

Part III. Trussed Roofs and Roof Trusses

306 Illustrations

1906.

-Preface
The primary object of the Author in preparing this volume has been to present to the Student, Architect and Builder a text book and guide to the materials used in Architectural Masonry and the most ap...
-Introduction
THE successful practice of Architecture requires not only ability to draw and design, but also a thorough knowledge of building construction in all its-branches, at least so far as to know how the wor...
-Chapter I. Foundations On Firm Soils. Staking Out The Building
I. Except for city blocks, staking out the building is generally left to the contractor, but the superintendent should see that it is carefully done, and very often he is expected or called upon to as...
-Foundations - Light Buildings
4. Nature of Soils The architect should in all cases make every endeavor to discover the nature of the soil upon which his building is to be built before he makes his foundation plan. For most buildi...
-Foundations - Light Buildings. Part 2
9. Clay This soil is found in every condition, varying from slate or shale, which will support any load that can come upon it, to a soft, damp material, which will squeeze out in every direction when...
-Foundations - Light Buildings. Part 3
12. Gravel This material gives less trouble than any other as a foundation bed. It does not settle under any ordinary loads, and will safely carry the heaviest of buildings if the footings, are prope...
-Foundations - Light Buildings. Part 4
18. Methods of Testing Probably the easiest method of determining the bearing power of the foundation bed is by means of a platform from 3 to 4 feet square, having four legs, each 6 inches square. Th...
-Designing The Foundations
20. Knowing the character and supporting power of the soil on which he is to build, the architect is prepared to design his foundation plans, but in no case should this be done when the preceding info...
-Designing The Foundations. Continued
27. Example 1 We will suppose that a six-story and basement warehouse is to be erected on an ordinary sand and gravel foundation. The building will be 50 feet wide, with two longitudinal rows of colu...
-Foundations On Firm Soils
The above calculations should be entered in a memorandum book, kept for the purpose, somewhat as follows: Data For Footings UNDER ONE FT. OF SIDE WALLS. UNDER COLUMNS. Cubic feet...
-Foundations On Firm Soils. Continued
20. Centre of Pressure to Coincide with Centre of Base That the walls and piers of a building may settle uniformly without producing cracks in the superstructure, it is not only essential that the ar...
-Superintendence
31. In inspecting the excavation the superintendent should first examine the lines to see that the building has been correctly staked out, and that the excavation is being carried at least 6 inches ou...
-Chapter II. Foundations On Compressible Soils
32. The soils of this class that are met with in preparing the foundations of buildings are generally along the shore of some large body of water, and hence generally permeated with water to within a ...
-Pile Foundations
When it is required to build on a compressible soil that is constantly saturated with water and of considerable depth, the cheapest and generally the best foundation bed is obtained by driving piles. ...
-Pile Foundations. Part 2
36. Pointing and Ringing Piles should be prepared for driving by cutting off all limbs close to the trunk and removing the bark. * A Practical Treatise on Foundations. W. M. Patton, C. E. The sm...
-Pile Foundations. Part 3
38. Bearing Power of Piles When driven in sand or gravel, or to hard pan, piles will carry to the full extent of the crushing strength of the timber,- providing the depth of the pile is sufficient to...
-Pile Foundations. Part 4
39. Municipal Regulations The New York Building Law (1892) provides that Piles intended for a wall, pier or post to rest upon shall not be less than 5 inches in diameter at the smallest end, and sh...
-Pile Foundations. Part 5
41. Actual Loads on Piles The following examples of the actual loads which are carried by each pile under the buildings named will serve as a guide to architects erecting buildings in those localitie...
-44. Granite Capping
In Boston it is obligatory to cap the piles with blocks of granite, which rest directly on the tops of the piles. If the stone does not fit the surface of the pile, or a pile is a little low, it is we...
-46. Grillage
In Chicago most of the buildings having pile foundations have heavy timber grillage bolted to the tops of the piles, and on these timbers are laid the stone or concrete footings. For building foundati...
-Spread Foundations
Compressible soils are often met with which will bear from 1 to 2 tons per square foot with very little settlement, and, as a rule, this settlement is uniform under the same unit pressure (pressure pe...
-Steel Beam Footings
49. When it is necessary to spread the foundations over 12 or 15 feet in each direction, with a very small height to the footings, as is the case in Chicago, steel beams must be used to furnish the ne...
-Steel Beam Footings. Part 2
54. A. Under a Wall As the duty of the beams is to distribute the load coming from the foundation wall or base plate evenly over the ground, so that the pressure on each square foot of the soil will ...
-Steel Beam Footings. Part 3
56. B. Beams Under Piers (Fig. 16) In this case the size of the lower beams are determined in the same way as in Example I., the length of p being taken from the end of the beam to the centre of the ...
-Timber Footings
58. For buildings of moderate height timber may be used for giving the necessary spread to the footings, provided water is always present. The footings should be built by covering the bottom of the tr...
-Masonry Wells
62. When it is necessary to support very heavy buildings on compressible or filled soil, where piles or spread footings cannot be used, or are not considered desirable, wells of masonry, sunk to bed r...
-Caissons
64. Although caissons have been extensively used in constructing the foundations of bridge piers, they have as yet been used for the foundations of but few buildings in this country, the first instanc...
-Chapter III. Masonry Footings And Foundation Walls, Shoring And Underpinning. Masonry Footings
66. Footings under walls are used for two purposes: 1. To spread the weight over a greater area. 2. To add to the stability of the wall. Under buildings of only two or three stories, the latter functi...
-Masonry Footings. Part 2
69. Bedding As footing stones are generally very rough, being left as they come from the quarry, they cannot be made to bear evenly on the bottom of trenches without being bedded either in a thick be...
-Masonry Footings. Part 3
71. Example A 4-foot footing course of limestone transmits a load of 12 tons per lineal foot or 3 tons per square foot; the thickness of the course is 10 inches. What should be the width of the cours...
-Masonry Footings. Part 4
73. Inverted Arches Inverted arches are sometimes built under and between the bases of piers, as shown in Fig. 36, with the idea of distributing the weight of the piers over the whole length of the f...
-Foundation Walls
76. This term is generally applied to those walls which are below the surface of the ground, and which support the superstructure. Walls whose chief office is to withhold a bank of earth, such as arou...
-Foundation Walls. Continued
79. Filling of Voids All stones, large and small, should be solidly bedded in mortar, and all chinks or interstices between the large stones should be partially filled with mortar and then with small...
-Retaining Walls
82. A retaining wall is one that is built to hold up a bank of earth, which is afterward deposited behind it. Retaining walls differ from foundation walls, in that the latter support a superstructure ...
-Area Walls
83. Areas are often excavated outside the foundation walls of buildings to give light or access to the basement, and require to be surrounded by a wall to retain the bank and present a neat appearance...
-Vault Walls
84. In large cities it is customary to utilize the space under the sidewalk for storage or other purposes. This necessitates a wall at the curb line to sustain the street and also the weight of the si...
-Superintendence Of Foundation Work
85. The first work on the foundations will be putting in the footings. Fig. 46. Fig. 47. If the footings are of concrete, an inspector should be put on the work to stay during the entire work...
-Dampness In Cellar Walls
88. In many localities it is necessary to guard against dampness in cellar walls, particularly in buildings where the basement is used for living rooms or for storage. There are several devices for pr...
-Window And Entrance Areas
90. These features, although not strictly a part of the foundations, are intimately connected with them, and are generally included in the same contract. The thickness and bracing of area walls has a...
-Pavements
93. Although these do not come under the heading of foundations, they are more nearly related to that class of work than to any other, and may therefore be described here. Pavements may be made eithe...
-Shoring, Needling And Underpinning
95. The direction of these operations when required is generally left to the contractor, as the responsibility for the successful carrying out of the work devolves upon him. The architect will be wis...
-Shoring And Underpinning
Fig. 53. Sections about 3 feet wide between the shores should then be excavated under the wall, new footing stones laid, and the space between the new and old footings filled with brick or stone w...
-Chapter IV. Limes, Cements And Mortars
There is hardly any material used by the architect or builder upon which so much depends as upon mortar in its different forms, and it is important that the architect should be sufficiently familiar w...
-Limes, Cements And Mortars. Part 2
103. Sand The sand used in making mortar should be angular in form, of various sizes, and absolutely free from all dust, loam, clay or earthy matter, and also from large stones. It is generally neces...
-Limes, Cements And Mortars. Part 3
106. Preserving Fresh burned lime will readily absorb moisture from a damp atmosphere, and will in time become slaked thereby losing all of its valuable qualities for making mortar. It is therefore i...
-Hydraulic Lime
108. Hydraulic limes are those containing, after burning, enough lime to develop, more or less, the slaking action, together with sufficient of such foreign constituents as combine chemically with lim...
-Hydraulic Cements
Hydraulic cements are made by calcining limestones containing from 30 to 60 per cent, of clay. They do not slake or break up like lime, and their paste sets very quickly, either in air or water. The...
-Hydraulic Cements. Part 2
112. Analysis of Natural Cements The following table, giving the chemical constituents of the leading natural cements, will be found useful in comparing the products from different localities: Table...
-Hydraulic Cements. Part 3
113. Characteristics of Natural Cement. - Color The color of the natural cements used in this country vary with the locality in which they are found. Most of the cements mentioned in Section III are ...
-Artificial Cements
115. Portland Cement The most useful of artificial cements is that known as Portland cement. The first Portland cement was made by Joseph Aspdin, of Leeds, England, who obtained a patent on it, date...
-Artificial Cements. Part 2
117. Testing Portland Cement In all important engineering works it is customary to test every fifth or tenth cask of cement for its soundness, fineness and strength. For use in building piers and fo...
-Artificial Cements. Part 3
119. Activity A mortar is said to have set when it has attained such a degree of hardness that it cannot be altered without causing a fracture, i. e., when it has entirely lost its plasticity. Some c...
-Artificial Cements. Part 4
123. Mixing the Mortar Cements should be tested, both neat and mixed with sand. Briquettes made entirely of cement are more convenient for testing, as they may be tested sooner, and there can be less...
-Artificial Cements. Part 5
124. Data on Strength Table VIII., from the report of the Committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers on Uniform Tests of Cements, gives the results of the average minimum and maximum tensil...
-Artificial Cements. Part 6
125. Specifications for Cement In works where it is important to have a first-class cement the specifications should read about as follows, and all brands submitted should be carefully tested, and th...
-Cement Mortars
127. Use Cement mortar should be used for all mason work below grade, or where situated in damp places, also for heavily loaded piers and in arches of large span. It should be used for setting coping...
-Cement Mortars. Part 2
130. Portland and Rosendale Cement, Mixed Whenever a quick-setting cement is desired, which shall attain a greater strength than the natural cements, a mixture of Portland and natural cement may be u...
-Cement Mortars. Part 3
134. Strength of Mortar The exact strength of mortar to resist compression is not of very great importance, as it seldom, if ever, fails in this way. The tensile and adhesive strength of mortar is mo...
-Cement Mortars. Part 4
136. Mortar Impervious to Water A frequent case of the failure of masonry is the disintegration of the mortar in the outside of the joints, although this does not take place to such an extent in buil...
-Concrete
140. There is probably no material that is so enduring, or better adapted for foundations (and also walls, vaults, etc.), than cement concrete, and perhaps none that is so much skimped. Concrete ma...
-Concrete. Part 2
142. Manner of Mixing The most satisfactory method of mixing concrete by hand is to first prepare a tight floor of plank, or, better still, of sheet iron with the edges turned up about 2 inches, for ...
-Concrete. Part 3
144. Examples of Portland Cement Concrete Foundations of Mutual Life Insurance Company's Building, New York: 1 part cement, 3 parts sand, 5 parts broken stone. Foundation of U. S. Naval Observatory:...
-Mortar Colors And Stains
148. The use of artificial coloring in mortars has been in vogue, more or less, for two thousand years, but the general use of colored mortars dates from a comparatively recent period. The object aim...
-Chapter V. Building Stones
It is important that an architect should have some knowledge of the nature of the different kinds of stone, that he may know what stone is best to use under any given circumstances, and what stones no...
-Building Stones. Continued
153. Limestone This name is commonly used to include all stones which contain lime, though differing from each other in color, texture, structure and origin. All limestones used for building purposes...
-Marble
155. Marble is simply a crystallized limestone, capable of taking a good polish. The scarcity and consequent expense of good marbles have in the past prevented them from being used in constructional ...
-156. Description of Leading American Marbles
Great quantities of white and black marble are quarried in this country, but nearly all of the beautiful streaked and colored marbles are imported. The States which produced marble in 1894 were Calif...
-157. Onyx Marble
These stones are of the same composition as common marbles, but were formed by chemical deposits instead of in sedimentary beds, crystallized by the action of heat. They owe their banded structure an...
-158. Sandstones
Sandstones are composed of rounded and angular grains of sand so cemented and compacted together as to form a solid rock. The cementing material may be either silica, carbonate of lime, an iron oxide...
-160. Lava Stone or Turfa
Near Castle Rock, in Colorado, is quarried a soft, very light gray and pink stone of volcanic origin, which is commonly called lava stone. It is extremely light in weight, weighing only about no pound...
-161. Slate
Although slate is not strictly a building stone, yet it is largely used for covering the roofs of buildings, for blackboards, sanitary purposes, etc., and the architect should be familiar with its qua...
-162. Marble Distribution and Varieties of Slate
The distribution of the slate industry among the different States in 1890 is best shown by the following figures, which give the value of the product: Pennsylvania, $2,011,776; Vermont, $838,013; Mai...
-163. - Pennsylvania Slates. - Bangor Region
This region is entirely within Northampton County, and is the most important, in point of production, in the country. The principal quarries are at Bangor, East Bangor and Slatington. The color is a u...
-164. Soapstone
Although not properly a building stone, soap-stone is used more or less in the fittings of buildings, especially for sinks and wash trays, and for the linings of fireplaces. Soapstone is a dark bluis...
-Selection Of Building Stones
165. The selection of a stone for structural purposes is a matter of the greatest importance, especially when it is to be used in the construction of large and expensive buildings. The cities of North...
-Selection Of Building Stones. Part 2
168. Durability Naturally the durability of a stone is of the first importance, for unless the stone will last a reasonable length of time, the money spent on the structure will be largely wasted, an...
-Selection Of Building Stones. Part 3
170. Stone Set on Bed When a stone is built into the walls of a building in such a way that the natural layers of the stone are vertical, or on edge, the water penetrating the stone and freezing caus...
-Selection Of Building Stones. Part 4
172. Method of Finishing This also has a great deal to do with the durability of a stone. As a rule, the less jar from heavy-pounding that the surface is subjected to, the more durable will be the su...
-Selection Of Building Stones. Part 5
174. Fire Resistance The ability of a stone to withstand the action of fire is often of much consequence, especially when it is exposed to fire risks on all sides, as is the case with most business b...
-Testing Of Building Stones
176. Every stone intended for building purposes that does not come from some well-known quarry should be tested by chemical analysis, and the results compared with the analyses of well-known stones of...
-Seasoning Of Stone
179. All stone is better for being exposed in the air until it becomes dry before it is set. This gives a chance for the quarry water to evaporate, and in nearly all cases renders the stone harder, an...
-Protection And Preservation Of Stonework
180. There are a great many preparations that have been used for preventing the decay of building stones, but all are expensive, and none have proved very satisfactory. Paint. - The substance most ge...
-Chapter VI. Cut Stonework
181. To properly lay out, detail and specify the stonework in a building, it is necessary to have a thorough knowledge of the different tools and processes employed in cutting and dressing the stone ...
