This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.

A number of force polygons can be drawn for any system of forces, no two alike. Thus A1 Bi C1 D1 and A2 B2 C2 D2 are other force polygons for the same three forces, 80, 90, and 100 pounds. Notice that Ag B3 C3 D3 is not a force polygon for the three forces although the lines represent the three forces in magnitude and direction. The reason why it is not a force polygon is that the arrowheads do not all point the same way around.

Fig. 8.

A force polygon is not necessarily a closed figure. If a force polygon closes for a system of concurrent forces, then evidently the resultant equals zero.

Draw to the same scale as many different force polygons as you can for the 100-, 120- and 160-pound forces of Fig. 5. Bear in mind that the arrowheads on a force polygon point the same way around.

12. Composition of More Than Two Concurrent Forces. The graphical is much the simpler method; therefore the algebraic one will not be explained. The following is a rule for performing the composition graphically:

(1). Draw a force polygon for the given forces.

(2). Join the two ends of the polygon and place an arrowhead on the joining line pointing from the beginning to the end of the polygon. That line then represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant.

(3). Draw a line through the point of concurrence of the given forces parallel to the line drawn as directed in (2). This line represents the action line of the resultant.

Example. It is required to determine the resultant of the four forces acting through the point E (Fig. 5).

First, make a drawing of the board and indicate the lines of action of the forces as shown in Fig. 9, but without lettering. Then to construct a force polygon, draw from any convenient point A, a line in the direction of one of the forces (the 70-pound force), and make AB equal to 70 pounds according to the scale (70 ÷ 100 = 0.7 inch). Then from B draw a line in the direction of the next force (80-pound), and make BC equal to 0.8 inch, representing 80 pounds. Next draw a line from 0 in the direction of the third force (90-pound), and make CD equal to 0.9 inch, representing 90 pounds. Finally draw a line from D in the direction of the last force, and make DE equal to 0.6 inch, representing 60 pounds. The force polygon is ABCDE, beginning at A and ending at E.

The second step is to connect A and E and place an arrowhead on the line pointing from A to E. This represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant. Since AE = 1.10 inches, the resultant is a force of

Fig. 9.

1.10 X 100 = 116 pounds.

The third step is to draw a line ae through the point of concurrence and parallel to AE. This is the line of action of the resultant. (To complete the notation the lines of action of the 70-, 80-, 90- and 60-pound forces should be marked ab, bc, cd, and de respectively.)

That the rule for composition is correct can easily be proved. According to the triangle law, AC (Fig. 9), with arrowhead pointing from A to C, represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the 70- and 80-pound forces. According to the law, AD, with arrowhead pointing from A to D, represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant of AC and the 90-pound force, hence also of the 70-, 80-, and 90-pound forces. According to the law, AE with arrowhead pointing from A to E, represents the magnitude and direction of the resultant of AD and the 60-pound force. Thus we see that the foregoing rule and the triangle law lead to the same result, but the application of the rule is shorter as in it we do not need the lines AC and AD.

1. Determine the resultant of the four forces acting through the point A (Fig. 5).

Ans. | 380 pounds acting upward through A and a point 0.45 feet below C. |

Fig. 10.

2. Determine the resultant of the three forces actirig at the point F (Fig. 5).

Ans. | 155 pounds acting upward through F and a point 0.57 feet to left of C. |

13. Graphical Resolution of Force into Two Concurrent Components. This is performed by applying the triangle law inversely. Thus, if it is required to resolve the 100-pound force of Fig. 5 into two components, we draw first Fig. 10 (a) to show the line of action of the force, and then AB, Fig. 10 (b), to represent the magnitude and direction. Then draw from A and B any two lines which intersect, mark their intersection C, and place arrowheads on AC and CB, pointing from A to C and from C to B. Also draw two lines in the space diagram parallel to AC and CB and so that they intersect on the line of action of the 100-pound force, ab.

The test of the correctness of a solution like this is to take the two components as found, and find their resultant; if the resultant thus found agrees in magnitude, direction, and sense with the given force (originally resolved), the solution is correct.

Notice that the solution above given is not definite, for the lines drawn from A and B were drawn at random. A force may therefore be resolved into two components in many ways. If, however, the components have to satisfy conditions, there may be but one solution. In the most important case of resolution, the lines of action of the components are given; this case is definite, there being but one solution, as is shown in the following example

Example. It is required to resolve the 100-pound force (Fig. 5) into two components acting in the lines AE and AB.

Using the space diagram of Fig. 10, draw a line AB in Fig. 10 (c) to represent the magnitude and direction of the 100-pound force, and then a line from A parallel to the line of action of either of the components, and a line from B parallel to the other, thus locating D (or D'). Then AD and DB (or AD' and D'B) represent the magnitudes and directions of the required components.

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