This requirement is inserted in order to prevent workmen of indifferent character getting onto the work. It is a very delicate problem for the Architect to pass judgment on sub-contractors; and if, after approval, they furnish unsatisfactory material, it is embarrassing to reject it if it puts the general Contractor to loss. This clause, therefore, as well as the warranty clause, should be used only after very mature consideration, and never in the less important work.

In important work, specifications on electric wiring, heating, plumbing, ventilation, etc., are frequently prepared by consulting engineers employed by the Owner to arrange these points under the direction of the Architect. In this case the engineers prepare the specifications, which can be included in the Architect's other specifications; and any changes that may come up during the progress of the work should be referred to the consulting engineer by the Architect, before change is made. This is quite customary in the erection of high buildings, where engineers are frequently employed to lay out the steel construction.

But when the services of specialists in any line are required, it should in all cases be understood that the general scheme for the work should not be altered, that the Engineer should adapt his portion of the work so as to carry out the general plan, and should not insist on modifying this to suit any particular methods or appliances he may desire to use.

In a building operation, four questions always arise:

(1) What is to be done?

(2) How is it to be done?

(3) When is it to be completed?

(4) What is to be the manner of payment?

The first two questions are answered by the plans and specifications.

Although the last two are finally stated in the contract, it is necessary that some reference should be made to them in the specification, for information to bidders.

The periods for completion may be stated in terms of months and days after the signing of the contract.

GREYROCKS-ROCKPORT- MASS- COTTAGE FOR JOHN P. MARSHALL

FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN &8226; ARCHITECT BOSTOM MASS TICKMOR HOUSE -NINE- PARK STREET

Architect 0100304

"GREYROCKS," AT ROCKPORT, MASS.

Frank Chouteau Brown, Architect, Boston, Mass.

Built in the Fall of 1904. Cost, without Heating (Estimated for Winter Building), a Little Under $4,500. For Exteriors, See Pages 272 and 299; for Interiors, See Vol. II, Page 186.

GKEYROCKS - ROCKPORT- MASS

COTTAGE FOR JOHN P. MARSHALL

FRANK CHOUTEAU DROWN-ARCHITECT-BOSTOM-MASS-TICKNOR HOUSE-NINE PARK STREET

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

SECOND FLOOR PLAN

"GREYROCKS," AT ROCKPORT, MASS.

Frank Chouteau Brown, Architect, Boston, Mass.

First-Floor Plan Shown on Opposite Page.

Payments on the contract may be by: Stated sum, Cost plus a percentage,

Cost plus a percentage with guaranteed limit, Cost plus a fixed sum.

The first is the usual method of contracting.

Full information relative to the method of payment which the Owner prefers and intends to incorporate in the contract, should be fully set forth in the specification, as this is a matter which will have a marked influence on bidders.

While the first method is the usual one of awarding a contract, unless the payments can be arranged so that the owner pays for the material and labor at frequent intervals, it follows that the Contractor has to use considerable of his own capital or credit to carry the work along. For this he must be paid; and therefore, as the Owner generally has the funds prior to beginning work, it is advisable to state in the specification such dates and percentage of payments as will permit the Contractor to carry on the work with a minimum charge for the use of his own capital or credit.

The completeness and clearness - and therefore the usefulness - of a specification, depends on its systematic arrangement. The first thing to do, therefore, is to prepare a skeleton or outline of what is later to be the finished form. This should consist, in the first place, of a list of the different general branches of the work, such as:

MASONRY. STEEL AND IRON. ROOFING AND SHEET METAL. Etc., Etc.

Then, under each of these general heads should be set a list of subheads, in general, as follows; but it is not good policy to attempt to cover every point before beginning the writing of the specification proper, as, in writing, items will constantly occur to the writer in connection with what has already been written.