-Cut Stonework. Continued
184. Broken Ashlar When stones of uniform size cannot be cheaply quarried the stone may be used to better advantage in broken ashlar, but it takes longer to build it, and, as a rule, broken ashlar ...
-Stonecutting And Finishing
186. That the architect may specify correctly the way in which he wishes the stone finished in his buildings, it is necessary that he be familiar with the tools used in cutting, and -the technical ...
-187. Different Kinds of Finish
Rock-face or pitch-faced work is shown in Fig. 77, the face of the stone being left rough as it came from the quarry, with the joints or edges pitched off to a line as shown. The amount of projectio...
-188. Laying Out
If the cost of the stonework must be considered, the architect should ascertain from some reliable local stone dealer the most economical size for the kind of stone he intends to use, and lay out his ...
-189. Drip and Wash
Projecting cornices, belt courses and other trimmings should have sufficient depth that they will balance on the wall, and all projecting stones should have a drip as near the top of the stone as poss...
-100. Relieving and Supporting Lintels
[A lintel is the stone which covers a door or window opening, and which, therefore, acts as a beam. They are often designated by stonecutters by the term cap.] When it is necessary to use rather a l...
-191. Sills
A sill is the piece of stone which forms the bottom of a window opening in a stone or brick wall. Doorsteps or thresholds are also often called sills. A slip sill is a sill that is just the width...
-192. Arches
Stone arches are very frequently used both in stone and brick buildings. They may be built in a great variety of styles, and with either circular, elliptical or pointed soffits. The method of calculat...
-193. Label Mouldings
In nearly all styles of architecture the better class of buildings have the arch ring moulded. In Gothic and Romanesque work a projecting moulding called a label mould is generally placed at the bac...
-194. Built-up Arches
Large arches, especially those which show on both sides of the wall, are often, for the sake of economy, built of several courses of stone, jointed so as to give the appearance of solid voussoirs. Fig...
-195. Backing of Stone Arches
The arches generally seen in the fronts of buildings are usually only about 6 inches thick, and are backed with brick arches. The brick arch should be of the same shape as the stone arch, and the bric...
-196. Relieving Beams Over Arches
Very often arches are used for effect in places where sufficient abutments cannot be provided to resist the thrust of the arch. In such cases one or more steel beams should be placed in the wall just ...
-197. Support for Spandrels
Wherever arches are used in groups care must be exercised in laying out the springing stones to give a level support for the spandrels. Thus where two arches come together, as at A, Fig. 105, if the f...
-198. Elliptical Arches
Arches built either in the form of an ellipse or oval, or pointed at the centre and elliptical at the springing, are often used for architectural effect in buildings, although very seldom in engineeri...
-199. Flat Arches
Shallow flat arches of stone, although sometimes pleasing to the eye, are very objectionable constructionally. If a flat arch must be used, to be self-supporting it should be of such height that a seg...
-200. Centres
All arches, whether of stone or brick, should be built on wooden centres made to exactly fit the curve of the arch and carefully set. The centres should have ample strength to support the weight of th...
-Miscellaneous Trimmings
201. Columns not exceeding 8 feet in height usually have the shaft cut in one piece and the caps and bases in separate pieces. For columns of greater height it is generally necessary to build the ...
-202. Copings
All walls not covered by the roof should be capped by a wide stone called the coping. Horizontal copings should be weathered on top and have a drip at the bottom edge, as shown at C, Fig. 112. The wid...
-203. Stone Steps and Stairs
These should always be built of some hard stone, preferably granite, and should have a solid bearing. Outside steps generally rest on a wall at each end, and if more than 6 feet long should have a sup...
-204. Ashlar. - Laying Out
After the kind and size of ashlar to be used has been determined upon the draughtsman should show each piece of ashlar on the elevation drawings if coursed ashlar with plumb bond is to be used, and st...
-205. Backing
Both stone and brick are used for the backing of ashlar. Brick is more largely used for this purpose than stone, because in most cases it is the cheapest, and it possesses the further advantage that t...
-206. Slip Joints
Where two walls differing considerably in height come together, as for instance where the front or side wall of a church joins the tower, the two walls should not be bonded together, but the low wall ...
-207. Bond Stones and Templates
The building regulations of certain cities require that bond stones shall be used in brick piers of less than a certain size. When such stones are used they should be of some strong variety, and shoul...
-208. Setting Stonework
All stones should be set in a full bed of mortar, and any stone too large to be easily lifted by one man should be set with a derrick. In some localities slips of wood are prepared of the thickness d...
-209. Mortar Pointing
As the mortar in the exposed edges of the joints is especially subject to dislodgment through the expansion and contraction of the masonry and the effects of the weather, it is customary after the mas...
-210. Strength of Stone Masonry
Practically the only cases in which the strength of stonework need be considered by the architect, other than to see that proper construction is provided, are: a, the strength of piers; b, strength of...
-211. Strength of Lintels
A lintel is nothing more than a stone beam, and the same formulae apply to stone as to wood, with the exception of the quantity representing the strength or modulus of rupture of the material. The f...
-212. Measurement of Stonework
Rough stone from the quarry is usually sold under two classifications, rubble and dimension stone. Rubble includes the pieces of irregular size most easily obtained from the quarry, and suitable for c...
-213. Superintendence of Cut Stonework
As with all other building operations, the superintendent needs to be very watchful in inspecting the cut stonework and its setting, to prevent defects and imperfect work being imposed upon him. When ...
-Chapter VII. Brickwork. Bricks
214. Bricks are more extensively used in the construction of buildings than any other material except wood. At the present time brick and terra cotta architecture is decidedly in the ascendency, and ...
-215. Composition of Bricks
Ordinary building bricks are made of a mixture of clay and sand (to which coal and other foreign substances are sometimes added), which is subjected to various processes, differing according to the na...
-217. Machine-made Bricks
Where bricks are made on a large scale the work is now done almost entirely by machinery, commencing with the mining of the clay by steam shovels and ending by burning in patent kilns. A great variet...
-219. Comparison of Soft Mud and Stiff Mud Bricks
Soft mud bricks are made under little or no pressure, and are, therefore, not as dense as the stiff mud bricks. It is claimed, however, that in the soft mud bricks the particles adhere more closely, a...
-220. Repressing
Both soft and stiff mud brick are often repressed in a separate machine. Repressing reshapes the brick, rounds the corners if desired, trues it in outline and makes a considerable improvement in its a...
-221. Dry Clay Process
This process is especially adapted to clays that contain only about 7 per cent, of moisture as they come from the bank, the clay being apparently perfectly dry. Wet clays are sometimes dried and then ...
-222. Drying and Burning Bricks
Bricks made by the soft mud process always have to be dried before placing in the kiln; those made by the stiff mud process are generally, although not always, stacked in a dry house from twelve to tw...
-223. Down-draft Kilns
Kilns of this class require permanent walls and a tight roof. The floor must be open and connected by flues with a chimney or stack. These kilns are more often made circular in plan and in the shape o...
-224. Continuous Kilns
These kilns derive their name from the fact that the heat is continuous and the kilns are kept continuously burning. Continuous kilns are very different, both in construction and working, from the oth...
-225. Glazed and Enameled Brick
These terms are used to designate bricks that have a glazed surface, the term enameled' being applied indiscriminately to all bricks having such a surface. There is, however, quite a difference bet...
-226. Paving Bricks
The introduction of brick paving for streets has led to the manufacture of this class of brick on an extensive scale. Paving bricks do not strictly come within the province of the architect, but as h...
-227. Fire Bricks
Fire bricks are used in places where a very high temperature is to be resisted, as in the lining of furnaces, fireplaces and tall chimneys. The ordinary fire brick used for the above purposes is made ...
-228. Classes of Building Brick. - Common Brick
This term includes all those brick which are intended simply for constructional purposes, and with which no especial pains are taken in their manufacture. There are three grades of common brick, deter...
-229. Color of Bricks
The color of common bricks depends largely upon the composition of the clay used and the temperature to which they are burnt. Pure clay, free from iron, will burn white, but the color of white bricks ...
-230. Size and Weight of Building Bricks
In this country there is no legal standard for the size of bricks, and the dimensions vary with the maker and also with the locality. In the New England States the common brick averages about 7x3x2...
-231. Requisites of Good Brick
1. Good building brick should be sound, free from cracks and flaws and from stones and lumps of any kind, especially lumps of lime. 2. To insure neat work the bricks must be uniform in size and the s...
-232. Brick Strength
A good brick, suitable for piers and heavy work, should not break under a crushing load of less than 4,000 pounds per square inch; any additional strength is not of great importance, provided the bric...
-Brickwork
233. To build any kind of a brick structure so as to make a strong and durable piece of work, it is necessary to have a bed of some kind of mortar between the bricks. Brickwork, therefore, consists ...
-235. Laying Brick. - A. Common Brick
The best method of building a brick wall is to first lay the two outside courses by spreading the mortar with a trowel along the outer edge of the last course of brick to form a bed for the brick to b...
-Brickwork. Part 3
238. Brick to be Wet Mortar, unless very thin, will not adhere to a dry, porous brick, because the brick robs the mortar of its moisture, which prevents its proper setting. On this account brick ...
-240. Ornamental Brickwork
The ornamental effects to be obtained by the varied use of bricks are exceedingly numerous. First, there are the constructive features, such as arches, impost courses, pilasters, belt and string cours...
-241. Cornices
For brick buildings with a parapet wall and flat roof a brick cornice is generally the most appropriate unless one of terra cotta can be afforded. A brick cornice is certainly to be preferred to one o...
-Designs For Brick Cornices
[From the Brickbuilder.] Figs. 127 and 128 are suggestions for moulded brick cornices for three and four-story buildings, and Fig. 129 one of plain bricks for a two-story building with a low pitch ro...
-Construction Of Walls
243. The proper construction of a brick building involves many things besides the mere laying of one brick on top of another with a bed of mortar between. The manner of laying or bedding the bricks ...
-Construction Of Walls. Part 2
246. Hoop Iron Bond Pieces of hoop iron are often laid flat in the bed joints of brickwork to increase its longitudinal tenacity and prevent cracks from unequal settlement. The ends of the iron ...
-Construction Of Walls. Part 3
248. Corbeling the Wall for Floor Joist In some localities it is the custom to form a ledge to support the floor joist by means of a continuous corbel of three or more courses. This is done to ...
-Construction Of Walls. Part 4
251. Openings in Walls The location of all door and window openings in brick walls should be carefully considered, not only as regards convenience, but also as to their effect on the strength of the ...
-Party Walls
There is much diversity in building regulations regarding the thickness of party walls, although they all agree in that such walls should never be less than 12 inches thick. About one-half of the laws...
-Party Walls. Continued
256. Cracks in Walls It is a very common thing to see cracks in brick walls. These cracks may be produced by either one of several causes. Probably the most frequent cause of the cracking of ...
-Hollow Walls
258. Their Object It is well known that a solid brick wall readily absorbs moisture and transmits heat and cold. A driving rainstorm will often penetrate a 12-inch brick wall so as to dampen the ...
-Hollow Walls. Part 2
260. Bonding of Hollow Walls To secure proper strength in the wall it is necessary that the two portions of the wall shall be well bonded together, so that neither may buckle or get out of plumb. ...
-Hollow Walls. Part 3
262. Hollow Walls with Brick Withes Brick walls are sometimes built with a 4-inch inner and outer facing connected with solid brick withes, as shown in Fig. 155, the air space being made 4, 8 or 12 ...
-Details Of Construction In Brickwork
265. Brick Arches Brick arches are generally used for spanning the openings in brick walls, and where there is sufficient height for the arch they form the most durable support for the wall above. ...
-Details Of Construction In Brickwork. Part 2
266. Vaults Brick vaults are usually constructed in the same way as common brick arches, except that the bricks should be bonded lengthwise of the vault. Cross, or groined vaults, are generally ...
-Details Of Construction In Brickwork. Part 3
268. Fireplaces To secure a good draught the throat or lower opening of a fireplace flue should be small, so that no air may pass through it without first coming in contact with the fire and being ...
-Details Of Construction In Brickwork. Part 4
271. Efflorescence After a heavy driving storm of rain or damp snow the face of many brick buildings will often be seen to be covered with a sort of white efflorescence, which greatly mars the ...
-Details Of Construction In Brickwork. Part 5
273. Crushing Strength of Brickwork In the majority of brick and stone buildings the crushing strength of brickwork need be considered only in connection with piers, arches and under bearing plates ...
-Details Of Construction In Brickwork. Part 6
275. Superintendence of Brickwork The various portions of the work that require especial superintendence have been mentioned in describing the manner of doing the work. In general the points in ...
-Chapter VIII. Architectural Terra Cotta
276. Composition and Manufacture Terra cotta is composed of practically the same material as bricks, and its characteristics, as far as the material is concerned, are the same. Terra cotta, however, ...
-Architectural Terra Cotta. Part 2
277. Color The color of terra cotta ranges from white to a deep red, according to the chemical constituents of the clays used. Within the past ten years a great impetus has been given to the ...
-Architectural Terra Cotta. Part 3
280. Inspection A sharp metallic, bell-like ring and a clean, close fracture are good proof of homogeneousness, compactness and strength. Precision of the forms is in the highest degree essential, ...
-Architectural Terra Cotta. Part 4
283. Setting and Pointing. - Setting Terra cotta should always be set in either the natural (such as Rosendale or Utica) cements, or in Portland cement, mixed with sand, in about the same way as ...
-Architectural Terra Cotta
286. Weight and Strength The weight of terra cotta in solid blocks averages 122 pounds per cubic foot. When made in hollow blocks 1 inches thick the weight varies from 65 to 85 pounds per cubic ...
-Chapter IX. Fireproofing
288. Most of the materials employed for protecting the structural portions of buildings from fire and heat, and for filling between the floor beams and rafters, are of earthy composition and come ...
-Fireproofing Materials
289. Various materials have been introduced at different times for the purpose of making buildings fireproof. Experience has shown, however, that the only practical method of producing a really ...
-Fireproofing Materials. Continued
293. Concretes Concrete made of Portland cement, mixed with sand, crushed stone, pieces of burnt fire clay, broken bricks or tiles, has been successfully used in Europe as a fireproof material for ...
-Floor Constructions
294. The improvements in fireproof floor construction during the past fifteen years have been many and in rapid succession. Previous to 1880 so-called fireproof floors were constructed of brick ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 2
297. End-Method Arches In this method the blocks are generally made rectangular in shape, with one vertical and one horizontal partition, and with bevel end joints. In this system it is not the ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 3
298. Combination of Side and End Methods There are several styles of combination arches now manufactured. The object in making this shape of arch is to obtain the strength of the endmethod ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 4
300. Manner of Setting Tile Arches Hollow tile arches of whatever type should be set in a good Rosendale or Portland cement mortar on plank centring, slightly cambered. The best centring for flat ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 5
302. Floor and Ceiling Finish The under side of flat tile arches is usually finished with two coats of plaster applied directly to the bottom of the tiles. If there are inequalities in the surfaces ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 6
303. Segmental Tile Arches Where a flat ceiling is not essential, and for warehouses, factories, breweries, etc., the segmental arch gives the strongest, best and cheapest (considering the saving in ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 7
304. Guastavino Arch (Patented, and erected only by R. Guastavino) This is the other type of segmental tile arch referred to in the previous section. It is not a true segmental arch, but is ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 8
306. Concrete and Metal Floors Within a few years several styles of fireproof floor construction, based upon the use of concrete in combination with iron or steel in various shapes, have been ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 9
307. The Ransome & Smith Floor While Mr. Jackson was experimenting with the Hyatt ties, Mr. E. L. Ransome, a very successful worker of concrete in San Francisco, conceived the idea of using square ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 10
309. The Metropolitan Floor This floor, which was for a time known as the Manhattan system, and is protected by letters patent, is constructed as follows : Cables, each composed of two galvanized ...
-Floor Constructions. Part 11
312. Actual Weight of Fireproof Floors In the spring of 1895 a series of fireproofing tests was made in the basement and first story of a building then being erected in Boston, a full description of ...
-Fireproof Roofs
314. Flat Roofs Nearly all fireproof office buildings, apartment houses, hotels and warehouses have flat roofs, pitched just enough - generally from to an inch to the foot - to cause the water ...
-Fireproof Roofs. Part 2
316. Ceilings In office buildings having a flat roof there is generally an air space or attic between the roof and ceiling of the upper story, varying from 3 to 5 feet in height. This space is often ...
-Fireproof Roofs. Part 3
318. Columns The protection of the columns, especially in a very high building, should be considered as the most important portion of the fireproofing, although in too many cases it is slighted even ...
-Fireproof Roofs. Part 4
319. Partitions The partitions in fireproof buildings should be built either of brick, tile or iron studding, covered with metal lath and plaster. Brick partitions, when not less than 12 inches ...
-Fireproof Roofs. Part 5
320. Thin Partitions In order to economize the floor space as much as possible, devices have been introduced for constructing partitions that, when plastered both sides, will be only from 1 to 2 ...
-Chapter X. Iron And Steel Supports For Mason Work. - Skeleton Construction
322. Although constructions of iron and steel do not properly come within the scope of this volume, there are so many places where metal work is used in connection with brick, stone and terra cotta ...
-Iron And Steel Supports For Mason Work. - Skeleton Construction. Part 2
323. Cast Iron Lintels Lintels of cast iron were at one time extensively used for supporting brick walls over store fronts and door openings, and even at the present time are used to some extent. On ...
-Iron And Steel Supports For Mason Work. - Skeleton Construction. Part 3
325. Supports for Bay Windows Where bay windows having walls of brick, stone or terra cotta start above the first story, it is necessary to support them in some way by metal work. If the bottom of ...
-Iron And Steel Supports For Mason Work. - Skeleton Construction. Part 4
327. Spandrel Supports The simplest case of spandrel supports is where the wall is perfectly plain and built of brick, with terra cotta caps and sills. In such cases a channel and angle bar may be ...
-Iron And Steel Supports For Mason Work. - Skeleton Construction. Part 5
329. Miscellaneous Ironwork The following details of ironwork used in connection with brickwork and stonework should perhaps be mentioned here, as they have to be considered when designing the mason ...
-Iron And Steel Supports For Mason Work. - Skeleton Construction. Part 6
330. Chimney Caps For tall chimneys a cast iron cap is generally considered the most durable finish for the top. The usual shape of such caps is that shown in Fig. 227. Such a cap completely ...
-Chapter XI. Lathing And Plastering
331. Probably 99 per cent of modern buildings, in this country at least, have plastered walls, ceilings and partitions. It is only lately, however, that much attention has been given to this branch ...
-Lathing
332. Brick walls and hollow tile ceilings and partititions do not require lathing, as the plastering may be applied to them directly, the brick and tiles having an affinity for the mortar which holds ...
-Lathing. Part 2
334. Expanded Metal Lath This lath (Fig. 231), now probably well known to architects, is made from strips of thin, soft and tough steel by a mechanical process which pushes out or expands the metal ...
-Lathing. Part 3
336. Plaster Boards Thin boards made of plaster, and reeds or fibre, have also been quite extensively used, not exactly as a lath, but as a ground for the second and third coats of plaster. They are ...
-Plastering
338. Interior Work The very general practice of plastering -walls and ceilings dates back not much more than a century ago. Previous to that time the walls and ceilings were either wainscoted, ...
-Plastering. Part 2
339. Mixing Mortar for Plastering The proper mixing of lime mortar is nearly as important as the quality of the lime. The tendency to reduce the cost of building to the lowest possible point, and to ...
-Plastering. Part 3
341. Proportion of Materials It has been found by repeated experiments that a barrel of Rockland lump lime, thoroughly slaked, will yield on an average 2.72 barrels of lime paste. Some limes will ...
-Plastering. Part 4
342. Putting On Plastering on lathed work is generally done in three coats.* The first coat is called the scratch coat; the second the brown coat; and the third, the white coat, skim coat or finish. ...
-Plastering. Part 5
343. Third or Finishing Coat The method of finishing the wall varies somewhat in different parts of the country, and also with the kind of surface desired. In some localities, particularly in small ...
-Hard Wall Plasters
344. By using only the best materials and mixing them in the manner described it is possible to obtain a very good quality of wall plaster, but there are so many chances of getting an inferior job ...
-Hard Wall Plasters. Part 2
345. Chemical or Patented Plasters In this class are: King's Windsor Cement dry mortar, Adamant, Rock Wall, Granite, and some others not so well known. The precise composition of these plasters is ...
-Hard Wall Plasters. Part 3
347. Application The method of applying these plasters does not differ materially from that already described for lime mortar, except that the second (corresponding to the brown) coat is put on ...
-Stucco Work
349. This term, as commonly used in this country, refers to ornamental interior plaster work, such as cornices, mouldings, centrepieces, etc. For such work a mixture of lime paste and plaster of ...
-Stucco Work. Continued
350. Keene's Cement When it is desired to finish plaster walls, ceilings, columns, etc., with a very hard and highly polished surface, Keene's cement is generally used for the finishing coat. This ...
-External Plastering
353. This is generally either rough-cast or stucco. The first is a description of coarse plastering, generally applied on laths; the second is a description of plastering on brickwork, executed so as ...
-External Plastering. Continued
354. External Stucco External plastering of buildings was at one time greatly in vogue in European countries, and there are many examples of stucco-covered buildings in the older portions of this ...
-Staff.
355. Staff, a material used for the exterior covering of all the buildings of the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, may be considered as almost a new material in this country, although it has ...
-Staff.. Continued
356. Whitewashing Although not properly belonging to the plasterer's trade, this work is often included in the plasterer's specifications. Common whitewash is made by simply slaking fresh lime in ...
-Lathing And Plastering In Fireproof Construction
357. Wherever lathing is required in buildings that are intended to be thoroughly fireproof, only stiffened wire or expanded metal lath should be used. If one of the hard plasters are to be used, ...
-Plastering Superintendence
359. This consists chiefly in seeing that the work is performed in accordance with the specifications, and if the specifications are properly written much of the vexation of superintendence will be ...
-Plastering Superintendence. Continued
360. Measuring Plaster Work Lathing is always figured by the square yard and is generally included with the plastering, although in small country towns the carpenter often puts on the laths. ...
-Chapter XII. Concrete Building Construction
362. Concrete composed of broken stone, fragments of brick, pottery, gravel and sand, held together by being mixed with lime, cement, asphaltum or other binding substances, has been used in ...
-Concrete Building Construction. Part 2
363. Notable Examples of Concrete Buildings Perhaps the best known of all concrete buildings in the United States are the hotels Ponce de Leon and Alcazar, at St. Augustine, Florida, Messrs. Carrere ...
-Concrete Building Construction. Part 3
366. Details of Construction The usual method of building concrete walls, piers, arches, etc., is by setting up uprights of 4x4 or 4x6 scantlings at each side of the proposed wall or pier and ...
-Concrete Building Construction. Part 4
368. Making the Concrete. - Materials and Proportion Concrete for monolithic construction should be made of a good quality of Portland cement, mixed with clean, sharp sand and a proper proportion of ...
-Concrete Building Construction. Part 5
369. Expansion and Contraction Concrete diminishes: slightly in volume in setting in air, and in monolithic construction this contraction is sufficient to produce cracks throughout the walls and ...
-Concrete Building Construction. Part 6
371. Sidewalk Construction For constructing sidewalks over areas or vaults, concrete may, in most localities, be used to better advantage as regards quality and economy than any other material or ...
-Chapter XIII. Carpenters' Work Specifications
372. The specifications for any particular piece of work should be considered as of equal importance with the drawings. The architect should not expect the contractor to do anything not provided for ...
-Carpenters' Work General Conditions
373. Every specification should be preceded by the general conditions governing all contractors. These may advantageously be printed on a separate sheet and used as a cover to the written ...
-Excavating And Grading
374. - The contractor shall visit the site of the building and examine for himself the condition of the lot, and satisfy himself as to the nature of the soil. [Where this is not practicable the ...
-Piling
375. - This contractor is to furnish and drive the piles indicated on sheet (1). All piles shall be of sound (white oak, yellow pine, Norway pine or spruce). They must be at least (6) inches in ...
-Concrete Footings
376. - All footings colored (purple) on the foundation plan and sections shall be constructed of concrete furnished and put in place by this contractor. If the trenches are not excavated to the neat ...
-Specifications For Stonework
377. - Footings. - Supported on Piles The pile capping to be of even split granite blocks (16) inches thick from --------- quarries, to be of such size that no stone will rest on more than three ...
-Specifications For Stonework. Continued
379. - External Stone Walls. - Rubble Build the external walls (in first story) of rubble from the --------- quarries. To be laid random, with hammer-dressed joints, and the outside face split so ...
-Cut Stonework
380. - Granite All trimmings colored blue on the elevation drawings to be of (Quincy) granite. The stock to be carefully selected and free from all natural imperfections, such as mineral stains, sap ...
-Specifications For Brickwork
38I. - This contractor is to furnish all materials, including water, and all labor, scaffolding and utensils necessary to complete the brickwork indicated by red color on the plans and sections, and a...
-Specifications For Laying Masonry In Freezing Weather
382. - Only in case of absolute necessity shall any masonry be laid in freezing weather. (See Sections 139 and 239.) Any masonry laid in freezing weather must not be pointed until warm weather in ...
-Specifications For Fireproofing. Hollow Tile System
383. - The following specifications are intended to include the fireproofing of all the steel in the building, the filling in between the beams forming floors and roof, and the concreting over the ...
-Specifications For Terra Cotta Trimmings.
384. - Material This contractor shall furnish and set wherever called for on drawings terra cotta to exactly match in color the sample submitted, all in strict accordance with detail drawings. ...
-Specifications For Lathing And Plastering. (Ordinary Work.)
385. - Lathing Lath all (walls) partitions, ceilings, and all furring, studding, under side of stairs, etc., with best quality of pine (spruce) lath, free from sap, bark or dead knots, and of full ...
-Specifications For Hard Plastering
386. - All walls, ceilings, soffits and partitions throughout the building to be plastered three coats, in the best manner, as specified below. The first and second coats to be of (Acme) cement ...
-Specifications For Wire Lathing With Metal Furring
(over woodwork.) This contractor is to fur all ceilings, soffits of stairs, all timber beams and posts, and both sides of all wood partitions throughout the building with Hammond's metal furring with ...
-Specifications For Stiffened Wire Lathing. (Over Wood And Brickwork.)
Cover all ceilings, soffits of stairs, both sides of all wood partitions, and all wooden posts and girders throughout the building with the (Roebling) stiffened wire lath, painted. No. 20 gauge, and (...
-Specifications For Metal Lath On Ironwork
This contractor is to furnish and put up in a substantial manner all iron furring and lathing for enclosing the posts and girders and for forming the cornices, as shown on the drawings and as specifie...
-Solid Partitions. (Metal Lath And Studding.)
This contractor is to provide all metal work, and erect the partitions indicated by (gray) color or otherwise marked on the plans, and leave them in perfect condition for the plasterer. Wood furring w...
-Specifications For The "Roebling Fireproof
FLOOR. [This specification is given as a guide in preparing specifications for this and similar floors. Most of the various fireproofing companies have printed specifications for their systems, which...
-Appendix to Part I
The following tables relating to the properties and chemical composition of building stones, and to stone buildings, have been compiled by the author from various sources (principally from several vol...
-Table C. List Of Important Stone Buildings In The United States
[Given to enable architects to see the appearance and weathering qualities of the different stones.*] granite buildings. Locality of Quarries. Name of Building. City. Dix Isl...
-Table E. Tabulated Results Of The Actual Crushing Strength Of Brick Piers Made By The U. S. Government At Watertown, Mass
BUILT OF FACE-BRICKS (M. W. SANDS, CAMBRIDGE, MASS.). AGE, 18 TO 24 MONTHS. Nominal Dimensions. Composition of mortar. Weight per cubic foot. Sectional area. First crack. ...
-Table F. Safe Working Loads For Masonry
(From the Architects' and Builders' Pocket Book.) BRICKWORK IN WALLS OR PIERS. Tons per square foot. Eastern Western Red brick in lime mortar...........................
-Table G. Properties Of Timber, Stones, Iron And Steel
(Values for strength are those given in the Architects' and Builders' Pocket Book.) Weight per cubic foot in pounds. Average. Weight per foot, B. M. in pounds. Average. Safe Te...
-Making Cellars Waterproof
Quite often in cities it is desirable to construct a dry basement in localities where water permeates the soil to within a few feet of the sidewalk. In such cases it is necessary not only to make the...
-Preface to Part II
IT has been the aim of the Author, in preparing this work, to furnish a series of books that shall be of practical value to all who have to do with building operations, and especially to architects, d...
-Chapter I. The Building And Finishing Woods Of The United States
1. Characteristics, Properties And Uses The abundance and consequent cheapness of wood in the United States, the ease with which it can be procured and worked, together with its strength, lightness a...
-The Tree
2. All wood used in the United States for building construction and finishing comes from what are known as exogenous trees, or those which increase in size by the formation of new wood each year on it...
-The Tree. Continued
4. The Annual Rings - Spring And Summer Wood The layers of wood that are formed each year appear as rings on the cross section of the log, and by counting them the age of that portion of the tree may...
-Physical Properties And Characteristics
6. Grain Of Wood In common usage wood is said to be coarse grained when its annual rings are wide and fine grained when they are narrow. The term fine grained is also sometimes applied to tho...
-Physical Properties And Characteristics. Part 2
8. Resonance If a piece of timber is struck with a hammer a sound is emitted which varies in pitch and character with the shape and size of the stick, and also with the kind and condition of the wood...
-Physical Properties And Characteristics. Part 3
12. Kiln-Drying As it is impossible to season wood by natural means so that it will not shrink when put in a building that is to be kept warm and dry, it is necessary to dry all lumber that is to be ...
-Physical Properties And Characteristics. Part 4
14. Shrinkage Of Wood When a short piece of wood fibre, such as that shown in Fig. 6, is dried, it shrinks, its walls grow thinner Fig. 6. Fig. 7. - Warping of Wood. (as indicated by the dot...
-Shakes
17. When large trees are converted into timber it sometimes occurs that parts of a board or plank separate from each other and become two pieces, and occasionally the wood is so shaky as to render i...
-Conversion Of Timber
18. Bastard-Sawing All boards and planks, except those intended for flooring, furniture or fine interior finish, are sawn from the log by gang or circular saws, which cut the log into slices, as show...
-Strength Of Timber, As Affected By Its Physical Characteristics
21. The method of calculating the strength of timber under the different kinds of strains to which it may be subjected will be found fully explained in the Architects' and Builders' Pocket Book, and...
-Decay Of Timber
24. All wood is equally durable under certain conditions. Kept dry or submerged it lasts indefinitely, but under other conditions it may decay very rapidly. * The term Georgia pine in this work ref...
-Decay Of Timber. Continued
26. Preservation Of Timber For ordinary building construction the best means for preserving timber from decay is to have it thoroughly seasoned and well ventilated, and if these conditions are secure...
-Varieties Of Timber Used In The United States. - Their Characteristics And Uses. 27. A. Coniferous Woods
These woods include nearly all of the soft woods, and furnish nearly all of our framing timber and the larger part of that used for finishing. Pines. - The pine is used more extensively for building ...
