There are five principal methods of heating dwellings - namely, by Fireplaces, by Stoves, by Furnace, by Steam boiler, and by Hot-water boiler, all adapted to fuels in common use.

Fireplaces are suitable for mild climates, and to supplement more efficient apparatus in cold climates.

Stoves are the most economical, but are often objectionable fixtures.

Furnaces deliver heated air to the various rooms; and, for small buildings, are satisfactory.

Steam and hot water generally supply heat from radiators in each room. Steam is quicker to respond than hot water; it therefore should be used when quick changes in temperature are desired, and in the larger class of buildings, where it is more easily controlled.

Hot water should be used when an even temperature at all times is desired.

The accompanying specification is given to show the method of writing a specification for a certain building. In every case the Architect should consider every item that is wanted on the building, and should write out exactly what is desired.

New problems are constantly arising which tax the ingenuity of even the experienced Architect, and which require new directions. Many building operations will have requirements so unusual that any aid except that of general experience will be of little value. As a rule, however, careful and constant reference to, and comparison with, the plans, adding to or changing similar previously written or printed specifications as used on past work, or separated item by item on cards, will give a good result. This should be carefully checked with the "specification reminder," to discover omissions, before sending out the drawings. In work containing unusual or elaborate detail in intricate alterations, it will be easier to write out the specification completely than to alter an existing one.

At first, with the plans closely in mind, and generally hung on a wall or screen near by, the specification writer should block out the list of headings, forming a skeleton or general synopsis of the whole specification. Then he should go through the different trades, checking, writing, and dictating, either following a card catalogue, taking a printed form or standard specification and filling in the blanks, or using an old specification and interlining the changes, which are then copied to form the complete document. Extra care must be taken to cover new and important points that are likely to be insufficiently studied. It will be found quite difficult to make an old form apply to a new building, without the use of too many general terms and "blanket clauses."

Having made a thorough study of the subject, the following list of headings may be understood to cover the work in question.

I. GENERAL CONDITIONS.

II. EXCAVATING AND GRADING.

III. STONE WORK.

IV. BRICK WORK.

V. LATHING AND PLASTERING. VI. METAL WORK. VII. CARPENTRY- Framing. Exterior Finish. Interior Finish. Hardware. VIII. GLAZING. IX. PAINTING. X. HEATING. XI. PLUMBING. XII. GAS-FITTING. XIII. ELECTRIC WIRING.

After preparing the general list of headings as above, prepare the list of subheadings in general, thus: under "General Conditions" we would have the divisions "Material and Labor," "The Contractor," "The Architect," "The Drawings and Specifications," "Details," "Time for Completion," etc.; under "Excavation," "Preparation of Site," etc.

The following is illustrative of the form in which the requirements and conditions should be put: