This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
Practical considerations require that at the eaves some kind of a gutter must be provided, to catch the water which falls on the roof and streams off from it. This gutter, of whatever kind, must be supported far enough away from the straight vertical wall of the building so that the water dripping from it in the case of a possible overflow will fall free of the walls and not injure them. Usually, the gutter ought not to be nearer to the wall than one foot.
There are a number of different kinds of gutters in use, and perhaps it will be as well to describe some of them at this time, as they form a part of the eave finish. The simplest kind is made of wood, and is generally kept in stock in several different sizes by lumber dealers. It is of the general shape shown in section in Fig. 280, and the most common sizes are 4X6, 5x7, and 5 X 8 inches. They are usually made of white pine, but may better be made of cypress or redwood. Spruce is hardly durable enough for use as a material for gutters. Besides the wood gutter just described, there are in use a number of different forms of metal gutters, some of which are carried in stock by dealers in roof supplies and others which must be made to order by the roofer for each particular job. The metal gutters are made of galvanized iron, copper, or of a tin lining in a wood form. Any wood gutter may be improved by lining it with tin or zinc, and there should always be a piece of one of these metals used to cover the joint between the two pieces of a wood gutter where they meet. Wood gutters can be had only in lengths of about 16 feet at the most, so usually there must be some joints to be covered with metal. The simplest metal gutter takes the form of a trough, as shown in Fig. 281, and is fastened in place by hangers placed at frequent intervals or by brackets which answer the same purpose. Either the hangers or the brackets may be spiked to the ends of the rafters, and thus a cheap and simple gutter may be obtained.
Fig. 280. Simple Gutter.
Fig. 281. Metal Gutter.