-28. Hard Pines
Norway Pine (Pinus resinosa) is found from Canada to the Pacific coast, but does not reach far south in the United States. In Canada it is very commonly known as red pine. It attains a height of from ...
-29. Spruce
There are three varieties of spruce used for building purposes in the United States. There is very little difference between them, and all three varieties are sold under the common name of spruce. Th...
-30. Cedar
A light, soft wood, stiff, but not strong, of fine texture and a grayish-brown or red in color. The wood seasons rapidly, shrinks and checks but little, and is very durable. Used largely for posts, ti...
-31. Cypress (Taxodium Distichum)
The cypress is a large deciduous tree occupying much of the swamp and overflow land along the coast and rivers of the Southern States. There are numerous species of cypress, and as many qualities as ...
-32. Broad-Leaved Woods. - Ash
Wood heavy, hard, strong, stiff, quite tough, not durable in contact with soil, straight grained and coarse in texture. The finished wood very much resembles bastard-sawed oak, except that the grain i...
-33. Beech
A medium-sized tree, common, sometimes forming forests ; most abundant in the Ohio and Mississippi basin, but found from Maine to Wisconsin and southward to Florida. The wood of the beech is heavy, h...
-34. Cherry
The lumber-furnishing cherry tree of this country is the wild black cherry, a small to medium-sized tree scattered through many of the broad-leaved woods of the western slope of the Alleghenies, but f...
-36. Poplar Or Whitewood
The lumber commonly known by these names comes principally from the tulip tree, which is often called yellow poplar. It is a large tree, quite common in the Ohio Basin and in some portions of the Sout...
-Imported Woods
37. A great variety of fine woods are brought into this country each year for interior finishing and furniture work. Of these, mahogany, French burl, rosewood, Circassian walnut and satin wood are the...
-38. Market Prices Of Various Woods
The price of woods of all kinds varies not only with the locality but also with the condition of business, and is often controlled by combinations of the lumber dealers. The following prices, theref...
-Chapter II. Wood Framing - Ordinary Construction
Although it is not necessary for the architect, draughtsman or superintendent to be able to lay out the frame of a building, cut the timber and put it together, it is necessary that he should have a t...
-Outside Walls Of Wooden Buildings
41. In the framing of the walls of wooden buildings two distinct methods may be followed; these are distinguished by the terms balloon framing and braced or old-fashioned framing. The braced, o...
-Outside Walls Of Wooden Buildings. Part 2
42. Combination Frame The better class of wooden buildings are now framed on a sort of combination of the balloon and old-fashioned methods. The braced frame is adopted as far as the sills, posts, gi...
-Outside Walls Of Wooden Buildings. Part 3
44. Posts, Girts And Braces One dimension of these pieces is always governed by the width of the studding. When 4-inch studding is used the posts may be 4x6 or 4x8 inches, the girts 4x8 inches and th...
-Floors
46. Wooden Buildings The floors of wooden buildings are usually constructed of 2-inch planks called joists, which are set on edge and spaced either 12 or 16 inches apart from centres. These joists ...
-47. Details Of Framing. - Framing Of Joists To Sill
The connnection of the floor joists to the sill should be such that the sill will support the joist and without weakening the latter more than absolutely necessary; then if the foundation wall settles...
-48. Framing: Around Stair Wells, Chimneys, Etc
Should be done as shown in Fig. 30. The tail beams should be framed into the header and spiked, and the tenons on the header should project beyond the trimmer, so that a wedge-shaped pin may be driven...
-50. Bridging Floors
After the floor joists are leveled and secured in place, and before the floor boards are laid, they should be bridged in the centre for spans between 8 and 16 feet, and twice for spans from 18 to 24 f...
-51. Framing A Projecting Corner
It often happens, in dwellings and tenement houses, that the stairs are built as shown by the plan, Fig. 33, and it is desirable to extend the upper floor into the stair well without any vertical supp...
-52. Laying Out Floors
The framing of floors may be most conveniently drawn on tracing cloth or thin bond paper laid over the corresponding floor plan. The framing plan should show the interior supports or partitions in the...
-53. Floors Of Brick Buildings
The framing of the floors in brick buildings is essentially the same as in wooden buildings, the only difference being in the connection of the floor timbers with the outer walls. In brick buildings ...
-54. Details Of Floor Construction
Wall Support and Anchors. - The usual method of building in the outer ends of the joists in ordinary brick buildings is to cut the end of the joists to a bevel and let the lower edge rest from 4 to 5 ...
-56. Wall Plate
Brick buildings with pitch roofs require a wooden wall plate to receive the ends of the rafters; the plate also greatly stiffens the wall to resist the thrust of the rafters. It should be made of two ...
-57. Framing: Of Headers And Trimmers
The ordinary method of framing around openings, by mortise and tenon joint, was shown in Fig. 30. This method answers very well where the floors are not apt to be heavily loaded or the openings very l...
-58. Stirrup Irons
Until within a very few years stirrup irons, such as are shown in Figs. 47, 48 and 49, were used exclusively for supporting the ends of beams where a mortise and tenon joint was not desirable. The onl...
-59. Flitch Plate Girders
It sometimes occurs in dwellings that it is necessary to use very long trimmers or headers around stair wells, and in most cases it is desirable that they shall be of the same depth as the floor joist...
-60. Girders
In brick dwellings girders are generally used only for supporting the first floor, and in the same way as described in Section 47. In heavier buildings the load on the girders becomes so great that it...
-62. Stiffening A Weak Floor
A floor that sags or springs considerably under moving loads may be made much stiffer by taking up a couple of floor boards every 6 feet in the length of the floor and fitting slightly wedge-shaped bl...
-63. Floors With Independent Ceiling Joist
Floors have frequently been constructed with independent timbers for the floor and ceiling, the ceiling joists being placed between the floor joists, as shown by the cross section, Fig. 57. The objec...
-Partitions
64. The partitions in buildings of ordinary construction are usually built of 2X4-inch studding, spaced either 12 or 16 inches on centres, giving five or four railings to the lath respectively. For be...
-Partitions. Part 2
67. Trussed Partitions Where a partition runs parallel with the joists, and comes over a room below of considerable width, it may be prevented from sagging by trussing, as shown in Fig. 65. The extra...
-Partitions. Part 3
71. Fire Stops The architect who is mindful of the interests of his client should always take such precautions as he can to make his building not only strong and durable, but also as slow burning and...
-Roof Construction. 72. Pitch Roof
The proper construction of a roof depends in a great measure upon the shape of the roof, the size and arrangement of the building and the use that is to be made of the enclosed space or attic. The ...
-73. Types Of Roofs
The simplest roof is the lean-to, or shed roof, shown in Fig. 71, which has but one slope. This roof is used principally on sheds, one story projections and porches. The roof shown in Fig. 72 is ca...
-74. Ordinary Roof Construction
The common method of framing wooden roofs is illustrated by Fig. 75. The timbers which support the boarding are called rafters; they are supported at or near their lower end by the wall plate, and at ...
-75. Laying Out The Roof Plan
To lay out a pitch roof for an irregularly-shaped building so that it will look well and properly sustain itself and the pressures liable to come upon it requires some little experience. The method wh...
-76. Framing Plan
After the lines of the roof have been decided upon a plan should be drawn of the framing timbers. In drawing this the first step should be to draw all the hips and valleys and then the common and jack...
-77. Details Of Construction
If the roof is less than 30 feet in span, and the plate is securely tied by the attic floor beams, no interior support will be needed, as the roof can always be framed so as to be entirely supported b...
-78. Size Of Special Timbers To Be Calculated
It is impossible to give any rules for the size of special timbers, such as valleys, headers, etc., either in roofs or floors, other than those for the strength of beams. It is often the custom merely...
-79. Mansard And Curb Roofs
The form of curb roof known as the mansard roof is supposed to have been invented by Francois Mansard, a distinguished French architect of the seventeenth century. This shape of roof afterward becam...
-80. Construction Of Curb And Mansard Roofs
The construction of curb roofs is usually quite simple, the common method being about as indicated in Fig. 83. The wall plate may be either just below the attic joists, as shown, or it may be above th...
-81. Framing Of Conical Roofs
Small conical roofs, such as are frequently used on small circular towers, are best framed as shown in Fig. 85. The plate should be cut out of wide planks, and always made of two thickness put togethe...
-82. Dormers
These should be framed as shown in the section drawing, Fig. 87. An opening of the proper size to receive the dormer should be framed in the roof, as shown in Fig. 77, and the studs of the dormer shou...
-83. Roofs Exceeding 30 Feet In Width
When the span of a roof exceeds 30 feet either trussing or interior supports should be used, so that the unsupported length of the rafters shall not exceed Fig. 88. 12 feet. The roofs of dwelling...
-84. A Simple Method Of Roof Bracing
When it is desired to support the rafters of a roof without using trusses, a method of framing, such as is shown in Fig. 89, can often be adopted with advantage. Purlins are placed under the centre of...
-85. Superintendence Of The Frame Work. - Wooden Buildings
If complete framing plans have been furnished for the walls, floors and roof, the superintendence of this part of the work will be quite au easy matter, as the work is fully exposed and open to inspec...
-Chapter III. Sheathing, Windows And Outsidecdoor Frames. 86. Rough Boarding. - Wooden Buildings
As soon as the walls of a frame building are up they should be slightly covered with common boarding, or sheathing as it is called in many localities. For this purpose the cheapest kind of lumber ma...
-87. Outside Frames
The first carpenter's or joiner's work usually required in connection with either a frame or brick building is the making of the basement window frames, coal chute, and outside basement door frames, i...
-88. Cellar Window Frames
These are almost invariably made of planks, and are usually fitted with a single sash from 16 inches to 2 feet in height and from 30 inches to 3 feet wide, hinged at the top to open in. Fig. 91. ...
-89. Types Of Windows
Before proceeding further with the details of window construction, it may be well to consider briefly the various types of windows commonly found in American buildings. The most usual style of window...
-90. Construction Of Windows. - Material
In general a window may be said to consist of three parts - the frame, the sash and the inside finish - and each part is usually described separately in the specifications. The material for all those ...
-91. Details Of Double Hung Window Frames. - Windows In Frame Buildings
The common method of constructing the window frames in wooden buildings is shown by horizontal and vertical sections in Fig. 94. Such frames are frequently called skeleton frames in distinction from t...
-92. Sheathing Paper And Flashing
When the outside casing is set flush with the boarding the band mould or outside architrave, C, should be put on after the frame is fixed in place, and the sheathing paper should be extended on to the...
-93. Double Hung Window Frames In Brick Walls
About the only difference in the construction of the window frames in a brick building from those in a wooden building, is that an additional board, B L, Figs. 97 and 98, is nailed to the back of the ...
-94. Details Of Mullions And Transoms
Fig. 100 shows the usual method of constructing the mullions and transoms of double hung frames in wooden buildings, the details given being adapted to the frame shown in Fig. 96. The outside architra...
-95. Transom Frames With Single Light Below The Transom. - Type E
The type of window shown at E {Fig. 93) is Fig. toy now quite frequently used in this country, both with and without the mullion. It differs from the ordinary transom window in having only one ...
-96. Patent Double Hung Windows With Revolving Sash
Although the ordinary double hung window has been found superior, on the whole, to any other device for furnishing light and ventilation, it has two defects, one of which becomes quite serious in the ...
-97. Heydebrand Safety Window
Another patented revolving window that has been used to a considerable extent, is the Hey-debrand Safety Window. In this window the sash cord, chain or ribbon, instead of being attached directly to th...
-99. Pivoted Windows. - A. Pivoted At The Sides
In many places where windows with a single sash are used, it will be found better and more economical to pivot them at the centre of the sides than to hang them on hinges. In audience rooms, especiall...
-100. Bay Windows
As bay windows are commonly constructed there is a solid pier at the angles, and the windows proper are made the same as if in a straight wall. When the bay is of masonry, and it is desired to have th...
-101. Sash
The movable frames which receive the glass in any style of window are called sash, and are made in essentially the same manner throughout the country, and for various kinds of windows. Fig. 117 sho...
-102. Store Window Sash
Store windows only 5 or 6 feet wide between posts or piers usually have the glass set in a stationary sash, which is made in essentially the same way as smaller sash, and either 1 or 2 inches thic...
-Window Glass And Glazing
103. Glazing The glazing of windows originally belonged to the painters' trade, and when glass has been broken it is still customary to go to a painter to get it replaced, but when new windows are to...
-Window Glass And Glazing. Part 2
105. Stock Windows Nearly all lumber dealers carry in stock certain sizes of sash, which are commonly known as stock sash; the two sash for a double-hung window form a stock window. As these stoc...
-Window Glass And Glazing. Part 3
106. Outside Door Frames The frames for all outside doors, whether in wooden or brick walls, should be made out of plank not less than 1 inches thick and rebated on the inner edge for the door. In ...
-Window Glass And Glazing. Part 4
107. Securing The Frames To The Wall It is important that the door frame in a brick or stone wall be well secured to the masonry, otherwise the swinging and slamming of the door will soon loosen the ...
-Window Glass And Glazing. Part 5
109. Superintendence The superintendence of the work described in this chapter will ordinarily be a very simple matter, especially if the work has been explicitly specified and detailed. In regard t...
-Chapter IV. Outside Finish, Gutters, Shingle Roofs
HO. After a wooden building is sheathed or boarded the next step is generally to finish the eaves and gables, so that the roof covering can be put on, and thus protect the building from the weather. W...
-Outside Finish, Gutters, Shingle Roofs. Part 2
115. Wooden Cornices On Brick Buildings Wooden cornices, when used on brick or stone buildings, are built in practically the same way as on wooden buildings, except that in brick buildings it is freq...
-Outside Finish, Gutters, Shingle Roofs. Part 3
120. Water Table, Corner Boards And Belt Courses At the bottom of all wooden walls and just above the masonry wall there should be an offset or water table to throw the water which runs down the wall...
-Covering Of Wooden Walls. 121. Siding Or Clapboards
The walls of wooden buildings are usually covered either with shingles, siding or clapboards. In most localities it costs less to cover a wall with siding or clapboards than with shingles, and hence w...
-122. Wall Shingling
Previous to about the year 1880 clapboards or siding appear to have been considered the only suitable covering for the walls of frame buildings of any pretensions, but with the advent of the modern co...
-125. Porches
The building of a porch involves two kinds of work, the rough work which supports the floor and roof and the finished work, which is the part exposed to the eye. The framing of porch floors has been ...
-127. Dormers
Dormers are of two kinds - those built entirely on the roof, as in Figs. 163-166, and those which form a continuation of the wall, as in Fig. 162. On isolated or suburban residences the former are mo...
-128. Wooden Skylights
Large skylights, and those having a gable or hipped roof, can be made much better of galvanized iron or copper than of wood, but small skylights or glazed scuttles, when necessary for lighting an atti...
-129. Shingled Roofs
Shingles have always been the common roofing material of the United States, and probably will continue to be for a number or years. While shingles are inflammable and not as durable as tiles or slates...
-130. Laying The Shingles
Shingles are generally put on by the carpenter, although in the larger cities there are persons who make a specialty of shingling roofs; but it is doubtful if, as a rule, they do the work as well as a...
-131. Ridges And Hips
The ridge of a shingle roof is commonly finished by sawing off the tops of the shingles and nailing two boards called saddle boards over them, as shown in Fig. 166, and in section in Fig. 168. If an o...
-132. Deck Mouldings
When a shingle roof terminates under a deck roof covered with tin or copper, the best method of finishing the edge of the deck roof is by means of a galvanized iron or copper moulding, extending on to...
