This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
The hanging and fitting of the doors is a matter of great nicety and should be intrusted only to careful workmen. The hardware for an ordinary door will consist of the hinges, or "butts", the lock, knobs and escutcheon plates. Double doors will need in addition bolts for the standing part. Sliding doors will be hung on a "hanger", and the fittings must necessarily be flush to allow the door to slide into the wall. The specification of hardware for doors is often made a matter of an allowance, either at a certain price per door, or a sum is named to cover all the hardware of the doors, leaving the selection to the architect or owner. The latter method has been employed in our case and the architect's knowledge will become necessary in guiding the owner to a proper selection at the dealer's, rather than exercising an inspection of hardware at the building. In the selection of hinges the choice of material will be principally between solid bronze or brass, or plated, japanned or lacquered iron or steel. If of solid metal the best quality only should be used, with steel washers and bearings, as the soft metal will otherwise wear out from the swinging of the door. Modern door hinges are invariably made in parts, to allow of the door being removed without unscrewing the hinge, and this is accomplished by two methods, the loose-joint butt and the loose-pin butt. The former consists of a hinge made in two parts (Fig. 84), of which the part containing the pin is screwed to the door frame and the other part to the door; this allows of the door with its half of the hinge being lifted off if desired. With the loose pin butt (Fig. 85) the door is removed by drawing out the pin and slipping the hinges apart. . Loose pin butts are becoming of more general use than formerly and possess some advantages. In the first place, the bearing surfaces are multiplied, and the pin being separate from the leaves allows of its being made of harder metal. Again, as either leaf can be fastened to the door or jamb, the same hinge may be used for a right-hand or a left-hand door, and the fact that the pin may be withdrawn allows of opening the door even when locked. This may sometimes be a disadvantage and should be borne in mind in using doors which open out of a room which must be made secure.
Fig. 81. Door Tenon.
Fig. 82. Latch and Lock.