-133. Flashings
If a good quality of shingles are used and ordinary care exercised in laying them, there should be no danger of a leak on a plane roof surface. The places where leaks most frequently occur, and with w...
-134. Flashing Against Brick Or Stone Work
Flashing against The common size of tin shingles for flashing is 5x7 inches, the shingles being laid lengthways. on the roof and turned up 2 inches. This is the smallest size that should be ...
-135. Tin Roofs
It is not the purpose of the author in this part to describe other methods of roofing than by shingles, as he proposes to treat the subject, which is an important one, in another volume, but as porch ...
-136. Superintendence
The superintendence of the various details of wooden construction described in this chapter is ordinarily quite a simple matter, although the work should be carefully inspected every two or three days...
-Chapter V. Interior Woodwork. Rough Work, Doors, Standing Finish, Floors, Stairs
The under floors are generally laid as soon as the joists are in place and bridged, and all bearing partitions are set at the same time, at least enough to support the floor timbers, but all other rou...
-138. Deafening Of Floors
In nearly all inhabited buildings it is desirable to prevent the conduction of sounds from one room to another through the floors or walls, and in school houses, office buildings and apartment houses ...
-139. Deafening Materials
At this point it is deemed best to describe the more common materials used for deafening, ie., for absorbing and dissipating the sound waves. Most of these materials are of the nature of paper felts, ...
-140. Mineral Wool
There are at least two kinds of mineral wool made in this country. The more common kind is made by converting the slag of blast furnaces (the best being from slag that does not contain iron), mixed wi...
-141. Fire And Mice Stops
In every good residence provision should be made for preventing mice from going through the spaces between the studding and between the floor joists, and much may be done with a very little additional...
-142. Back Plastering
This term is commonly used to designate plastering that is applied between the studding or rafters to make the building warmer and to keep out the wind. Before the introduction of the present high gra...
-143. Byrkit's Patent Sheathing Lath
If back plastering of the walls or roof are contemplated it is better, and fully as cheap in many localities, to use the Byrkit Patent Sheathing Lath for the outside sheathing, placing the keys on the...
-144. Furring
This term is commonly used to designate work that is built out from the constructive members to receive lathing or metal work and sometimes sheathing or finished woodwork. It is also sometimes called ...
-145. Suspended Ceilings Under Flat Roofs
In the Eastern States the ceiling joists under a flat roof are seldom built into or supported by the walls, but are hung from the roof joists in the manner shown in Fig. 184, and carefully leveled as ...
-146. Furring Of Walls
Except in the dry climate of the Rocky Mountain region it is customary to fur all outside brick walls (that are not built hollow) with 1x2-inch strips, nailed to the walls vertically and set 12 or 16 ...
-147. Furring Around Chimneys
In the Eastern States it is customary to fur around all chimneys with 2 X3-inch or zx4-inch studding, usually set flatways (except in outside walls), as shown in Fig. 186. The object of this is to for...
-148. Special Furring
Besides the usual cross-furring there is generally more or less special furring required in forming false beams, arches, cornices, coved ceilings, rounded corners, etc., and in preparing solid beams a...
-149. Grounds
These are usually narrow strips nailed to the walls, furring or studding, around openings to stop the plastering, and also to form a guide for the workman. They are also placed behind baseboards, wain...
-150. Corner Beads
There are two kinds of corner beads used on buildings; A, those which are put up before plastering, and B, those which are nailed to a projecting angle outside of the plastering. The latter kind are i...
-151. Metal Corner Beads
Within the past three years corner beads made of rolled steel have been patented and placed on the market. The advantages sought in these metal corner beads are to obtain a smaller bead, thereby makin...
-152. Closing The Building For Plastering
When the grounds and corner beads are in place the building should be ready for plastering, as no finished work should be put up before plastering if a first-class job is desired. Before the plastere...
-Interior Finish - Joiners' Work
153. Under the heading of interior finish is included all the finished woodwork used inside of a building and put up so as to form an integral part of it; this term also generally includes all work pu...
-154. Finishing Woods
The cost and usually the character and quality of the inside finish depends greatly upon whether it is to be of soft or hard wood, and whether it is to painted or varnished. As stated in Section 5, th...
-155. Operations In Joinery
A large portion of what formerly constituted joiner's work is now done at the mills or woodworking shops, so that the joiner's trade as distinguished from the carpenter's is now confined, in this coun...
-156. Joining The Work
A very important requirement of interior finish is that the joints shall be as tight and inconspicuous as possible, and, in fact, it was in the character of the joints and in the smooth surfaces and t...
-157. Mitre Joint
A mitre joint is made by beveling the parts joined so that the plane of the joint bisects the angle. It is used in making the external angles of bases, all horizontal mouldshown at B, where the dotted...
-158. Dovetailing
A Dovetail is a tenon or pin, made in the shape of a truncated wedge, the outer end being the wider, as shown in Figs. 204-206. Such a tenon, when fitted into a mortise or groove of corresponding sh...
-159. Framing
All large pieces that are free to warp and twist, such as doors, shutters, sashes, etc., and interior panel work of every kind, should be framed together by making a frame of boards running parallel...
-161. Mouldings
Although the mouldings used in connection with the interior or exterior finish of the better class of buildings are usually made in accordance with the architect's full-size details, and hence are sel...
-162. Detailing The Finish
As most of the individual mouldings with which interior finish is ornamented are usually quite small, they can be properly shown only by full-size details, while to study the. relation and proportion...
-Description Of The Finish. 163. Doors
These are not always classed as a part of the interior finish, but they form a very important part of the interior woodwork and often give more trouble than the standing finish. Stock Doors. - In hou...
-164. Custom-Made Doors
These include all doors that are made to order from the architect's drawings. They should be made of stock that has been well air-seasoned and thoroughly kiln-dried, and, if of hard wood, should be ve...
-165. Veneered Doors
Doors which are to show hard wood finish should be constructed as shown in Fig. 227, and pine doors, intended for a finely finished room, should be made in the same way. The stiles and rails are made ...
-166. Patented Doors
The methods of door construction thus far described are not protected by patents, and can be adopted by any one having the necessary facilities. There are, however, a few devices for doors that have b...
-167. Door Frames And Finish
The construction of inside door frames varies in different portions of the country. In the New England and some of the Middle States the frames are usually made out of 1 -inch plank, rebated inch f...
-168. Finish
The finish on each side of a door opening and also about the window openings is variously designated by the terms trim, casings or architraves. [The term casing appears to be the most widely used, a...
-169. Plinth Blocks
When the door casing is less than \ inch thick the base does not finish well against it, and a plinth block should be placed at the bottom of the casing, as shown at A, Fig. 234, and also in Fig. ...
-170. Window Finish
The same trim or casing is always used around the windows as around the doors, and when the box or ground casing, or, if there is none, the edge of the pulley stile, is flush with the plaster, the fin...
-171. Putting Up The Finish
The manner in which inside finish is put up or fixed in place varies with the quality of work desired, and also greatly affects the appearance of the finish, particularly when finished in its natural ...
-172. Inside Shutters
At one time inside shutters were considered as one of the necessary fittings of a fine dwelling, and when they are properly arranged they are very serviceable. When they interfere with the proper trim...
-173. Sliding Blinds
Besides the folding shutters described in the preceding section, there are three other styles of inside window blinds, viz., sliding, rolling and Venetian, that are more or less used in place of shutt...
-174. Rolling Blinds
These are made of slats strung on wires or ribbons so that they may be rolled on a coil placed in a pocket above the window head, the slats running in a groove at each side to keep them in position. ...
-175. Venetian Blinds
The common or English type of Venetian blind consists of a series of thin wooden slats 2 or 2 inches wide, arranged laterally in woven ladder tapes, suspended from the top and connected by cords whic...
-177. Base Or Skirting
In this country the board commonly placed around the walls of rooms just above the floor is more commonly designated as the base, although the English term skirting is used in some localities. W...
-178. Wainscoting
This term is commonly used to designate a wood or marble lining, or covering of the inside walls, whether of paneled work or of plain matched boarding. The wainscoting may be made any height that is d...
-179. Paneling
The ordinary joiner's method of making paneling is shown by A, Fig. 272, a groove being worked in the stile and the moulding being nailed to both the stile and the panel. If the nail is driven as at Y...
-180. Matched Wainscoting
In kitchens, back halls, stores, school rooms, etc., the walls are often wainscoted or ceiled with matched boards, which are generally beaded on the edge and sometimes in the middle of the board. Fo...
-182. Wooden Cornices, Ceiling Beams, Columns, Etc
Wooden cornices are often used in the principal rooms of dwellings, and if without carving they cost about the same as plaster cornices. They should be put up after the plastering is thoroughly dry, a...
-Stairs
183. While it is not necessary for an architect to be able to lay out the actual construction of a flight of stairs, or to tell just how the hand rail is to be worked, nevertheless he should be ...
-185. Stair Head Room
The most common fault with stairs, particularly in dwellings, is the lack of sufficient head room. One should never calculate on less than 6 feet from the under side of the floor opening to the top o...
-186. Stair Construction
The foregoing observations apply in the main to all stairs, whether of wood, metal, stone or brick. The construction of the stairs, however, varies with the kind of material used, and as this book tr...
-188. Stair Posts And Railing
The stair posts, if made of hard wood, should be built up out of thin pieces. Turned posts of hard wood are not usually desirable, as if turned from a solid stick they are very apt to check, and if gl...
-Fixtures And Fittings
189. Besides the standing finish there is usually in dwellings considerable work in the way of fixtures and fittings for pantries, closets, etc., to be provided, and also more or less work to be done ...
-190. China Closet Or Butler's Pantry
The arrangement and extent of the fittings for this closet or room will, of course, depend greatly upon the plan and the character of the house. A reasonably complete china closet should have a count...
-191. Details Of Cupboards, Drawers, Bookcases, Etc
To properly detail a case of drawers, cupboard doors, etc., the draughtsman must be familiar with the different methods of constructing them. Cupboard doors are made in essentially the same way as oth...
-192. Drawers
These occur in most of the fittings usually designed by the architect, and the better modes of construction should be familiar to every draughtsman. The successful operation of a drawer depends both ...
-193. Dimensions For Furniture
For the convenience of draughtsmen when designing furniture or providing space for a special article, the following dimensions, furnished by Mr. Alvin C. Nye, are given :* Chairs and Seats. - The ave...
-Upper Floors
194. When double floors are used, as should always be the case in the better class of dwellings, the upper or finished floor should not be put down until the plastering is thoroughly dry and most of ...
-195. Qualities Of Flooring
Soft pine and spruce floorings are made in two qualities, first and second, the first quality being free from knots, while the second quality contains small sound knots. Second quality pine flooring w...
-196. Floor Laying And Nailing
Floor boards should be laid in courses, beginning at one side of the room and each course, if matched, extending the full length of the room. The heading joints should always be cut so as to come over...
-197. Parquetry
This consists of strips and blocks of hard wood, fastened together at the edges and on the back, in slabs of convenient size for laying. As special machinery and facilities are required for making an...
-198. Hardfloor Superintendence
Although the interior finish of a building is not of such vital importance as the constructive portion, yet the impression which a building makes upon the owner, or the occupants, is largely influence...
-Chapter VI. Builders' Hardware
Although it is practically impossible for the architect to keep posted on all that the market contains in the line of builders' hardware, still it is necessary that he be familiar with the kinds an...
-199. Nails
Four kinds of nails are in common use, viz., plate or cut nails, wire nails, clinch nails and wrought nails. Cut Nails are made from a strip of rolled iron of the thickness that the nail is to be and...
-200. Screws
The substitution of screws for nails in building operations is a marked feature of modern work. All kinds of trimming hardware are put on with screws, and a great deal of panel work, inside finish, et...
-Finished Hardware. 201. Materials And Finish
Most of the finished hardware used about buildings is made either of cast iron, brass or bronze, although wrought iron and steel are used to a limited extent. Fig. 334. - Lag and Coach Screws. ...
-202. Plated Iron And Steel Hardware
Within the past ten years electroplated iron and steel trimmings have been very extensively used, the plating being now so nicely done that it is impossible to distinguish the finished surfaces from b...
-203. Brass
The terms brass and bronze are often confounded when speaking of hardware, although the materials are quite different in composition and usually in appearance. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, w...
-Special Trimmings
204. To describe all the special kinds of finished hardware used, or designed to be used, in buildings would be almost an endless task, therefore only a description of such pieces as are in common ...
-205. Wrought Strap And T-Hinges
Hinges, proper, used for hanging doors are made exclusively of wrought metal, usually iron or steel, and in practically but two general shapes, viz., those shown in Fig. 337. - Strap Hinge. Figs....
-206. Butts
All common hinges are made so that the two leaves cannot be separated, the pin being riveted in place, so that the door or shutter cannot be taken off without unscrewing the hinge. This would be a ver...
-207. Washers
Bronze or iron butts, especially if they have a loose joint, should have the bearing surfaces fitted with some form of steel washer, to reduce the wearing of the bearings. In loose-joint butts the wa...
-208. Double-Action Spring Butts
If it is desired that a door shall swing in both directions, it should be hung with double-action spring hinges. A door pivoted top and bottom near one edge would, of course, swing both ways, but as i...
-209. Pivot Hinges
In the opinion of the author, the handsomest hinge for double-acting doors is the New Idea double-acting spring hinge, shown in Figs. 352 and 354. This hinge is entirely different in principle from al...
-210. Sliding Door Hangers
Sliding doors are now almost always hung from the top by hangers which roll on a track secured to the inside of the studding or hung from the header above the opening and pocket. There are a great ma...
-212. Trackless Hangers
Besides the class of sliding door hangers that roll on a track, there is also a distinct type of hangers which operate the door by means of a frame working on the principle of a parallelogram, the cor...
-213. Hanging Folding Doors
It is sometimes necessary to close wide openings between adjacent rooms with folding doors. The common custom in such cases has been to make the doors or folds which close the opening of uniform width...
-Locks
214. There is such a variety of locks for securing the doors of buildings now manufactured and on sale by hardware dealers, that it will be impossible to describe all of the different patterns, and ...
-215. Levers
The levers or tumblers, the terms being used synonymously, are flat pieces of iron, steel or brass, usually fitted with a spring (Fig. 369), which are so arranged in the lock that the bolt cannot be s...
-216. Wrought Metal. Locks
Within the past two years ('96 and '97) locks made entirely from wrought materials by machinery and interchangeable in all parts have been placed on the market, which appear to mark a new step in the ...
-217. Grades Of Locks
The value of a lock depends much upon the way in which the parts are planned, and as no two manufacturers use exactly the same arrangement, it is difficult to compare locks of different makes without ...
-220. Front Door And Vestibule Locks
The usual tumbler lock for front doors differs from the ordinary lock and latch in having a swivel spindle so that the knobs may be turned independently of each other, and a stop mechanism by which th...
-221. Master Keyed Locks
In office buildings, hotels and lodging houses, it is desirable that the person in charge shall be able to enter any room when not occupied by means of a single key that will operate all of the locks,...
-222. Cylinder Locks
This term is now quite generally used to designate those locks in which the bolt or latch, or both, are operated by means of a cylinder escutcheon, which is really separate from the lock proper. The f...
-223. Office Locks
It is generally desirable that the outer door of offices shall be fitted with a cylinder escutcheon lock. The most convenient lock for an office door is believed to be a cylinder latch with stop work ...
-224. Night Latches
These consist of a latch operated from the outside by a key, and from the inside by a thumb knob or slide. A stop is always provided for holding back the latch when desired. They are made both rim and...
-225. Door Knobs And Escutcheons
Until within a comparatively few years the trimmings commonly used with mortise locks consisted of a pair of knobs, roses and escutcheons. The rose was a round metal plate made to be screwed to the d...
-227. Escutcheon Plates
These are now made almost entirely of either wrought or cast bronze, plain, and in the various ornamental finishes. They vary in size from 5 x1 to 7 x2 inches for inside doors, and almost indef...
-230. Door Bolts
The greatest security against a door being opened from the outside, is undoubtedly obtained by means of bolts operated only from the inside of the door. Fig. 40X. - Barrel Bolt, Bent Staple. F...
-231. Bolts For Double Doors
When doors are hung in pairs it is necessary to secure one of the doors to the frame by means of bolts, and the other door is locked to it. The common method of securing the standing leaf is by mean...
-232. Transom Fixtures
Transoms over doors or windows may be hung either at the top or bottom by common hinges, or pivoted in the centre horizontally. If the transom is to be hinged it is generally best to put the hinges at...
-233. Screen Door Trimmings
Screen doors to be effective, must be provided with a spring to close them quickly when open. This spring may be either in the hinge or separate from it. Where a screen door will be in almost constant...
-234. Water Closet Doors
Where several water closets arc placed in a large toilet room, each closet should be enclosed by thin partitions about 3 feet apart, and from 6 to 7 feet high, with a short door placed in front of the...
-235. Door Checks
Single-action doors fitted with a spring, whether in the hinge or separate from it, are sure to slam violently (if there is sufficient tension in the spring to close the door), and to avoid this very ...
-Window Trimmings. 236. Double Hung Windows
The trimmings or hardware for double hung windows consist, usually, of pulleys, sash cord, chain or tape, the weights for balancing the sash, sash fasts, sash lifts and sash socket. Pulleys. - These ...
-237. Overhead Pulleys
These pulleys differ from the side pulleys in that they are made to apply above the pulley stile, which necessitates a different shape for the case. The first overhead pulley (Shull's) was patented in...
-238. Sash Cords, Chains And Ribbons
Until within a few years past, linen or cotton cord was alone used for connecting the weights with the sashes of double hung windows, and cord is still more extensively used than either ribbons or cha...
-239. Weight Of Sash And Glass
In figuring the weight of windows, the weight of the glass may be taken at 3 pounds per square foot for plate glass, 1 1/3 pounds for double strength glass and 1 pound for single strength glass. For...
-240. Sash Balances
Within a comparatively few years several devices have been patented for balancing sashes by means of springs instead of weights, but the author believes that only one type known as the sash balance ...
-241. Sash Fastenings
There is such a great variety of sash fasts in the market that it will be possible to mention but a few. In general, sash fasts consist of two plates secured one to each meeting rail and provided with...
-242. Sash Lifts
These are applied to the bottom rail of the lower sash to afford a hold for the fingers when raising the sash. They should always be specified for plate glass windows and for all sash 3 feet wide and...
-243. Single Casement Windows
These are best hung with a pair of light, loose-pin bronze metal, or Stanley bronze-plated or japanned butts. They may be secured with a common latch or bolt, or by a double extension bolt. For window...
-245. Pivoted Windows
As stated in Section 99, it is often desirable to pivot windows consisting of a single sash and especially those that are of an irregular shape. For windows of moderate size, pivoted at the sides, the...
-246. Shutter Trimmings
The usual trimmings for inside shutters are the hinges, shutter bar and knob. The outer or hanging fold may be hung with narrow blind butts (2x1 inches) similar to the one in Fig. 408, but usually wi...
-247. Trimmings For Outside Blinds. - Hinges
The kind of hinges to be used with outside blinds will depend to some extent upon how the blind is hung to the window frame. Fig. 441. - Wrought Steel Blind Hinge. In New England the blinds are g...
-248. Blind Fasts
When gravity hinges are used, the only fastening required is a catch to secure the blind when closed. Fig. 445 shows the catch sold with the hinge, Fig. 443, which, although very simple, works nicely....
-249. Trimmings For Storm Sash
In many of the very Northern States it is a quite general custom to place a single storm sash or outside window over the whole window opening to keep out the cold during the winter months. In many ca...
-250. Cupboard Trimming's
The small cupboard doors of pantries are usually trimmed with narrow fast joint butts of the pattern shown in Figs. 408 and 409. In the cheaper residences iron butts, laquered, are commonly used, but ...
-251. Prices Of. Hardware
Unfortunately the cost of finished hardware, like nearly everything else that goes into a building, must generally be considered by the architect in preparing his specifications. It should be remember...
-252. Putting On And Superintendence
The putting on of the hardware, when applied to woodwork, should always be included in the carpenter's specifications. To apply the hardware trimmings so that they will work properly, or the best tha...
-253. Hardware Specifications
When artistic hardware of a high grade is to be used, and especially for large buildings, it is best not to include the hardware trimmings in the general contract, but to buy it direct from the manufa...
-Chapter VII. Heavy Framing
The manner in which wooden floors for residences should be framed, has been described in Chapter II (Foundations On Compressible Soils)., and the floors in other classes of buildings are often framed ...
-255. Framing Of Galleries
Gallery floors in churches and theatres are generally supported by the wall of the building at the outer end, and by columns and girders at the inner end. The floor is generally stepped for each row o...
-256. Church Galleries. - Wooden Construction
In churches there is usually but one gallery, and as the sighting is not as important as in a theatre, it is usually possible to regulate the width and height of the gallery (from the main floor) so...
-257. Galleries With Heavy Projection
In large assembly halls it is often desirable to project the front of the gallery 10 feet or more beyond the line of posts. In such cases it will be necessary to support the front end of the gallery j...
-258. Framing Of Stores And Warehouses
Although the larger stores and warehouses, particularly those in large cities, are now generally constructed with iron or steel posts and joists, yet the larger proportion of two and three-story busin...
-259. Wooden Posts
The best timbers for wooden posts and girders are the long leaf yellow pine, Oregon pine and oak. The posts may be either round or square. If round, it is better to leave the upper end square, as it ...
-260. Cast Iron Posts
Cast iron posts are superior to wooden posts, in that they do not decay, can be made smaller than wooden posts, and are not damaged by wear and tear. They also give the appearance of greater strength ...
-262. Bracing Of Posts And Girders In Heavy Frame Structures
Buildings of several stories having the floors supported by posts and girders without partitions are not very rigid, hence if the building is very high, so as to be effected by wind pressure, or conta...
-263. Framing For Area Walls
Buildings having storerooms in the first story, and rooms or offices above, generally require an area on one or both sides to furnish light and ventilation for the inside rooms. As in such buildings t...
-264. Floors Supported By Rods And Trusses
In planning large stables and buildings containing assembly rooms, it is very often necessary to provide for rooms in intermediate stories, 40 or 50 feet square, without posts or other vertical suppor...
-265. Compound Wooden Girders
The girders in the class of buildings considered in this chapter will generally be of wood in the smaller towns and cities, and of steel in the larger cities. The details of the simple wooden girder ...
-266. Keyed Beams
Prof. Kid well also tested several styles of keyed beams, with the result that a compound beam keyed and bolted together, as shown in Fig. 488, was found to be the most efficient form that it is pract...
-267. Trussed Girders
While compound beams may be advantageously used under certain conditions, it will generally be fully as economical and much better where there is sufficient height, to use a trussed girder of one of t...
-Mill Construction
269. Within the past sixteen years it has become quite common to frame the floors of mercantile buildings, and sometimes of office buildings, after the method known as Mill Construction and sometimes ...
-Mill Construction. Continued
271. Roofs As before stated, the ordinary mill roof is usually flat, i. e. with a pitch of about \ inch to the foot, and is framed in precisely the same way as the floors, the under side of the roof ...
-Chapter VIII. Trussed Roofs and Roof Trusses Specifications
272. Too much emphasis cannot be given to the importance of complete and concise specifications for any building, for it is the specifications that defines the quality of the work and materials, and ...
-Trussed Roofs and Roof Trusses' General Conditions
273. Every specification should be preceded by the general conditions governing all contractors. These may advantageously be printed on a separate sheet and used as a cover to the written ...
-274. - Carpenters' Work. - Frame Buildings
[As the' carpenters' work required to erect a frame building and prepare it for plastering is so different from that required on a brick building, not only in framing and covering the walls, but also ...
-275. - Framing
The building is to be full frame, all framed, braced, spiked and pinned in the best and strongest manner, perfectly true and plumb and in accordance with the framing drawings. No woodwork is to be pl...
-276. - Sheathing (Boarding)
Cover the roof of front porch (which is to be tinned) with 4-inch matched pine (spruce) boards, dressed one side to a uniform thickness and free from large or loose knots or knot holes. To be nailed t...
-277. - Outside Finish
All outside finish, unless otherwise specified, to be worked from (clear) (good) thoroughly seasoned white pine (cypress, redwood) in strict accordance with elevation and detail drawings and to be put...
-278. - Shingle Roofing
Cover all roofs, except those marked to be tinned, with one layer of Neponset waterproof paper, with 2-inch lap, and best quality of sawed cedar (cypress, redwood) shingles, laid 4 inches to the wea...
-279. - Tin And Galvanized Iron Work
Piazza Roof, - Cover the piazza roof with Merchant's or Taylor's Old Style IC. tin, sheets 14x20 inches in size. The tin to be laid over one thickness of dry felt, with joints locked and soldered in t...
-280. - Wall And Gable Shingling
Cover the walls of second story, and all gables, walls of dormers, etc., with the best quality of sawed cedar shingles in widths of from 4 to 8 inches (or in 6-inch widths) laid 5 inches to the weathe...
-283. - Cellar Hatchway (Or Bulkhead)
Make bulkhead entrance to cellar with plank steps on plank carriages, 16 inches on centres, all planed ; no risers. Cover the brick (or stone) walls with a strong plank frame bolted to the brickwork ...
-284. - Windows
Make all window frames in accordance with the scale and detail drawings. All to be made of clear white pine (except pulley stiles and parting strips, which are to be of clear yellow pine). Cellar Win...
-285. - Sashes
All sashes above the cellar are to be custom made of clear well-seasoned white pine (cypress), glued and wedged in the best manner, and divided into lights as shown on the elevation drawings. All sash...
-286. - Glass
The large lights of centre front window to be glazed with polished American plate glass, secured by wood beads. All other windows in first and second stories of main house (except those marked leade...
-287. - Outside Blinds
Provide and hang outside blinds for (all) windows above the basement. To be made of first quality white pine, 1 1/8 inches thick, with rolling slats (in the lower half only). Blinds for all windows 4 ...
-289. - Preparation For Tiling
Prepare the floor of bath room for tiling, by nailing 7/8-inch boards on cleats nailed to the sides of the beams. The top of the boards to be (5 inches) below the top of the adjoining floor. Bevel the...
-290. - Under Flooring
Lay an under floor throughout the first and second stories of good hemlock, (spruce, native pine) boards, surfaced one side and nailed to every bearing with two 8d. nails. The boards to be laid diago...
-292. - Partitions
Set all partitions as shown by yellow color on the plans, with 2x4-inch (spruce) studs, sized to a uniform width, set 12 inches on centres for bearing partitions, and 16 inches for all other partition...
-293. - Temporary Enclosing
The contractor is to temporarily enclose the building as soon as it is ready for lathing, furnishing and hanging temporary doors with locks and covering the windows with muslin, boards or temporary sa...
-295. - Timber
[This may be specified as in Section 274. If the sizes are not all shown on the drawings they should be given in the specifications]. Framing. - Frame for floors, roof, ceiling and partitions in a su...
-297. - Roof Framing
Bolt a 4x10-inch plate in two thicknesses, breaking joint on top of front wall, with 7/8-inch bolts, 30 inches long, built into the brick work by the mason, and spaced not over 6 feet apart. Frame th...
-298. - Beam Anchors
Tie the floors, ceiling joists and rafters of flat roof to the side walls, every (6) feet by iron anchors, formed of x2-inch iron, 20 inches long, with a 3x3x-inch plate, riveted to wall end (or tur...
-299. - Lintels, Arches, Wood Bricks, Etc
Put arched wooden lintels, 5 inches high at the centre, over all openings in brick walls; to be cambered 1 inches at the ends and to rest not more than 1 inch on the brick work. The opening for bay...
-302. - Sheathing And Under Floors
Cover all roofs and sides of dormers with native pine (spruce or hemlock) sheathing, free from holes or large knots, surfaced one side to an even thickness and nailed to every bearing with two 8d. nai...
-304. - Rear Porch
Construct the porch floor with 2x6-inch joists, 16 inches on centres, placed parallel with the rear wall and framed flush between 6x8-inch girders resting on the brick piers. Cover the floor with 7/...
-305. - Window Frames
Make all window frames in accordance with the scale and detail drawings, and as herein specified of clear well seasoned white pine, and set in position as soon as the stone sills are set. The carpente...
-306. - Box Frames
All other windows to have box frames for double-hung sash (1 1/8-inch) pulley stiles and outside casings, -inch box casings, ploughed for sub-jambs, 1 -inch sills (formed as per detail), (1-inch) s...
-307. - Outside Door Frames
The frame for front entrance to be made with 1 -inch paneled pine jamb, rebated and veneered with -inch quarter-sawed oak, with 1 -inch moulded oak staff bead. (Transom, side lights, etc.) This fra...
-309. - Furring, Grounds And Corner Beads
[The furring and putting on of the grounds, etc., of a brick building is done in the same way as in wooden buildings - see Section 291 for specifications - except that with brick buildings the walls a...
-Interior Finish
311. - All the stock for interior finish of every kind is to be of the very best quality, free from knots or sap, thoroughly seasoned and kiln-dried (and of selected grain). All to be smoothed, ...
-312. - Doors
All doors (except stock doors) are to be paneled and moulded in strict accordance with the scale and detail drawings furnished for the same. All panels to be loose and not glued or nailed. All tenons ...
-314. - Wainscoting. - Ceiled
The walls of kitchen, laundry and back hall, from basement to third story to be wainscoted (4 feet) high with (jx4-inch) centre beaded (three beaded) clear hard pine ceiling, with 1 1/8-inch rebated c...
-316. - Door And Window Trim
The doors and windows in principal rooms of first story to have 5x-inch moulded casings with 1 3/8-inch moulded back band, mitred at the angles. Back band to have 3/8-inch turned and quartered bead m...
-318. - Picture Moulding
The carpenter is to put a picture mould of same wood as finish of rooms around the principal rooms of first story, and around all chambers. To be 1 1/8x2 inches in first story and 7/8x1 inches in c...
-320. - Wooden Cornices, Ceiling Beams, Etc
The parlor is to have a mahogany cornice extending (10 inches) on the ceiling and (9 inches) on the wall, with dentils, (modillions) and turned beads, as per scale and full-size detail. The library t...
-321. - Splicing Of Finish, Nailing, Etc
No splicing of the door or window trim will be allowed, and joints of bases, chair rail, picture mould, etc., must be carefully matched. Brad all moulded finish in the quirk of the mouldings, and set ...
-323. - Stairs
The front stairs from first to third floors, to be supported on (2x12-inch) well seasoned white pine carriages, carefully shaped to fit the treads and risers, and set level and true in line. Four carr...
-325. - Back Stairs
The back stairs from first to second story are to have open string, rounded nosings, with cove under, returned at the ends and carried around stair well, 7/8-inch risers and treads, the treads ploughe...
-326. - Arches, Seats, Etc. (Coming In Connection With The Front Stairs)
The stair builder is to furnish and put up the wooden arches, screen and seat dividing the stair case from main hall, as shown by the scale drawings and full-size de-tails; all of quarter-sawed kiln-d...
-327. - Butler's Pantry
Fit up the butler's pantry as indicated on the plan, with a counter shelf (2 feet 4 inches) wide and (2 feet 8 inches) high all around. Put (five) 7/8-inch shelves (11 inches) wide above the counter...
-328. - Kitchen Pantry
Fit up the kitchen pantry as indicated on the floor plan in clear white pine, for natural finish. Put up (five) shelves (11 inches) wide above the counter shelf, supported on neat cleats with (three...
-329. - Dresser
Construct and set up the dresser in the kitchen (4 feet 6 inches) wide and (8 feet) high, including cornice, made according to the drawings, of clear kiln-dried (Georgia) pine for a natural finish. To...
-332. - Medicine Chest
Construct the medicine closet in bath room parti-tition of clear (white wood) for varnishing. The sides, top and bottom to be (1 1/8 inches) thick, with bottom projecting (1 inch) beyond the door and ...
-333. - Bedroom Closets
All bedroom closets are to have one (12-inch) pine shelf, put up on neat cleats. Put up (3 1/8-inch) beaded strips around all closets for clothes hooks. The closets from (chambers Nos. I and 3) are e...
-335. - Kitchen Sink
Make a strong frame to support the kitchen sink. Cover with 1 1/8-inch frame of (ash), mortised and tenoned together with grooved drip boards at each end. Put 4-inch apron under. Support the projectin...
-336. - Bath Room Fixtures
The plumber will furnish all of the woodwork connected with the bath room fixtures, but the carpenter is to put up the tank and W. C. seat in a neat and substantial manner. Plumbing Strips. - Put up ...
-338. - Upper Flooring
Where there is a double floor the upper flooring is not to be laid until the standing finish is all in place. All under floors to be thoroughly repaired and cleaned before the upper floors are laid. ...
-339. - Cellar Work
Partitions, - Put up board partitions where shown on basement plan, with 2x4-inch uprights 3 feet apart, and one horizontal piece cut in between. All to be of good spruce stock, surfaced three sides. ...
-Hardware. [First Method.]
341. - The contractor for the carpenter work is to allow the sum of $------ for the hardware trimmings of all doors and windows, and of the fittings in cedar closet and butler's pantry, exclusive of ...
-Hardware. [Second Method.]
342. - The contractor is to furnish and put on at the proper time and in a skillful manner, all necessary hardware trimmings and fittings of the kind and quality herein specified. If any necessary ...
-343. - Window And Shutter Trimmings
Trim the double-hung windows in the rooms above mentioned with Fitch bronze metal locks, No. 44 site, finished to match as near as practicable the other hardware of the rooms. Put two flush sash lifts...
-344. - Plain Hardware. - Door Trimmings. - Sliding Doors
All sliding doors (including those from the library), to be hung with the Coburn trolley track No. 2 and Coburn roller bearing parlor door hangers, securely put up and carefully adjusted. * Butts are...
-345. - Third Story Doors
All third story doors to be hung with 4x4-inch loose-pin (or loose-joint) Boston finish, (bronze plated) iron butts, ball-tipped (with steel washers). Fit all of the doors in this story with Sargent ...
-346. - Transoms
The transoms over outside doors of back hall, kitchen and on rear balcony to be hung at the bottom with 3-inch narrow butts, japanned in hall, and bronze plated elsewhere and fitted with Yale transom ...
-347. - Window Hardware. - Double-Hung Windows
The windows in second story bay to be hung with Pullman side pattern balances, No. 16, (or Pullman tandem side pattern balances No. 1016). All sash in box frames and glazed with plate glass, to be hu...
-348. - Casement Windows
The casement windows in second story to be hung with 3x3-inch light loose-pin, solid bronze butts, ball-tipped and fitted with (Russell & Erwin) casement adjusters (No. 20 - 15-inch) or Corbin casemen...
-349. - Cupboard Trimmings
The swing sash doors in butler's pantry to be fitted with (Stanley) 2-inch loose-pin light narrow butts, ball-tipped, bronze plated and polished, two (three) to a door; 1 -inch bronze metal cupboard...
-Gravel Roof
(To be included in Carpenters' Contract.) [western method ] 350. - Cover the flat roof with five ply gravel roofing, put on in the best manner. The first layer to be of heavy dry felt, put on with 2-...
-352. - Flaahinga. - (Metal)
Turn the felt up against fire walls, chimneys, skylights, and rising parts 4 inches, and flash with strips of zinc (Merchant's or * This is not always done. Taylor's old style I. C. tin), turned up ...
-Slate Roofing. (To Be Included In The Carpenters' Contract)
353. - Cover all boarding that is to be slated with tarred felt, weighing 20 pounds to the square (Neponset black building paper), well overlapped previous to slating. Cover all inclinations of the (...
-Specifications For Heavy Framing
355. - The following is offered as a guide when specifying heavy framing, although as buildings of this class vary so much in their construction, only the common features of construction will be ...
-Specifications For Heavy Framing. Continued
358. - Under Floors Lay an under floor throughout the first, second and third stories of (3-inch) spruce (native pine) planks, not over 9 inches wide, dressed on one side to a uniform thickness of ...
-Store Fronts
359. - Construct the store front as shown on the scale and detail drawings, all exposed woodwork to be of clear white pine (quartered white oak, cypress, redwood or whitewood). The sash are to be 2 ...
-Appendix A. Patented Devices Used In Connection With Carpenters' Work. Rolling Or Coiling Partitions
It is very often desirable to unite two rooms by a large opening so as to practically make one room of the two, or to divide a given space by means of movable partitions so as to form several separate...
-Revolving Doors
The cold air constantly entering through the outside doors of large buildings during the winter months, has heretofore been a serious problem for the architect to solve. The entrance of snow, rain and...
-Dumb Waiters
In buildings having the kitchen below the dining room, a dumb waiter is a necessity for serving the meals, and even where a dumb waiter is not needed from kitchen to dining room, it is a great conveni...
-Dumb Waiters or Light Elevators
Dumb waiters or light elevators intended for buildings of several stories, are usually provided with a brake for the hand wheel, to which a check rope is attached, by means of which the speed of the c...
-The Cutler Patent Mailing System
This system of mailing letters by means of a specially constructed chute connected with the receiving box at the bottom, has come into such general use in public buildings, office buildings, apartment...
-Luxfer Prisms
Luxfer Prisms are a commercial product made of glass of a standard dimension of 4 inches square, having a smooth outer surface and an inner surface divided into a series of prisms. They are formed int...
-Appendix B. Tables Of The Strength Of Materials
The following tables and formulae are given for the benefit of those readers who may not have at hand a special work treating of the subject. They are in all cases based upon the formulas and unit str...
-Strength Of Wooden Posts
For wooden posts in buildings used for ordinary purposes, when the length in inches does not exceed twelve times the least thickness, the safe strength of the post may be obtained by multiplying its s...
-Table III. Safe Load In Pounds For Yellow Pink Posts (Round And Square). Crushing Strength Of Timber Perpendicular To The Grain
The bearing of wooden girders at their ends, or over a post, or of a post resting on a girder should be sufficient that the load will not crush the fibres of the beam. The following loads per square i...
-Cast Iron Columns
Short posts of cast iron, with a length in inches not exceeding eight times their least dimension, may be safely loaded with six tons for each square inch of metal in the cross section. The safe load...
-Strength Of Wooden Beams
The safe loads for rectangular wooden beams supported at both ends and uniformly loaded over the entire span, are computed by the formula: Safe load = 2 X breadth X square of depth X A / Span in feet...
-Table VI. Safe Distributed Loads For Hard Pine Beams
One inch thick, supported at both ends. For other thicknesses, multiply the load in table by the thickness of the beam in inches. For concentrated load at centre divide by two. For permanent loads su...
-Table VII. Safe Distributed Loads For Spruce Beams
One inch thick, supported at both ends. For other thicknesses, multiply the load in table by the thickness of the beam in inches. For concentrated load at centre divide by two. For permanent loads su...
-Tables For The Maximum Span For Floor Joists, Ceiling Beams And Rafters
When the span of a wooden beam exceeds about twelve times its depth the beam will usually deflect so much under its full safe load as to crack plastering if applied on the under side, and as floor and...
-Table VIII. Maximum Span For Ceiling Joists
Total load, 20 pounds per square foot. Size of Joist. Dist. on Centres. Hemlock. White Pine. Spruce or Norway Pine. Oregon or Texas Pine. Georgia Pine. ...
-Table IX. Maximum Span For Floor Joists
Dwellings, Tenements and Grammar School Rooms With Fixed Desks. Total load, 60 pounds per square foot. Size of Joists. Dist. on Centres. Hemlock. White Pine. Spruce or Nor...
-Table X. Maximum Span For Floor Joists
Office Buildings. Total load, 93 pounds per square foot. Size of Joists. Dist. on Centres. White Pine. Spruce or Norway Pine. Oregon or Texas Pine. Georgia Pine. ...
-Table XI. Maximum Span For Floor Joists
Churches and Theatres With Fixed Seats. Total load, 102 pounds per square foot. Size of Joists. Dist. on Centres. White Pine. Spruce or Norway Pine. Oregon or Texas Pine. ...
-Table XII. Maximum Span For Floor Joists. Assembly Hails And Corridors
Total load, 123 pounds per square inch. Size of Joists. Dist. on Centres. White Pine. Spruce or Norway Pine. Oregon or Texas Pine. Georgia Pine. Ins. ...
-Table XIII. Maximum Span For Floor Joists
Retail Stores. Total load, 174 pounds per square foot. Size of Joists. Dist. on Centres. White Pine. Spruce or Norway Pine. Oregon or Texas Pine. Georgia Pine. ...
-Table XIV. Maximum Span For Batters
A. Shingled Roofs Not Plastered.* Total load, 48 pounds per square foot. Size of Joists. Dist. on Centres. Hemlock. White Pine. Spruce or Norway Pine. Oregon or Texa...
-Table XIV. - (Continued). Maximum Span For Rafters
C. Slate Roofs Plastered, or Gravel Roofs Not Plastered.* Total load, 66 pounds per square foot. Size of Joists. Dist. on Centres. Hemlock. White Pine. Spruce or Norway P...
-Preface to Part III
Some years ago the author of this book contributed to Architecture and Building and the Architects' and Builders' Magazine a series of articles on Trussed Roofs, which were so well received that h...
-Publisher's Note
When the author wrote the preface on the preceding page he had finished the first section of this work. The second section was blocked out, and it is the purpose of the publisher to put this in hands ...
-Frank Eugene Kidder
IT seems appropriate in presenting this the last work from the pen of Mr. Kidder that a brief sketch of his life should be given. His work is so well known to architects and architectural students tha...
-Introduction to Part III
Although trusses have been used for supporting the roofs of large buildings for centuries and there are few modern buildings designed for public or semi-public purposes which do not require one or mor...
-Chapter I. Types Of Wooden Trusses And The Mechanical Principles Involved
1. Introduction It is possible for one to correctly lay out or plan a trussed roof without being able to determine the stresses in the various parts, but to do so a knowledge of the mechanical princi...
-3. Development Of The Simplest Form Of A Truss
The simplest method of supporting a weight between two supports (other than by a beam) is shown in Fig. 1. Here we have a single load, W, to be supported about half way between the sides of a ravine....
-4. Truss Composition And Resolution Of Forces
The last paragraph brings us to the composition and resolution of forces, of which some knowledge will be required to understand the explanations which follow. For the benefit of those who have not st...
-5. Development And Analysis Of The King-Rod Truss
The construction shown in Fig. 3 is a true truss and the simplest form in which a truss can be constructed. It also contains all the pieces required to support the weight W. If a vertical member, k, ...
-6. Six-Panel Queen Truss
When the length of the rafter is greater than 24 feet it should be divided into three parts, as shown in Fig. 10, and purlins placed at each of the joints. The stresses in Fig. 10 are indicated by the...
-8. The "Howe" Or Bridge Truss
For spans of from 34 to 44 feet, queen-rod trusses should be made of the form shown in Fig. 20, with a rod at the centre if the tie-beam is loaded, otherwise it is not needed, unless there are counter...
-9. Mechanical Principle Of The Howe Truss
The action of the pieces in supporting the loads is the same as in truss 20. When the rods and struts are symmetrically disposed each side of the centre, the strut d (Fig. 24) supports 1/2 of W3; stru...
-10. Rules To Be Observed When Designing Howe Trusses
Height. The height of the truss, always measured from centre to centre of the chords, should never be less than one-ninth of the span, for spans up to 36 feet, or than one-tenth of the span for sp...
-11. Table Of Dimensions For Howe Trusses
For symmetrical trusses having panels of uniform width, and uniformly loaded, the stresses in the different parts will be proportional to the span, number of panels, height of truss, spacing of trusse...
-12. The Lattice Truss
This is a form of truss designed by Ithiel Towne for bridges long before iron was used in this country for such work. Several railroad bridges were built on this principle and the truss has proved ver...
-13. Stresses In A Lattice Truss
A lattic truss acts in very much the same way as a beam in supporting a transverse load. The chords resist the bending moment and the bracing transmits the load to the supports, or, in technical langu...
-14. Wooden Trusses With Raised Tie-Beams
All of the trusses thus far described have horizontal tie-beams, Table II. - Dimensions For Lattice Trusses Of First Quality White Pine Or Spruce. To Support A Gravel Roof And Plastered Ceiling. Allo...
-Scissors Trusses
For such roofs, some form of the scissors truss (so named from its resemblance to a pair of scissors) is most often used. When correctly designed with members of the proper size, and with the joints c...
-17. Trusses With Two Centre Rods
To return again to our elementary truss of two struts and a tie, it js evident that if the tie is jointed as at A and B, Fig. 33, and we connect these joints with the apex by means of the rods r r, we...
-18. Braced Rafters With Wrought Iron Ties
When there is no ceiling to support, trusses of the type shown by Figs. 35 and 36, may be built with wooden rafters and wrought iron ties. Such trusses present a light appearance, offer a very practic...
-19. Hog Chain Scissors Truss
Fig. 42 shows a type of truss that has been extensively used for church roofs, by Mr. D. S. Schureman, architect, of Rockford, 111., and possibly by others. The half-tone illustration, Fig. 43, shows ...
-20. Another Type Of Truss Without A Horizontal Tie-Beam
Another type of truss, with a raised tie-beam often used in churches is illustrated by the truss shown in Fig. 44, although the manner of bracing the rafters often varies considerably. This truss, ho...
-21. The Hammer-Beam Truss
This is a type of truss much used for supporting open timbered roofs, especially in Gothic halls and churches. It is believed to have been first used in the great hall of Westminster Palace (Fig. 48),...
-24. Arched Trusses. - Segmental Arched Ribs
For open roofs, of wide span - 100 feet or more - the segmental arched rib, with an iron tie, is probably the most economical wooden truss that can be used, as well as the most pleasing in appearance....
-25. Crescent Trusses
The crescent truss shown in Fig. 60 may be considered as a special type of the bowstring truss (see Section 38, Chapter II (Foundations On Compressible Soils).). It is not as frequently used, and it i...
-27. Cantilever Trusses
Although cantilever trusses of wood are not often used, conditions sometimes exist, as in the case of a wide centre-span with shorter spans on each side, where a cantilever truss will meet the require...
-Chapter II. Types Of Steel Trusses
28. Steel trusses are built on exactly the same principles as wooden trusses, and any truss that can be built of wood can also be built of steel, but owing to the different nature of the two materials...
-30. Trusses For Pitch Roofs
For ordinary conditions and for spans under 100 feet some one of the types shown by Figs. 64 to 75, will generally meet the requirements of strength and economy. For a narrow shed or shop the shape o...
-31. Depth Of Fink And Fan Trusses
The depth of these trusses at the centre is usually determined by the roofing material that is to be used. Thus, slate should not be used on a roof in which the rise is not equal to one-third of the s...
-32. Cambered Trusses
With Fink or Fan trusses having an inclination for the rafter not exceeding 30 degrees it is more economical to employ a horizontal chord or tie since it obviates bending of the laterals. Raising the ...
-36. The Quadrangular Truss
The truss shown by Fig. 83 is known as a quadrangular truss, although the more common shape for this truss is that shown by Fig. 87. This truss may be considered as two trussed rafters, held in place ...
-37. Arched Trusses
For open roofs of wide span arched trusses are generally the most economical, and as a rule give the most pleasing appearance. The economy of an arched truss lies in the fact that the principal compr...
-38. Bowstring Trusses
Although the trusses shown by Figs. 94 and 95 are known as bowstring trusses, the usual type of the bowstring truss is that shown by Fig. 96. In this truss all of the members except the upper chord a...
-39. Segmental Arched Ribs
Fig. 98, which is a diagram of one of three arches used in roofing the train shed of the Sullivan Square station of the Boston Elevated Railway, is a good example of this type. This construction is th...
-40. Three-Hinged Braced Arches
This truss differs from all the other types of trusses that we have considered in that it consists essentially of two separate parts, each acting as a single piece and depending upon the opposing forc...
-42. Braced Arches Without Hinged Joints
For spans of from 80 to 120 feet this type is often built without the pin connections as in Fig. 103. The mechanical principle being essentially the same as in the three-hinged truss. Table III., Cha...
-43. Cantilever Trusses
The term cantilever was originally used to designate a projecting beam which served as a bracket; in mechanics it is used to denote a beam or girder fixed at one end, either by being built into a wa...
-Chapter III. Layout Of Trussed Roofs - Bracing Of The Roof And Trusses
46. The general arrangement or layout of the roof construction should be considered when making the preliminary studies, as in buildings with trussed roofs the manner in which the roofs are to be supp...
-Flat Roof Construction
47. By the term flat roof is here meant a roof in which the rise is not greater than 1 1/2 or 2 inches to the foot, the exact pitch being determined by the kind of roofing to be used. Pitch of Flat...
-Pitch Roofs. - Wood Construction
50. The most economical method of supporting a pitch roof of wide span depends upon many circumstances, such as the character of the building, the pitch of the roof and nature of the roofing, the -wid...
-Pitch Roofs. - Wood Construction. Continued
51. Simple Forms Of Roof Trussing The simplest method of trussing a roof where the span is not over 35 feet is shown in Fig 119, the truss being of the type shown by Fig. 32, with its principals set ...
-School House Roofs
53. The construction of a pitch roof over a large school building generally requires an arrangement of trusses and posts that is peculiar to this class of buildings, and while not difficult or complic...
-School House Roofs. Continued
55. Roofs With Longitudinal Trusses When the roof to be supported is not too long, or posts can be placed near the end walls, it is often cheaper to support the roof by longitudinal trusses, particul...
-Simple Steel Roofs
57. Simple steel roofs supported by brick or stone walls are built in very much the same way as wooden roofs with the exception that steel shapes are used in place of the timbers or joists. The connec...
-Bracing Of Roofs And Trusses
59. A properly designed truss will be perfectly rigid in the direction of its length under any stress likely to come upon it, but of course it depends upon the roof framing, or upon diagonal or latera...
-Chapter IV. Open Timber Roofs And Church Roofs
62. As a rule the shape of the trusses used for church roofs is determined more by the external or internal appearance desired for the building than by economical or mechanical considerations, and hen...
-Open Timber Roofs And Church Roofs. Continued
64. Exposed Scissors Trusses When the width of the room exceeds 32 feet, and an open timbered roof is desired without going to the expense of a hammer beam truss, an adaptation of the scissors truss ...
-Church Roofs With Suspended Ceiling
67. Owing to the greater cost of the trusses and finish of open-timbered roofs, and the additional cost of heating the building, most modern churches have a suspended ceiling supported from the tie-be...
-Church Roofs With Suspended Ceiling. Part 2
70. Manner Of Supporting The Ceiling In simple roofs, with ceilings formed of plane surfaces, the ceiling joists are generally supported by resting at their ends on the tie-beams of the trusses, as s...
-Church Roofs With Suspended Ceiling. Part 3
72. Level Ceilings When there is a gallery in the church, thus necessitating high walls, a sufficiently high ceiling is usually afforded by using trusses with horizontal tie-beams, with the ceiling j...
-Church Roofs With Suspended Ceiling. Part 4
73. Roofing With Longitudinal Trusses When the room to be covered is rectangular in plan and more than 40 feet wide, and the side gables, if any, are comparatively narrow, the roof and ceiling can of...
-Church Roofs - Longitudinal Trusses
Fig. 174. The number of panels in the longitudinal trusses should be arranged so that the secondary trusses will come over the upper end of a strut. The centre panels of the Howe trusses should al...
-Chapter V. Vaulted And Domed Ceilings; Octagonal And Domed Roofs
75. Vaulted Ceilings Under Steep-Pitched Roofs It is often desirable to place a vaulted ceiling above the nave or auditorium of a church or hall, while maintaining a simple pitch roof on the outside....
-77. Longitudinal Trusses For Vaulted Ceilings
When the ceiling is in the shape of a barrel vault, the system of longitudinal trussing will often be the only one that can be used. Fig. 180 shows a transverse section through a church roof and ceili...
-78. Ceilings With Cross Or Groined Vaults
When the ceiling consists of intersecting vaults the longitudinal system of trussing cannot, of course, be used, as the trusses would cut through the side vaults. Fig. 182. - Interior, Asbury M...
-79. Steel Trusses For Vaulted Ceilings
Within the past few years quite a number of churches have been roofed with steel trusses, and a few have been built with steel supports extending to the foundation. Figs. 187, 188 and 189* show, in p...
-81. Octagonal Roofs
A plain octagonal roof would naturally be supported by intersecting trusses, spanning from opposite angles. If the ceiling below is level or unfinished, either Queen or Howe trusses may be used for wo...
-82. Octagonal Roofs With Lantern
When an octagonal roof has a raised ceiling, and is surmounted by a lantern, which must be entirely open and unobstructed, as is often the case with church roofs, the problem of supporting the roof, e...
-83. Steel Octagonal Roofs
Several steel roofs have recently been constructed after the manner shown by Fig. 196. As will be seen from the description following,* this method of construction was used largely on account of the s...
-Domed Roofs
86. These are usually formed of a number of ribs or semi-trusses resting on a circular base and connected to a circular ring, plate or pole at the top. Each rib must possess sufficient stiffness to re...
-Examples Of Wooden Domes
Figs. 204 and 205 show about the simplest construction for a wooden dome. They were made from the working drawings of the dome of the Woman's Building at the Cotton States Exposition at Atlanta, in 18...
-87. Examples Of Steel Domes
Fig. 208* shows a semi-section of the dome over the Buffalo (N. Y.) Savings Bank Building, Messrs. Green and Wicks, architects. 'The framework of this dome is composed of 32 latticed radial segmental ...
-90. Vaulted Conservatory Roof
Fig. 214 shows an arched rib used in the construction of the vaulted roof of the South Park Conservatory, Chicago, 111. This building is a steel and glass structure about 417x58 feet in extreme dimens...
-Chapter VI. Coliseums, Armories, Train Sheds, Exposition Buildings, Etc
92. For drill rooms, skating rinks, etc., it is important that there shall be no posts or other obstructions to interfere with the movements of the men or skaters, while in the case of Coliseums or au...
-Iron Tie Bars In Wall
Fig. 221. - Plan Showing Horizontal Trusses. Enlarged sections of the ribs and web members of the arched trusses are shown in Fig. 222. It should be noticed that the vertical web members have an iron...
-Pawtucket Armory
82 feet span. Length, 143 feet. Five main trusses, 24 feet apart. Pitch, 330. Height to eaves, 16 feet. Height to ridge, 40 feet. Quantities. Lbs. 5 trusses............... 67...
-Portland Armory
92 feet span. Length, 153 feet. Five main trusses, 25 feet apart. Height to eaves, 24 feet. Height to ridge, 50 feet. Fig. 223. - Elevation. Fig. 224. - Plan. Quantities. Lbs. ...
-96. Details Of Arched Roof Over Drill Hall Of The Thirteenth Regiment Armory, Scranton, Pa.
The building consists of the usual administrative portion, about 56 feet deep, by 160 feet wide and of a drill hall covering the rest of the ground area and having an unbroken floor space of 35,000 sq...
-97. Roof Over The Drill Hall Of The First Regiment National Guard Armory, Newark, N. J.
This drill hall is 170 x 250 feet outside and about 86 feet in extreme height above the tops of the piers. The framework is entirely of steel with seven main roof trusses 26 feet apart, and two 45-de...
-98. The Chicago Coliseum Roof
The Chicago Coliseum is about 160 feet wide and 302 feet long, and has a steel roof with eleven three-hinge arch trusses of the outline and dimensions shown by Fig. 233. The trusses are from 22 feet 1...
-99. The St. Louis Coliseum
The Coliseum at St. Louis, Mo., is a rectangular brick building, 189 x 318 feet in size, intended for amusement purposes and as a place of popular assembly. The general construction of the building wa...
-Train Sheds
100. For the roofing of train sheds, two distinct systems are in vogue. The first and more expensive method is by means of a curved steel roof, supported on high arched trusses and covering the entire...
-101. Description Of The Train Shed For The Pennsylvania R. R. At Pittsburg, Penn
The train shed for the new depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Pittsburg is about 555 feet long, 260 feet wide and no feet high over all. It is one of the largest in this country, and will have sixt...
-Exposition Buildings
102. Buildings of this class are usually large, one-story buildings consisting of floor, walls and roof, and with one or more level galleries around the outside walls. Posts in such buildings are not ...
-Roof Of Agricultural Building, Pan-American Exposition
103. This was one of the four largest buildings of the Exposition, being 150 feet wide and 500 feet long. The framework is supported on columns arranged in four longitudinal rows, as shown in Fig. 246...
-Chapter VII. Computing The Purlin And Truss Loads And Supporting Forces
104. The various steps to be pursued in designing a trussed roof and proportioning its parts, are as follows: 1. Laying out the roof and trusses on plan and section. 2. Determining the size of rafte...
-Table IV. - Data For Estimating Roof Loads, Per Square Foot Of Roof Surface
The weight per square foot of any roof may be quite closely estimated from the following data: Shingles, common, 2 1/2 lbs.; 18 ins., 3 lbs. Slates, 3-16 in. thick, 7 1/4 lbs.; 1/4 in. thick, 9.6 lb...
-Table V. - Maximum Span For Wooden Rafters
A. Shingled Roofs Not Plastered.* Total load, 48 pounds per square foot. Size of Joists. Dist. on Centre. Hemlock. White Pine. Spruce or Norway Pine. Oregon or Texas...
-Weight Of Ceilings
For computing the weight of ceilings, the weight of the joists may be taken from Table VI., or computed on the basis of 3 pounds per foot board measure for soft woods and 4 pounds for hard woods. For...
-Table VIL - Weight Per Square Foot Of Roof Surface For Wooden Trusses
Tables VII. and VIII. compiled by the author, from a comparison of other tables and formulas, and from the weight of actual trusses, are sufficiently accurate for the purpose of determining stresses. ...
-Table VIL - Weight Per Square Foot Of Roof Surface For Wooden Trusses. Continued
108. Allowance For Snow In making an allowance for snow, one's judgment must be exercised.to a considerable degree, as the maximum snow fall varies widely in different localities, and the amount of s...
-Force Of The Wind
For determining the stresses due to wind pressure alone the force of the wind is usually assumed to act in a direction normal, i. e., at right angles to the slope of the roof. This force is commonly b...
-Example 1 - roof or ceiling areas contributory to a joint
Let Fig. 249 represent the section through a roof and ceiling, showing the shape of the truss and the position of the purlins, and Fig. 250 a plan of the same roof showing the location of the trusses....
-Example 2 - Deck Roof
Let Fig. 252 be a half section through a deck roof, supported by trusses with purlins located as indicated, and the trusses spaced 12 ft. on centres. The roof areas supported at the joints are compute...
-Example 3 - the purlins rest on the chord of the truss
For this example we will take a case where the purlins rest on the chord of the truss, other than at the joints, as in Fig. 253. For a roof of this span the type of truss shown is the most economical ...
-114. Example 4 - To Compute The Roof Areas Supported By Diagonal Trusses
Let Fig. 255 represent (in the upper portion) the intersection of two pitched roofs with the ridges at right angles to each other, and also in the lower portion a cross section of the roof. In its hor...
-115. Examples In Estimating Joint Loads
The roof areas multiplied by the roof load per square foot will give the joint loads. Example 5 What roof loads should we use in determining the stresses for the trusses Figs. 249 and 250? Ans. -...
-115. Examples In Estimating Joint Loads. Continued
Example 7 What joint loads should be used for the truss shown by Fig. 252, assuming that the sloping roof is to be covered with slate and the deck roof with tin, and that the building is located in o...
-116. Joint Loads From The Ceiling
Buildings which are plastered, such as halls, schools, churches, etc., generally have a ceiling supported either directly by the tie beams of the trusses, as in Fig. 249, or by purlins, which are them...
-117. Supporting Forces, Or Truss Reactions
Before the stress diagram of a truss can be drawn, it is neces-sary to know not only the loads which the truss has to support; but also the supporting forces or reactions. These are calculated on the...
-119. Supporting Forces For Trusses Supported At Each End
The larger number of roof trusses are of this class, and, as a rule, the loads are considered as acting vertically, as is always the case with dead loads, so that the computations for the supporting f...
-Trusses Unsymmetrically Loaded
For trusses unsymmetrically loaded, the simplest method of finding the amount of each supporting force is by the method of moments, which is as follows: First draw a diagram of the truss, representin...
-121. Supporting Forces For Cantilever Trusses
The supporting forces for cantilever beams or trusses may be found in the same way as for trusses supported at the ends, but to make the method perfectly plain we will give a few examples. Example ...
-121. Supporting Forces For Cantilever Trusses. Continued
Example 13 To determine the supporting forces for the truss shown by Fig. 265. Take moments about P2, the moment of the load at the extreme right being marked minus ( - ) because it acts in the oppo...
-Chapter VIII. Stress Diagrams For Vertical Loads
A. Trusses Symmetrically Loaded. B. Trusses Unsymmetrically Loaded. 122. Explanation Of The Principles Of Graphic Statics Except for a few forms of trusses, it is much easier to determine the str...
-Stress Diagrams For Vertical Loads. Part 2
126. - Application Of Graphic Statics To Simple Triangular Frames With But One External Load To show the application of graphic statics in its simplest form, we will take a simple triangular frame, ...
-Stress Diagrams For Vertical Loads. Part 3
127. - Stresses In A Derrick Fig 274 is intended to represent a boom derrick, with a load of 100 lbs. suspended from the end of the boom. Now, at the point x, three stresses are applied, viz., the lo...
-Application Of Graphic Statics To Trusses With Vertical Loads
Before we can show the application of graphic statics to trusses having loads applied at several points, it is necessary to first describe the truss diagram and the notation employed in lettering both...
-Application Of Graphic Statics To Trusses With Vertical Loads. Continued
130. - Method Of Lettering The Truss Diagram The method of lettering the truss and stress diagrams used in the following examples is after what is known as Bow's Notation, and aids the student very...
-Engineering News
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-Building Construction And Superintendence New And Revised Editions
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